Elvis Presley appears on The Ed Sullivan Show for the first time.
Elizabeth II became the longest reigning monarch of the United Kingdom.
The following is a list, ordered by length of reign, of the monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1927–present), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927), the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1801), the Kingdom of England (871–1707), the Kingdom of Scotland (878–1707), the Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1800), and the Principality of Wales (1216–1542).
Queen Elizabeth II became the longest-reigning British monarch on 9 September 2015 when she surpassed the reign of her great-great-grandmother Victoria. On 6 February 2017 she became the first British monarch to celebrate a Sapphire Jubilee, commemorating 65 years on the throne. She has now reigned for 68 years, 8 months and 16 days.
These are the ten longest-reigning monarchs in the British Isles for whom there is reliable recorded evidence.
|1||Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom||6 February 1952||Present||25,096||68 years, 259 days|
|2||Victoria of the United Kingdom||20 June 1837||22 January 1901||23,226||63 years, 216 days|
|3||George III of the United Kingdom||25 October 1760||29 January 1820||21,644||59 years, 96 days|
|4||James VI of Scotland||24 July 1567||27 March 1625||21,066||57 years, 246 days|
|5||Henry III of England||28 October 1216||16 November 1272||20,473||56 years, 19 days|
|6||Edward III of England||25 January 1327||20 June 1377||18,410||50 years, 147 days|
|7||William I of Scotland||9 December 1165||4 December 1214||17,892||48 years, 360 days|
|8||Llywelyn of Gwynedd||1195||11 April 1240||16,173–16,902||c. 44–45 years|
|9||Elizabeth I of England||17 November 1558||24 March 1603||16,198||44 years, 127 days|
|10||David II of Scotland||7 June 1329||22 February 1371||15,235||41 years, 260 days|
The longest claim by a pretender was that of James Francis Edward Stuart (the "Old Pretender"), who was the Jacobite pretender to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland for 64 years, 3 months, and 16 days (17 September 1701 – 1 January 1766).
Elizabeth II: the longest-reigning monarch
On 9 September 2015 (at the age of 89 years, 141 days), Elizabeth II became the longest-reigning British monarch and the longest-reigning female monarch in world history. On 23 May 2016 (at the age of 90 years, 32 days), her reign surpassed the claimed reign of James Francis Edward Stuart (the "Old Pretender"). On 13 October 2016 (at the age of 90 years, 175 days), she became the world's longest-reigning current monarch (and the world's longest-serving current head of state) after the death of Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX), King of Thailand.
If she is still reigning on:
- 6 February 2022 (at age 95 years, 291 days), she will celebrate her platinum jubilee, marking 70 years on the throne.
- 27 May 2024 (at age 98 years, 36 days), she will be the longest-reigning monarch of any sovereign state, surpassing Louis XIV of France, who reigned for 72 years, 110 days.
On 1 January 1801 the Kingdom of Great Britain united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, becoming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland by Act of Parliament in 1927 following the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922.
|Elizabeth II||6 February 1952||Present||25,096||68 years, 259 days|
|Victoria||20 June 1837||22 January 1901||23,226||63 years, 216 days|
|George V||6 May 1910||20 January 1936||9,390||25 years, 259 days|
|George III||1 January 1801||29 January 1820||6,967||19 years, 28 days|
|George VI||11 December 1936||6 February 1952||5,535||15 years, 57 days|
|George IV||29 January 1820||26 June 1830||3,801||10 years, 148 days|
|Edward VII||22 January 1901||6 May 1910||3,391||9 years, 104 days|
|William IV||26 June 1830||20 June 1837||2,551||6 years, 359 days|
|Edward VIII||20 January 1936||11 December 1936||326||326 days|
||25 October 1760||1 January 1801||14,677||40 years, 68 days|
|George II||22 June 1727N.S.||25 October 1760||12,168||33 years, 114 days|
|George I||1 August 1714||11 June 1727||4,697||12 years, 314 days|
|Anne||1 May 1707||1 August 1714||2,649||7 years, 92 days|
Includes English monarchs from the installation of Alfred the Great as King of Wessex in 871 to Anne (House of Stuart) and the Acts of Union on 1 May 1707, when the crown became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain.
|Henry III||28 October 1216||16 November 1272||20,473||56 years, 19 days|
|Edward III||25 January 1327||21 June 1377||18,410||50 years, 147 days|
|Elizabeth I||17 November 1558||24 March 1603||16,198||44 years, 127 days|
|Henry VI||1 September 1422
31 October 1470
|4 March 1461
11 April 1471
|38 years, 184 days|
38 years, 347 days
|Æthelred II||18 March 978
3 February 1014
|25 December 1013
23 April 1016
|35 years, 282 days|
2 years, 80 days
37 years, 362 days
|Henry VIII||22 April 1509||28 January 1547||13,795||37 years, 281 days|
|Charles II||30 January 1649||6 February 1685||13,156||36 years, 7 days|
|Henry I||5 August 1100||1 December 1135||12,901||35 years, 118 days|
(co-ruler with Henry the Young King)
|25 October 1154||6 July 1189||12,673||34 years, 254 days|
|Edward I||20 November 1272||7 July 1307||12,646||34 years, 229 days|
|Alfred the Great||24 April 871||26 October 899||10,412||28 years, 185 days|
|Edward the Elder||27 October 899||17 July 924||9,029||24 years, 264 days|
|Charles I||27 March 1625||30 January 1649||8,710||23 years, 309 days|
|Henry VII||22 August 1485||21 April 1509||8,642||23 years, 242 days|
|Edward the Confessor||8 June 1042||5 January 1066||8,612||23 years, 211 days|
|Richard II||22 June 1377||29 September 1399||8,134||22 years, 99 days|
|James I||24 March 1603||27 March 1625||8,039||22 years, 3 days|
|Edward IV||4 March 1461
11 April 1471
|3 October 1470
9 April 1483
|9 years, 213 days|
11 years, 363 days
21 years, 211 days
|William I||12 December 1066||9 September 1087||7,563||20 years, 258 days|
|Edward II||8 July 1307||20 January 1327||7,136||19 years, 196 days|
|Cnut||30 November 1016||12 November 1035||6,921||18 years, 347 days|
|Stephen||22 December 1135
1 November 1141
|7 April 1141
25 October 1154
|5 years, 106 days|
12 years, 358 days
18 years, 99 days
|John||6 April 1199||19 October 1216||6,406||17 years, 196 days|
|Edgar I||1 October 959||8 July 975||5,759||15 years, 280 days|
|Æthelstan||2 August 924
|27 October 939||5,564
|15 years, 86 days|
or 14 years, 86 days
|Henry IV||30 September 1399||20 March 1413||4,919||13 years, 171 days|
(co-ruler with Mary II)
|13 February 1689||8 March 1702||4,770||13 years, 23 days|
|Henry the Young King
(co-ruler with Henry II)
|14 June 1170||11 June 1183||4,745||12 years, 362 days|
|William II||26 September 1087||2 August 1100||4,693||12 years, 310 days|
|Richard I||6 July 1189||6 April 1199||3,561||9 years, 274 days|
|Eadred||26 May 946||23 November 955||3,468||9 years, 181 days|
|Henry V||21 March 1413||31 August 1422||3,450||9 years, 163 days|
|Edmund I||27 October 939||26 May 946||2,403||6 years, 211 days|
|Edward VI||28 January 1547||6 July 1553||2,351||6 years, 159 days|
(co-ruler with William III)
|13 February 1689||28 December 1694||2,144||5 years, 318 days|
||19 July 1553||17 November 1558||1,947||5 years, 121 days|
(also Kingdom of Great Britain)
|8 March 1702||30 April 1707||1,879||5 years, 53 days|
|Harold I||12 November 1035||17 March 1040||1586||4 years, 126 days|
|Eadwig||23 November 955||1 October 959||1,408||3 years, 312 days|
|James II||6 February 1685||11 December 1688||1,404||3 years, 309 days|
|Edward the Martyr||9 July 975||18 March 978||984||2 years, 253 days|
|Harthacnut||17 March 1040||8 June 1042||813||2 years, 83 days|
|Richard III||26 June 1483||22 August 1485||788||2 years, 57 days|
|Harold II||5 January 1066||14 October 1066||282||282 days|
|Edmund II||23 April 1016||30 November 1016||221||221 days|
|Matilda (disputed)||7 April 1141||1 November 1141||208||208 days|
|Edward V||9 April 1483||26 June 1483||78||78 days|
|Edgar II||15 October 1066||17 December 1066||63||63 days|
|Sweyn Forkbeard||25 December 1013||3 February 1014||40||40 days|
|Jane (disputed)||10 July 1553||19 July 1553||9||9 days|
Includes Scottish monarchs from the installation of Kenneth I (House of Alpin) in 848 to Anne (House of Stuart) and the Acts of Union on 1 May 1707, when the crown became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain.
|James VI||24 July 1567||27 March 1625||21,066||57 years, 246 days|
|William I||9 December 1165||4 December 1214||17,892||48 years, 360 days|
|Constantine II||900||943||c. 15,500||c. 43 years|
|David II||7 June 1329||22 February 1371||15,235||41 years, 260 days|
|Alexander III||6 July 1249||19 March 1286||13,405||36 years, 256 days|
|Malcolm III||17 March 1058||13 November 1093||13,025||35 years, 241 days|
|Alexander II||4 December 1214||6 July 1249||12,633||34 years, 214 days|
|James I||4 April 1406||21 February 1437||11,281||30 years, 323 days|
|Malcolm II||25 March 1005||25 November 1034||10,837||29 years, 245 days|
|James V||9 September 1513||14 December 1542||10,688||29 years, 96 days|
|David I||23 April 1124||24 May 1153||10,623||29 years, 31 days|
|James III||3 August 1460||11 June 1488||10,174||27 years, 313 days|
|Charles II||30 January 1649
29 May 1660
|3 September 1651
6 February 1685
|2 years, 216 days|
24 years, 253 days
27 years, 104 days
|James IV||11 June 1488||9 September 1513||9,220||25 years, 90 days|
|Mary I||14 December 1542||24 July 1567||8,988||24 years, 222 days|
|Charles I||27 March 1625||30 January 1649||8,710||23 years, 309 days|
|Kenneth II||971||995||c. 8,700||c. 23-24 years|
|James II||21 February 1437||3 August 1460||8,564||23 years, 164 days|
|Edward Balliol (disputed)||24 September 1332||20 January 1356||8,518||23 years, 118 days|
|Robert I||25 March 1306||7 June 1329||8,475||23 years, 74 days|
|Robert II||22 February 1371||19 April 1390||6,996||19 years, 56 days|
|Alexander I||8 January 1107||23 April 1124||6,315||17 years, 106 days|
|Macbeth||14 August 1040||15 August 1057||6,210||17 years, 1 day|
|Robert III||19 April 1390||4 April 1406||5,828||15 years, 350 days|
|Constantine I||862||877||c. 5,400||c. 15 years|
|Kenneth MacAlpin||843||13 February 858||c. 5,100||c. 14 years|
|William II||11 May 1689||8 March 1702||4,683||12 years, 301 days|
|Malcolm IV||24 May 1153||9 December 1165||4,582||12 years, 199 days|
(co-ruler with Eochaid?)
|878||889||c. 4.000||c. 11 years|
|Donald II||889||900||c. 4,000||c. 11 years|
|Malcolm I||943||954||c. 3,600||c. 10-11 years|
|Edgar||1097||8 January 1107||c. 3,600||c. 10 years|
|Kenneth III||997||25 March 1005||c. 2,900||c. 8 years|
|Indulf||954||962||c. 2,700||c. 8 years|
|Duncan I||25 November 1034||14 August 1040||2,089||5 years, 263 days|
|Mary II||11 April 1689||28 December 1694||2,087||5 years, 261 days|
|Amlaíb||971||977||c. 2,000||c. 5-6 years|
(also Kingdom of Great Britain)
|8 March 1702||30 April 1707||1,879||5 years, 53 days|
|Dub||962||c. 966-967||c. 1,800||c. 5 years|
|Cuilén||c. 966-967||971||c. 1,800||c. 5 years|
|Domnall mac Ailpín||858||13 April 862||c. 1.300||c. 4 years|
|James VII||6 February 1685||11 December 1688
(claimed until 16 September 1701.)
|3 years, 309 days|
claimed 16 years, 222 days
|Margaret||25 November 1286||26 September 1290||1,401||3 years, 305 days|
|John Balliol||17 November 1292||10 July 1296||1,331||3 years, 236 days|
|Donald III||13 November 1093||1097||c. 1,000||c. 3-4 years|
|Constantine III||1095||1097||c. 700||c. 2 years|
|Áed mac Cináeda||877||878||c. 365||c. 1 year|
|Lulach||15 August 1057||17 March 1058||212||212 days|
|Duncan II||May 1094||12 November 1094||c. 195||"less than 7 months"|
The High King of Ireland (846–1198) was primarily a titular title (with the exception of Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair who was regarded as the first "King of Ireland"). The later Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1800) came into being under the Crown of Ireland Act 1542, the long title of which was "An Act that the King of England, his Heirs and Successors, be Kings of Ireland". In 1801 the Irish crown became part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
|Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair||1166||1193||c. 26-27 years|
|Edward Bruce (disputed)||June 1315||14 October 1318||c. 3 years, 100 days|
|Brian Ua Néill (disputed)||1258||1260||c. 1-2 years|
The Principality (or Kingdom) of Gwynedd (5th century–1216) was based in northwest Wales, its rulers were repeatedly acclaimed as "King of the Britons" before losing their power in civil wars or Saxon and Norman invasions. In 1216 it was superseded by the title Principality of Wales, although the new title was not first used until the 1240s.
|Gruffudd ap Cynan||1081||1137||c. 55-56 years|
|Llywelyn the Great||1195||11 April 1240||>16,172||c. 44-45 years|
|Owain Gwynedd||1137||1170||>11,688||c. 33 years|
|Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd||1170||1195||>8,766||c. 25 years|
|Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd||1170||1170||<1 year|
The Principality of Wales (1216–1542) was a client state of England for much of its history, except for brief periods when it was de facto independent under a Welsh Prince of Wales (see House of Aberffraw). From 1301 it was first used as a title of the English (and later British) heir apparent. The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 formally incorporated all of Wales within the Kingdom of England.
|Llywelyn ap Gruffudd||1253||11 December 1282||>10,572||c. 29 years|
|Owain Glyndŵr (disputed)||16 September 1400||c. 1416||>5,585||c. 16 years|
|Owain Goch ap Gruffydd||25 February 1246||1255||>3,000||c. 9 years|
|Owain Lawgoch (disputed)||May 1372||July 1378||>2,221||c. 6 years|
|Dafydd ap Llywelyn||12 April 1240||25 February 1246||2,145||5 years, 319 days|
|Dafydd ap Gruffydd||11 December 1282||3 October 1283||296||296 days|
Charles, Prince of Wales, is the longest-serving Prince of Wales, with a tenure of 62 years, 88 days since his proclamation as such in 1958.
- List of current reigning monarchs by length of reign
- List of British monarchs by longevity
- List of British monarchy records
- List of longest-reigning monarchs
- Line of succession to the British throne
- Monarchy of the United Kingdom
Notes and references
- Patricia Treble (30 December 2014). "Palace calculations: Queen Elizabeth II set to lap Victoria". Maclean's. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Official Website of the British Monarchy". Retrieved 5 September 2015.
On 9 September 2015, The Queen will become the longest reigning British Monarch, surpassing Queen Victoria.
- Warren Gaebel. "Longest Reigning British Monarch". Warren Gaebel. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- "Elizabeth is about to become Britain's longest-reigning queen. Here's how she's changed monarchy". The Spectator. 3 January 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- "Famous Stewarts". www.stewartsociety.org. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- "Thailand's King Bhumibol Adulyadej dies at 88". BBC News. 13 October 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
- By PA Oct 13, 2016. "Queen takes over longest reign mantle after Thailand's King Bhumibol dies". Aol.co.uk. Retrieved 13 October 2016.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Victoria Arbiter (9 September 2015). "Queen Elizabeth II: The platinum monarch?". CNN. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- Elledge, Jonn (9 September 2015). "Queen Elizabeth II is about to become Britain's longest reigning monarch so here are some charts". New Statesman.
- "Royal And Parliamentary Titles Act 1927". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
- Updated daily according to UTC.
- George III, King of Great Britain and Ireland, became King of the United Kingdom and Ireland on 1 January 1801.
- George III, King of Great Britain, became King of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801.
- Anne, Queen of England and Queen of Scots, became Queen of Great Britain on 1 May 1707.
- Monarch's total length of reign is the sum of the two reigns displayed.
- Charles II King of England and King of Scots concurrently from 30 January 1649 to 6 February 1685.
- Charles I was King of England and King of Scots concurrently.
- James VI, King of Scots, became James I, King of England, in 1603.
- William of Orange became William III, King of England, on 13 February 1689 and William II, King of Scots, on 11 May 1689.
- Mary II became Queen of England on 13 February 1689 and Queen of Scots on 11 May 1689.
- James was James II, King of England, and James VII, King of Scots, concurrently.
- James was James II, King of England, and James VII, King of Scotland, concurrently.
The Hanapepe massacre occurs on Kauai, Hawaii.
The Hanap?p? Massacre also called the Battle of Hanap?p? since both sides were armed happened on September 9, 1924. Toward the end of a long-lasting strike of Filipino sugar workers on Kaua?i, Hawai?i, local police shot dead nine strikers and fatally wounded seven, strikers shot and stabbed three sheriffs to death and fatally wounded one; a total of 20 people died. The massacre brought an end to armed protests in Hawaii.
By the 1920s, the sugarcane plantation owners in Hawai?i had become disillusioned with both Japanese and Filipino workers. They spent the next few years trying to get the U.S. Congress to relax the Chinese Exclusion Act so that they could bring in new Chinese workers. Congress prevented the importation of Chinese labor.
But organized labor in the 1920s’ U.S. mainland supported the Congress in this action, so that for a while it looked as though militant unionism on the sugarcane plantations was dead. To oppose organized labor, the Hawaiian Territorial Legislature passed the Criminal Syndicalism Law of 1919, Anarchistic Publications law of 1921, and the Anti-Picketing Law of 1923.
These laws, with penalties of up to 10 years in prison, increased the discontent of the workers. The Filipinos, who were rapidly becoming the dominant plantation labor force, had deep-seated grievances: as the latest immigrants they were treated most poorly. Although the planters had claimed there was a labor shortage and they were actively recruiting workers from the Philippines, they wanted only illiterate workers and turned back any arrivals who could read or write, as many as one in six.
By 1922 Filipino labor activist Pablo Manlapit had organized a new Filipino Higher Wage Movement which numbered some 13,000 members. In April 1924, it called for a strike on the island of Kaua?i, demanding $2 a day in wages and reduction of the workday to 8 hours. As they had previously, the plantation owners used armed forces, the National Guard, and strike breakers paid a higher wage than the strikers demanded. Again workers were turned out of their homes. Propaganda was distributed to whip up racism. Spying and infiltration of the strikers’ ranks was acknowledged by Jack Butler, executive head of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association.
Strike leaders were arrested in attempts to disrupt workers’ solidarity, and people were bribed to testify against them. On September 9, 1924, outraged strikers seized two strike breakers at Hanap?p? and prevented them from going to work. The police, armed with clubs and guns, came to union headquarters to rescue them. Filipino strikers were armed only with homemade weapons and knives.
The Associated Press flashed the story of what followed across the United States in the following words: Honolulu. – Twenty persons dead, unnumbered injured lying in hospital, officers under orders to shoot strikers as they approached, distracted widows with children tracking from jails to hospitals and morgues in search of missing strikers – this was the aftermath of a clash between cane strikers and workers on the McBryde plantation, Tuesday at Hanapepe, island of Kauai. The dead included sixteen Filipinos and four policemen.
After the massacre police rounded up all male protesters they could find, and a total of 101 Filipino men were arrested. 76 were brought to trial, and of these 60 received four-year jail sentences. Pablo Manlapit was charged with subornation of perjury and was sentenced to two to ten years in prison. The Hawai?i Hochi claimed that he had been railroaded into prison, a victim of framed-up evidence, perjured testimony, racial prejudice and class hatred. Shortly thereafter, he was paroled on condition that he leave Hawai?i. After eight months the strike disintegrated.
The Federationist, the official publication of the American Federation of Labor, reported that in 1924 the ten leading sugar companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange paid dividends averaging 17 percent. From 1913 to 1923, the eleven leading sugar companies paid cash dividends of 172.45 percent, and most of them issued large stock dividends.
After the 1924 strike, the labor movement in Hawai?i dwindled, but did not die, and discontent among the workers rarely surfaced again. Pablo Manlapit, who had been imprisoned and exiled, returned to the islands in 1932 and started a new labor organization, this time hoping to include other ethnic groups. But the time was not ripe in the Depression years. There were small nuisance strikes in 1933 that made no headway and involved mostly Filipinos. Protests since the massacre have discouraged carrying guns at demonstrations.
Massacre of 184 Tamil civilians by the Sri Lankan Army in the Batticaloa District.
The uneasy relationship between Tamils and Sinhala has persisted for centuries, with cyclical exchanges of political power effected by means including war, economic dependence and turning-a-blind-eye coexistence. Periodically, the opposition explodes in frenzied violence at which both sides have considerable practice – without any warning.
In 1990 there was just such an explosion at Batticaloa, cm Sri Lanka’s east coast considered by the whole country to be a Tamil region not often involved with outright military confrontation. Episodes of violence there have generally consisted of ambushes, bombings and ‘guerrilla actions’. Severe incidents in which 20 or 30 people might be made to ‘disappear’ or be found dead and mutilated, increased in number until August 3 when armed Tamil Tiger personnel butchered 103 Muslims from the mosque at Kattankudy. The next day they killed over 300 men and boys from the Meera Jumma mosque on the Kandy-Batticaloa road, and about 40 more from the nearby Hussainya mosque.
Retaliation came in the shape of the Sri Lanka Army and Muslim guards, who on September 9 took 158 Tamil civilians sheltering in the East University Campus plus 184 Tamil villagers from Sathurukondan village and caused all 342 to ‘disappear’.
The Tamil attacks of August had included single-shot executions of men with their hands bound and horrific, very public mutilations by machetes, grenades and machine guns. SLA/Muslim attacks left less bloody evidence but many mass graves. Neither side achieved anything except more dates to be remembered with further violence. In the 20 years since, peace declarations have been made and refuted and actual war has flared repeatedly. The Batticaloa massacres serve only as a terrible example of pointless tit-for-tat violence executed on the civilians who have least to gain from either side winning power.
John Herschel takes the very first glass plate photograph.
184 minority Tamil civilians are massacred by the Sri Lankan Army in the eastern Batticaloa District of Sri Lanka.
A Japanese plane drops incendiary bombs on Oregon.
Battle of Krbava Field: defeat of the Croats in Croatian struggle against the invasion by the Ottomans.
Mary Stuart, at 9 months old, is crowned “Queen of Scots”.
The massacre of 184 minority Tamil civilians by Sri Lankan Army occurred in the eastern Batticaloa District of Sri Lanka.