3 June 2017

London Bridge attack: Eight people are murdered and dozens of civilians are wounded by Islamist terrorists. Three of the attackers are shot dead by the police.

Coordinates: 51°30′29″N 0°05′16″W / 51.50806°N 0.08778°W / 51.50806; -0.08778

2017 London Bridge attack
Part of Islamic terrorism in Europe
London Bridge (9691084663).jpg
London Bridge at night in 2013
2017 London Bridge attack is located in City of London
London Bridge
London Bridge
Borough Market
Borough Market
2017 London Bridge attack (City of London)
2017 London Bridge attack is located in Greater London
2017 London Bridge attack
Borough Market
Borough Market
2017 London Bridge attack (Greater London)
2017 London Bridge attack is located in the United Kingdom
2017 London Bridge attack
Borough Market
Borough Market
2017 London Bridge attack (the United Kingdom)
LocationLondon Bridge and Borough Market area, London, United Kingdom
Date3 June 2017 (2017-06-03)
22:06–22:16 (BST)
Attack type
Vehicle-ramming attack, stabbing
WeaponsVan, ceramic knives,[1] glass bottle (only used once by Khuram Butt, during a fight against PC Tchorzewski)
Deaths11 (including the 3 perpetrators)[2]
Injured48[3] (21 critically)
AssailantsKhuram Shazad Butt[4]
Rachid Redouane[5]
Youssef Zaghba[6]
MotiveIslamist extremism[7]

On 3 June 2017, a terrorist vehicle-ramming and stabbing took place in London, England. A van was deliberately driven into pedestrians on London Bridge, and then crashed on the south bank of the River Thames. Its three occupants then ran to the nearby Borough Market area and began stabbing people in and around restaurants and pubs.[8] They were shot dead by City of London Police officers, and were found to be wearing fake explosive vests.[9] Eight people were killed and 48 were injured, including members of the public and four unarmed police officers who attempted to stop the assailants. British authorities described the perpetrators as "radical Islamic terrorists".[7]

The Islamic State (ISIS) claimed responsibility for the attack.


In March 2017, five people had been killed in a combined vehicle and knife attack at Westminster. In late May, a suicide bomber killed 22 people at an Ariana Grande concert at Manchester Arena.[10] After the Manchester bombing, the UK's terror threat level was raised to "critical", its highest level, until 27 May 2017, when it was lowered to severe.[10][11]


Map of the course of the attack

The attack was carried out using a white Renault Master hired earlier on the same evening[12] in Harold Hill, Havering by Khuram Butt. He had intended to hire a 7.5 tonne lorry, but was refused due to his failure to provide payment details. The attackers were armed with 12-inch (30 cm) kitchen knives with ceramic blades, which they tied to their wrists with leather straps. They also prepared fake explosive belts by wrapping water bottles in grey tape.[13]

At 21:58 BST (UTC+1) on 3 June 2017, the van travelled south across London Bridge, and returned six minutes later, crossing over the bridge northbound, making a U-turn at the northern end and then driving southbound across the bridge. It mounted the pavement three times and hit multiple pedestrians, killing two.[14] Witnesses said the van was travelling at high speed.[15][16][17] 999 emergency calls were first recorded at 22:07.[18] The van was later found to contain 13 wine bottles containing flammable liquid with rags stuffed in them along with blow torches.[13]

The van crashed on Borough High Street,[19] after crossing the central reservation. The van's tyres were destroyed by the central reservation and the attackers abandoned the vehicle, armed with knives. Then the three attackers ran down the steps to Green Dragon Court, where they killed five people outside and near the Boro Bistro pub.[20][21][14] After attacking the Boro Bistro pub, the attackers went back up the steps to Borough High Street and attacked three bystanders. Police tried to fight the attackers, but were stabbed, and Ignacio Echeverría helped them by striking Redouane and possibly Zaghba with his skateboard. Echeverría was later killed outside of Lobos Meat and Tapas.[14] Members of the public threw bottles and chairs at the attackers. Witnesses reported that the attackers were shouting "This is for Allah".[22][23][24][25]

People in and around a number of other restaurants and bars along Stoney Street were also attacked.[23][24][25] During the attack, an unknown man was spared by Rachid Redouane, but despite many efforts the man was never found.[26] A Romanian baker hit one of the attackers over the head with a crate before giving shelter to 20 people inside a bakery inside Borough Market.[27]

One man fought the three attackers with his fists in the Black and Blue steakhouse, shouting "Fuck you, I'm Millwall", giving members of the public who were in the restaurant the opportunity to run away.[28] He was stabbed eight times in the hands, chest and head. He underwent surgery at St Thomas' Hospital and was taken off the critical list on 4 June.[29] A British Transport Police officer armed with a baton also took on the attackers, receiving multiple stab wounds and temporarily losing sight in his right eye as a consequence.[30] Off duty Metropolitan police constables Liam Jones and Stewart Henderson rendered first aid to seriously injured members of the public before protecting 150+ people inside the Thameside Inn and evacuating them by the Metropolitan marine support unit (MSU) and RNLI Boats to the north shore of the Thames.[31]

The three attackers were then shot dead by armed officers from the City of London and Metropolitan police services eight minutes after the initial emergency call was made.[19] CCTV footage showed the three attackers in Borough Market running at the armed officers; the attackers were shot dead 20 seconds later.[32] A total of 46 rounds were fired by three City of London and five Metropolitan Police officers.[33]


Bollards installed on London Bridge to prevent future attacks

The Metropolitan Police issued 'Run, Hide, Tell' notices via social media during the attack,[34] and asked for the public to remain calm and vigilant.[35]

All buildings within the vicinity of London Bridge were evacuated,[36] and London Bridge, Borough and Bank Underground stations were closed at the request of the police.[37] The mainline railway stations at London Bridge, Waterloo East, Charing Cross and Cannon Street were also closed.[38] The Home Secretary approved the deployment of a military counter terrorist unit from the Special Air Service (SAS).[39] The helicopters carrying the SAS landed on London Bridge to support the Metropolitan Police because of concerns that there might be more attackers at large.[40]

The Metropolitan Police Marine Policing Unit dispatched boats on the River Thames, with assistance from the Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI), to contribute to the evacuation of the area and look for any casualties who might have fallen from the bridge.[41]

A stabbing incident took place in Vauxhall at 23:45, causing Vauxhall station to be briefly closed;[42] this was later confirmed to be unrelated to the attack.[43]

At 01:45 on 4 June, controlled explosions took place of the attackers' bomb vests, which were found to be fake.[16]

An emergency COBR meeting was held on the morning of 4 June.[20][44] London Bridge mainline railway and Underground stations remained closed throughout 4 June,[45] while Borough tube station reopened that evening. A cordon was established around the scene of the attack.[46] London Bridge station reopened at 05:00 on Monday 5 June.[47]

Mayor of London Sadiq Khan said that there was a surge of hate crimes and islamophobic incidents following the attack.[48]

New security measures were implemented on eight central London bridges following the attack to reduce the likelihood of further vehicle attacks, with concrete barriers installed.[13][49] The barriers have been criticised by cyclists for causing severe congestion in cycle lanes during peak hours.[50]

Borough Market reopened on 14 June.[51]


Victims by nationality
Country Number
 France 3
 Australia 2
 Canada 1
 Spain 1
 United Kingdom 1
Total 8

Eight civilians died: one Spaniard, one Briton, two Australians,[52] one Canadian and three French citizens[53] were killed by the attackers, and the three attackers themselves were killed by armed police. 48 people were injured in the attack, including one New Zealander, two Australians, two Germans[54] and four French citizens; of the 48 people admitted to hospital, 21 were initially reported to be in a critical condition.[16][55][56][57] One body was recovered from the Thames near Limehouse several days after the attack.[58] Two of the fatalities were caused in the initial vehicle-ramming attack, while the remaining six were stabbed to death.[14]

Four police officers were among those injured in the attack. A British Transport Police officer was stabbed and suffered serious injuries to his head, face and neck.[59] An off-duty Metropolitan Police officer was seriously injured when he was stabbed.[60] Two other Metropolitan Police officers received head and arm injuries.[61] An unidentified bystander received an accidental gunshot wound as a result of the police gunfire, which was "not critical".[62]


On 4 June the Home Secretary, Amber Rudd, said that "We are confident about the fact that they were radical Islamic terrorists, the way they were inspired, and we need to find out more about where this radicalisation came from."[7] Amaq News Agency, an online outlet associated with the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), said the attackers were ISIS fighters.[63] On 5 June, two of the attackers were identified as Khuram Shazad Butt and Rachid Redouane.[64][65] The third of the three attackers, Youssef Zaghba, was identified the following day.[6]

Khuram Shazad Butt

Butt (born 20 April 1990)[13] was a Pakistan-born British citizen whose family came from Jhelum. He grew up in Britain, living in Plaistow.[66] He had a wife and two children. Neighbours told the BBC that Butt had been reported to police for attempting to radicalise children; he had also expressed disgust at the way women dressed.[67] He was known to police as a "heavyweight"[68] member of the banned extremist group al-Muhajiroun.[69] A BBC interviewee said he had a verbal confrontation with Butt in 2013 on the day after another Al-Muhajiroun follower had murdered Fusilier Lee Rigby.[70]

Butt was part of an al-Muhajiroun campaign in 2015 to intimidate Muslims who planned to vote in the UK general elections of that year, on the basis that it was forbidden in Islam.[70] He was known for holding extreme views, having been barred from two local mosques.[71] He appeared in a 2016 Channel 4 Television documentary The Jihadis Next Door, which showed him arguing with police over the unfurling of an ISIL black flag in Regent's Park.[72][73] According to a friend, he had been radicalised by the YouTube videos of the American Muslim hate preacher Ahmad Musa Jibril.[74][75][76][77] Butt was known to have taken drugs before he became radicalised. After radicalisation, Butt started to stop his neighbours on the street and ask them whether they had been to the mosque.[78]

Butt had worked for a man accused of training Mohammad Sidique Khan, the leader of the July 2005 London bombing. The police and MI5 knew of Butt and he was investigated in 2015. The investigation was later "moved into the lower echelons",[79] and his file was classed low priority.[80]

Butt sometimes manned the desk of the Ummah Fitness Centre gym, where he prayed regularly.[81] CCTV footage has been released of Butt, Redouane and Zaghba meeting outside the gym days before the attack.[82] A senior figure at a local mosque had reported the gym to police.[83]

The New York Times said that Butt and his brother were part of the UK government's Prevent programme, which aims to stop people from becoming terrorists, and which reports suspected radicals to police programmes.[84] At the time of the attack he was on police bail following an allegation of fraud, though the police had intended to take no further action due to a lack of evidence. He had previously been cautioned by police for fraud in 2008 and common assault in 2010.[85]

Rachid Redouane

Redouane (born 31 July 1986) was a failed asylum seeker in the UK, whose application was denied in 2009,[86] and not previously known to police. He had claimed to be either Moroccan or Libyan.[65]

Redouane worked as a pastry chef and in 2012 he married an Irish woman in a ceremony in Ireland. He beat and bullied his wife. She eventually divorced him after he tried to force his extremist beliefs on her.[87] He used to drink alcohol.[88] He lived variously in Rathmines, a suburb of Dublin, also in Morocco and the UK.[89] According to his wife, Redouane was most likely radicalised in Morocco. Later the couple stayed in the UK on an EU residency card where they had a daughter in 2015. The couple separated in 2016.[90] At the time of the attack, he was living in Dagenham, East London.

Youssef Zaghba

Zaghba (born 1995 in Fez, Morocco[6]) was at the time of the attack living in east London where he worked in a fast food outlet. He also worked at an Islamic television channel in London.[91] Zaghba was born to a Moroccan Muslim father and an Italian Catholic Christian mother who had converted to Islam when she had married.[92] Zaghba had dual Moroccan and Italian nationality. When his parents divorced, he went to Italy with his mother. In 2016, Zaghba was stopped at Bologna Guglielmo Marconi Airport by Italian officers who found ISIS-related materials on his mobile phone; he was stopped from continuing his journey to Istanbul.[93] Italian authorities said Zaghba was monitored continuously while in Italy and that the UK was informed about him. Giuseppe Amato, an Italian prosecutor, said "We did our best. We could just monitor and surveil ... [Zaghba] and send a note to British authorities, that's all we could do and we did it. Since he moved to London, he came back to Italy once in a while for a total of 10 days. And during those 10 days we never let him out of our sight."[94]

According to The New York Times, the Italian branch of Al-Muhajiroun had introduced Butt to Zaghba.[95]


On the morning of 4 June, police made 12 arrests following raids in flats in the Barking area of east London, where one of the attackers lived;[96] controlled explosions were carried out during the raids.[97] Those held included five males aged between 27 and 55, arrested at one address in Barking, and six females aged between 19 and 60, arrested at a separate Barking address. One of the arrested males was subsequently released without charge. Four properties were being searched, including two in Newham in addition to the two in Barking.[98] Further raids and arrests were made at properties in Newham and Barking early on the morning of 5 June.[99] On 6 June, a man was arrested in Barking, and another in Ilford the following day.[100] By 16 June, all those arrested had been released without charge.[101]


On 7 May 2019, an inquest into the deaths of the victims opened at the Old Bailey in London. Judge Mark Lucraft QC, Chief Coroner of England and Wales, presided, and people related to the dead gave accounts of what happened and who they had lost.[102][103] The inquest concluded on 16 July 2019 that all three attackers had been lawfully killed.[104]


Floral tributes left on London Bridge following the attack

Prime Minister Theresa May returned to Downing Street from campaigning for the upcoming snap general election.[105] May, on the morning after the attack, said the incident was being treated as terrorism,[16][20] and that the recent terror attacks in the UK are "bound together by the single evil ideology of Islamist extremism" which "is a perversion of Islam". As part of a four-point plan to tackle terrorism, she called for tighter internet regulations to "deprive the extremists of their safe spaces online", saying that technology firms were not currently doing enough.[106][107] May's stance on the role of the internet and social media in enabling radicalisation was criticised by the Open Rights Group and the International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence.[108] May was also criticised for using the speech to detail policy measures to respond to the terror threat, which some saw as contrary to her pledge to pause campaigning out of respect for the victims.[109] May said a review would be carried out by the police and intelligence agencies to establish whether the attack could have been prevented,[79] and on 28 June Home Secretary Amber Rudd commissioned David Anderson QC to provide independent assurance of the review work.[110]

The Leader of the Opposition Jeremy Corbyn, the Liberal Democrat leader Tim Farron and the Mayor of London Sadiq Khan all wrote on Twitter that their thoughts were with those affected and expressed thanks to the emergency services.[111][112][113] Khan described the attack as "deliberate and cowardly" and condemned it "in the strongest possible terms".[114] He later said that "the city remains one of the safest in the world" and there was "no reason to be alarmed" over the increased police presence around the city.[115]

Muslim families at London Bridge days after the 2017 attack.

The Conservative Party, Labour Party, Liberal Democrats and Scottish National Party suspended national election campaigning for a day after the attack.[116][117] The UK Independence Party chose not to suspend its campaigning; leader Paul Nuttall said it was "what the extremists would want".[118] May confirmed that the general election would go ahead as scheduled on 8 June.[118] The BBC cancelled or postponed a number of political programmes due to air on 4 June.[119]

Harun Khan, the secretary general of the Muslim Council of Britain also condemned the attack.[120][121] More than 130 imams condemned the attackers, refused them Islamic burials, and said in a statement that the terrorists did not represent Islam.[122][123]

Condolences, expressions of shock, support, solidarity and sympathy were offered by many national governments and supranational bodies.[a]

Three George Medals were awarded in relation to the attacks: Ignacio Echeverría (posthumous), a civilian, and two to police officers, PC Charlie Guenigault of the Metropolitan Police and PC Wayne Marques of the British Transport Police. All three were seriously injured as they directly confronted the terrorists and attempted to save others.[148] PCs Liam Jones and Stewart Henderson, both of the Metropolitan Police, received the British Empire Medal.[149] PC Leon McLeod of the British Transport Police received a Queen's Gallantry Medal,[148] and PCs Tim Andrews, Sam Balfour, Lian Rae, and Bartosz Tchorzewski received the Queen's Police Medal for Distinguished Service.[149] Four civilians were awarded the Queen's Commendation for Bravery: Kirsty Boden (posthumous), Ellen Gauntlett, Justin Jones, and Florin Morariu.[150] Nurse Joy Ongcachuy, Acting Detective Zac Idun, London Ambulance Service operations director Paul Woodrow, NHS England administrator Peter Boorman, Doctor Malik Ramadhan, and Claire Summers were awarded OBEs for, variously, responding to the attacks, treating victims and liaising with their families, and conducting related investigations.[151][149]

See also


  1. ^ These included the governments and heads of state of: Argentina,[124] Australia,[125] Bahrain,[126] Canada,[127] China,[128] the Czech Republic,[129] the European Commission,[130] Finland,[131] France,[132] Germany,[133] Hungary,[134] India,[135] Indonesia,[126] Iran,[130] Ireland,[136] Israel,[137] Italy,[130] Japan,[138] Jordan,[139] Kuwait,[126] Malaysia,[140] New Zealand,[130] Oman,[126] the Philippines,[126] Qatar,[126] Romania,[141] Russia,[133] Saudi Arabia,[142] Singapore,[143] South Korea,[144] Spain,[130] Taiwan,[145] Turkey,[126] the United Arab Emirates,[126] the United States,[146] the Vatican[133] and Vietnam.[147]


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External links

3 June 1539

Hernando de Soto claims Florida for Spain.

In 1537 de Soto appealed to the King of Spain to be granted control of the New World territorial province that stretched from Rio de Las Palmas in South America to Florida. De Soto won his claim and was also granted the governorship of Cuba. However, his appointment stipulated that, within a year, he had to personally re-conquer and occupy Spanish Florida at his own expense. Previous ventures to South America with Pizarro had earned de Soto tremendous wealth and prestige; as a result, he found several willing financial partners for the venture, some of who accompanied de Soto on the actual voyage. He assembled and armada of 10 ships and 600 men. In April of 1538 his fleet departed from the port of San Lucar, Spain, for the shores of the New World. He landed in Cuba, remaining on the island for a few months to gather supplies, rest his men, and plan his expedition in Florida.

De Soto landed in Florida in May of 1539 and claimed formal possession of the land on June 3 despite ongoing hostility between his men and some of the neighboring Indian tribes. Welcomed by one local Native American chief, de Soto and his crew wintered in the village of Apalache before beginning their expedition. De Soto supposed that great indigenous civilizations, like those he encountered on voyages to South America, lay in the region’s interior. Determined to garner further plunder for both his own interests and for the Spanish court, de Soto and his men headed northward through present-day Georgia. Once reaching the Piedmont, or the Appalachian foothills, de Soto turned his forces westward, exploring the Carolinas and Tennessee. Though he located the Tennessee River, de Soto had failed to find the material wealth and plunder after which he sought.

Disappointed and weary, in 1540 de Soto attempted to head south to Mobile Bay in Alabama to rendezvous with his ships. Two hundred miles south of the Tennessee River, de Soto and his men encountered a warrior band led by Chief Tuscaloosa. The Native American forces were ill equipped to fight the Spaniards, and the ensuring battle proved disastrous for Tuscaloosa’s men. The clash was perhaps the bloodiest single encounter between Native Americans and whites in American history. Crippled by the encounter with Tuscaloosa and running short on supplies, de Soto continued to head south, believing that he would not meet with further resistance. A few miles from the headwaters of Mobile Bay, however, the indigenous peoples at Mauvilia confronted de Soto’s men. The local Native Americans were decimated, and the Spanish forces were weakened severely. Losing most of his men, supplies, and plunder, de Soto rashly decided to extend his expedition and recoup his losses instead of immediately returning to Spain.

After regrouping with some of his fleet and resting for a month, de Soto again pushed northward—though this time the decision would prove fatal. His expedition was plagued by Indian attacks as they made their way through western Alabama and Mississippi. On May 21, 1541, de Soto became the first European to sight the Mississippi River. He encountered the river south of Memphis, Tennessee, and instead of following the river and charting its path to the Gulf of Mexico, de Soto crossed the river into Arkansas in search of more wealth. The expedition was fruitless and de Soto lost more of his already diminished crew to fatigue and disease. Resolved to finally reunite with his fleet and return to Spain, de Soto decided to turn back and follow the Mississippi River southward. De Soto fell ill, most likely with Yellow Fever, and died in Louisiana on May 21, 1542, exactly one year after first sighting the Mississippi River.

The surviving members of de Soto’s crew endured perhaps the most trying part of their travels after de Soto’s demise. Continuing their way southward, they were unable to return to the remnants of de Soto’s fleet. They made their way to Mexico via handmade rafts and eventually caught passage back to Spain. De Soto’s second in command, Luis de Moscoso, arrived at the Spanish court over a year and half after de Soto’s death.

3 June 1940

The Luftwaffe bomb Paris.

Unternehmen Paula Undertaking or Operation Paula is the German codename given for the Second World War Luftwaffe offensive operation to destroy the remaining units of the Armée de l’Air, or French Air Force during the Battle of France in 1940. On 10 May the German armed forces began their invasion of Western Europe. By 3 June, the British Army had withdrawn from Dunkirk and the continent in Operation Dynamo, the Netherlands and Belgium had surrendered and most of the formations of the French Army were disbanded or destroyed. To complete the defeat of France, the Germans undertook a second phase operation, Fall Rot, to conquer the remaining regions. In order to do this, air supremacy was required. The Luftwaffe was ordered to destroy the French Air Forces, while still providing support to the German Army.

For the operation, the Germans committed five Air Corps to the attack, comprising 1,100 aircraft. The operation was launched on 3 June 1940. British intelligence had warned the French of the impending attack, and the operation failed to achieve the strategic results desired by the Oberkommando der Luftwaffe. Fortunately for the Luftwaffe, the plight of the French ground and air forces at this stage meant that the failure of the operation would not impede the defeat of France.

Hugo Sperrle had long planned attacks upon Paris and on 22 May he ordered Fliegerkorps II and Fliegerkorps V with Kampfgeschwader 77 and Generaloberst Ulrich Grauert’s I Fliegerdivision, III./Kampfgeschwader 28 to bomb Paris. Bad weather prevented the operation. Determined to continue with his plans, Sperrle ordered Otto Hoffmann von Waldau and Helmuth von Hoffman, Gruppenkommandeur Group Commander of III./KG 28, to plan an operation named Paula the following day, on 23 May 1940.

The operation was broad in its scope. As well as eliminating French airfields and aircraft factories around Paris, in von Waldau’s words, the bombing was to “achieve a desirable influence on the morale of the capital”. German reconnaissance aircraft reported 1,244 aircraft on airfields in and around Paris, including 550–650 single engine aircraft. This French air power was to be destroyed along with the aviation factories in the area. French anti aircraft artillery defences were mapped from tactical to operational level, and intelligence of French ground defences was therefore good. The operation was due to be carried out on 30 May, but again, bad weather prevented it.

The operation was compromised by poor staff work and excessive confidence in the “invulnerable” Enigma machine. The British intelligence, namely Ultra, who had been reading the German codes, forewarned the French. On 30 May they intercepted a message sent by Grauert discussing the arrangements he was making for his Corps. Adding to this leak, the units involved received incomplete orders for the assault. Oberst Johann-Volkmar Fisser, Geschwaderkommodore Wing Commander of KG 77 complained about this. He asked the Headquarters of VIII Fliegerkorps, only to be told that the target was “Paris”. Sperrle responded to his request by removing KG 77 from the order of battle. The British intercepted Frisser’s request to VIII Fliegerkorps, and passed it to the French. The French had intercepted similar messages and in response they doubled their aircraft strength to 120 fighters.

3 June 1992

Aboriginal Land Rights are granted in Australia from the case of Mabo v Queensland.

On 3 June 1992 six of the seven High Court Judges ruled;’The Meriam people are entitled as against the whole world, to possession, occupation, use and enjoyment of the lands of the Murray Islands’

Eddie Mabo had died of cancer in February 1992, just 4 months before this historic high court ruling that would change Australian land law. The judgement was so historic because it completely overturned the idea of terra nullius and said that native title survived in many places, even though the land had been taken by the Crown. See image 1

Mabo v Queensland (Mabo) declared that terra nullius had never legally existed and that it had been wrongfully applied to Australia. The high court said that ‘ultimate’ title existed instead, and through that, native title could be claimed. Australian land law has developed from English land law and it was under those principles that Australia was settled. At common law all land is owned by the Crown which then deals with that land as it sees fit. See image 2

In the 18th century there were three legally recognised principles that governed the taking over of new land; conquest, treaty or occupation. As Australia was an ’empty’ country neither of the first two principles applied, and so under 18th century English common law, Australia became an occupied country. This legal fiction of an empty country was directly challenged by the Mabo case.