9 September 2015

Elizabeth II became the longest reigning monarch of the United Kingdom.

Elizabeth II, the current and longest-reigning monarch, has reigned since 6 February 1952.

The following is a list, ordered by length of reign, of the monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1927–present), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927), the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1801), the Kingdom of England (871–1707), the Kingdom of Scotland (878–1707), the Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1800), and the Principality of Wales (1216–1542).

Queen Elizabeth II became the longest-reigning British monarch on 9 September 2015 when she surpassed the reign of her great-great-grandmother Victoria.[1][2] On 6 February 2017 she became the first British monarch to celebrate a Sapphire Jubilee, commemorating 65 years on the throne. She has now reigned for 68 years, 8 months and 16 days.

Overall

These are the ten longest-reigning monarchs in the British Isles for whom there is reliable recorded evidence.

no. Monarch Reign Duration
From To Days Years, days
1 Queen Elizabeth II 1959.jpg Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom 6 February 1952 Present 25,096 68 years, 259 days
2 Queen victoria.jpg Victoria of the United Kingdom 20 June 1837 22 January 1901 23,226 63 years, 216 days
3 Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg George III of the United Kingdom 25 October 1760 29 January 1820 21,644 59 years, 96 days
4 James I of England Schloss Ambras.jpg James VI of Scotland 24 July 1567 27 March 1625 21,066 57 years, 246 days
5 Henry III funeral head.jpg Henry III of England 28 October 1216 16 November 1272 20,473 56 years, 19 days
6 Edward III of England (Order of the Garter).jpg Edward III of England 25 January 1327 20 June 1377 18,410 50 years, 147 days
7 William the Lion portrait.jpg William I of Scotland 9 December 1165 4 December 1214 17,892 48 years, 360 days
8 Llywelyn the Great.JPG Llywelyn of Gwynedd 1195 11 April 1240 16,173–16,902 c. 44–45 years
9 Elizabeth I in coronation robes.jpg Elizabeth I of England 17 November 1558 24 March 1603 16,198 44 years, 127 days
10 David II of Scotland by Sylvester Harding 1797.jpg David II of Scotland 7 June 1329 22 February 1371 15,235 41 years, 260 days

The longest claim by a pretender was that of James Francis Edward Stuart (the "Old Pretender"), who was the Jacobite pretender to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland for 64 years, 3 months, and 16 days (17 September 1701 – 1 January 1766).

Elizabeth II: the longest-reigning monarch

On 9 September 2015 (at the age of 89 years, 141 days), Elizabeth II became the longest-reigning British monarch and the longest-reigning female monarch in world history.[3][4] On 23 May 2016 (at the age of 90 years, 32 days), her reign surpassed the claimed reign of James Francis Edward Stuart (the "Old Pretender").[5] On 13 October 2016 (at the age of 90 years, 175 days), she became the world's longest-reigning current monarch (and the world's longest-serving current head of state) after the death of Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX), King of Thailand.[6][7]

If she is still reigning on:

  • 6 February 2022 (at age 95 years, 291 days), she will celebrate her platinum jubilee, marking 70 years on the throne.[8]
  • 27 May 2024 (at age 98 years, 36 days), she will be the longest-reigning monarch of any sovereign state, surpassing Louis XIV of France, who reigned for 72 years, 110 days.[9]

Unitary monarchy

United Kingdom

On 1 January 1801 the Kingdom of Great Britain united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, becoming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland by Act of Parliament in 1927[10] following the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922.

Name Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
Elizabeth II 6 February 1952 Present 25,096 68 years, 259 days[11]
Victoria 20 June 1837 22 January 1901 23,226 63 years, 216 days
George V 6 May 1910 20 January 1936 9,390 25 years, 259 days
George III[12] 1 January 1801 29 January 1820 6,967 19 years, 28 days
George VI 11 December 1936 6 February 1952 5,535 15 years, 57 days
George IV 29 January 1820 26 June 1830 3,801 10 years, 148 days
Edward VII 22 January 1901 6 May 1910 3,391 9 years, 104 days
William IV 26 June 1830 20 June 1837 2,551 6 years, 359 days
Edward VIII 20 January 1936 11 December 1936 326 326 days

Great Britain

On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England united with the Kingdom of Scotland as the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Name Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
George III[13]
25 October 1760 1 January 1801 14,677 40 years, 68 days
George II 22 June 1727N.S. 25 October 1760 12,168 33 years, 114 days
George I 1 August 1714 11 June 1727 4,697 12 years, 314 days
Anne[14] 1 May 1707 1 August 1714 2,649 7 years, 92 days

Kingdoms

England

Includes English monarchs from the installation of Alfred the Great as King of Wessex in 871 to Anne (House of Stuart) and the Acts of Union on 1 May 1707, when the crown became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Name Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
Henry III 28 October 1216 16 November 1272 20,473 56 years, 19 days
Edward III 25 January 1327 21 June 1377 18,410 50 years, 147 days
Elizabeth I 17 November 1558 24 March 1603 16,198 44 years, 127 days
Henry VI[15] 1 September 1422
31 October 1470
 
4 March 1461
11 April 1471
 
14,064
162
Total: 14,226
38 years, 184 days
162 days
38 years, 347 days
Æthelred II[15] 18 March 978
3 February 1014
 
25 December 1013
23 April 1016
 
13,065
810
Total: 13,875
35 years, 282 days
2 years, 80 days
37 years, 362 days
Henry VIII 22 April 1509 28 January 1547 13,795 37 years, 281 days
Charles II[16] 30 January 1649 6 February 1685 13,156 36 years, 7 days
Henry I 5 August 1100 1 December 1135 12,901 35 years, 118 days
Henry II
(co-ruler with Henry the Young King)
25 October 1154 6 July 1189 12,673 34 years, 254 days
Edward I 20 November 1272 7 July 1307 12,646 34 years, 229 days
Alfred the Great 24 April 871 26 October 899 10,412 28 years, 185 days
Edward the Elder 27 October 899 17 July 924 9,029 24 years, 264 days
Charles I[17] 27 March 1625 30 January 1649 8,710 23 years, 309 days
Henry VII 22 August 1485 21 April 1509 8,642 23 years, 242 days
Edward the Confessor 8 June 1042 5 January 1066 8,612 23 years, 211 days
Richard II 22 June 1377 29 September 1399 8,134 22 years, 99 days
James I[18] 24 March 1603 27 March 1625 8,039 22 years, 3 days
Edward IV[15] 4 March 1461
11 April 1471
 
3 October 1470
9 April 1483
 
3,500
4,381
Total: 7,881
9 years, 213 days
11 years, 363 days
21 years, 211 days
William I 12 December 1066 9 September 1087 7,563 20 years, 258 days
Edward II 8 July 1307 20 January 1327 7,136 19 years, 196 days
Cnut 30 November 1016 12 November 1035 6,921 18 years, 347 days
Stephen[15] 22 December 1135
1 November 1141
 
7 April 1141
25 October 1154
 
1,933
4,741
Total: 6,674
5 years, 106 days
12 years, 358 days
18 years, 99 days
John 6 April 1199 19 October 1216 6,406 17 years, 196 days
Edgar I 1 October 959 8 July 975 5,759 15 years, 280 days
Æthelstan 2 August 924
(or 925)
27 October 939 5,564
or 5,199
15 years, 86 days
or 14 years, 86 days
Henry IV 30 September 1399 20 March 1413 4,919 13 years, 171 days
William III[19]
(co-ruler with Mary II)
13 February 1689 8 March 1702 4,770 13 years, 23 days
Henry the Young King
(co-ruler with Henry II)
14 June 1170 11 June 1183 4,745 12 years, 362 days
William II 26 September 1087 2 August 1100 4,693 12 years, 310 days
Richard I 6 July 1189 6 April 1199 3,561 9 years, 274 days
Eadred 26 May 946 23 November 955 3,468 9 years, 181 days
Henry V 21 March 1413 31 August 1422 3,450 9 years, 163 days
Edmund I 27 October 939 26 May 946 2,403 6 years, 211 days
Edward VI 28 January 1547 6 July 1553 2,351 6 years, 159 days
Mary II[20]
(co-ruler with William III)
13 February 1689 28 December 1694 2,144 5 years, 318 days
Mary I
19 July 1553 17 November 1558 1,947 5 years, 121 days
Anne[14]
(also Kingdom of Great Britain)
8 March 1702 30 April 1707 1,879 5 years, 53 days
Harold I 12 November 1035 17 March 1040 1586 4 years, 126 days
Eadwig 23 November 955 1 October 959 1,408 3 years, 312 days
James II[21] 6 February 1685 11 December 1688 1,404 3 years, 309 days
Edward the Martyr 9 July 975 18 March 978 984 2 years, 253 days
Harthacnut 17 March 1040 8 June 1042 813 2 years, 83 days
Richard III 26 June 1483 22 August 1485 788 2 years, 57 days
Harold II 5 January 1066 14 October 1066 282 282 days
Edmund II 23 April 1016 30 November 1016 221 221 days
Matilda (disputed) 7 April 1141 1 November 1141 208 208 days
Edward V 9 April 1483 26 June 1483 78 78 days
Edgar II 15 October 1066 17 December 1066 63 63 days
Sweyn Forkbeard 25 December 1013 3 February 1014 40 40 days
Jane (disputed) 10 July 1553 19 July 1553 9 9 days

Scotland

Includes Scottish monarchs from the installation of Kenneth I (House of Alpin) in 848 to Anne (House of Stuart) and the Acts of Union on 1 May 1707, when the crown became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Name Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
James VI[18] 24 July 1567 27 March 1625 21,066 57 years, 246 days
William I 9 December 1165 4 December 1214 17,892 48 years, 360 days
Constantine II 900 943 c. 15,500 c. 43 years
David II 7 June 1329 22 February 1371 15,235 41 years, 260 days
Alexander III 6 July 1249 19 March 1286 13,405 36 years, 256 days
Malcolm III 17 March 1058 13 November 1093 13,025 35 years, 241 days
Alexander II 4 December 1214 6 July 1249 12,633 34 years, 214 days
James I 4 April 1406 21 February 1437 11,281 30 years, 323 days
Malcolm II 25 March 1005 25 November 1034 10,837 29 years, 245 days
James V 9 September 1513 14 December 1542 10,688 29 years, 96 days
David I 23 April 1124 24 May 1153 10,623 29 years, 31 days
James III 3 August 1460 11 June 1488 10,174 27 years, 313 days
Charles II[16] 30 January 1649
29 May 1660
 
3 September 1651
6 February 1685
 
946
9,019
Total: 9,965
2 years, 216 days
24 years, 253 days
27 years, 104 days
James IV 11 June 1488 9 September 1513 9,220 25 years, 90 days
Mary I 14 December 1542 24 July 1567 8,988 24 years, 222 days
Charles I[17] 27 March 1625 30 January 1649 8,710 23 years, 309 days
Kenneth II 971 995 c. 8,700 c. 23-24 years
James II 21 February 1437 3 August 1460 8,564 23 years, 164 days
Edward Balliol (disputed) 24 September 1332 20 January 1356 8,518 23 years, 118 days
Robert I 25 March 1306 7 June 1329 8,475 23 years, 74 days
Robert II 22 February 1371 19 April 1390 6,996 19 years, 56 days
Alexander I 8 January 1107 23 April 1124 6,315 17 years, 106 days
Macbeth 14 August 1040 15 August 1057 6,210 17 years, 1 day
Robert III 19 April 1390 4 April 1406 5,828 15 years, 350 days
Constantine I 862 877 c. 5,400 c. 15 years
Kenneth MacAlpin 843 13 February 858 c. 5,100 c. 14 years
William II[19] 11 May 1689 8 March 1702 4,683 12 years, 301 days
Malcolm IV 24 May 1153 9 December 1165 4,582 12 years, 199 days
Giric
(co-ruler with Eochaid?)
878 889 c. 4.000 c. 11 years
Donald II 889 900 c. 4,000 c. 11 years
Malcolm I 943 954 c. 3,600 c. 10-11 years
Edgar 1097 8 January 1107 c. 3,600 c. 10 years
Kenneth III 997 25 March 1005 c. 2,900 c. 8 years
Indulf 954 962 c. 2,700 c. 8 years
Duncan I 25 November 1034 14 August 1040 2,089 5 years, 263 days
Mary II[20] 11 April 1689 28 December 1694 2,087 5 years, 261 days
Amlaíb 971 977 c. 2,000 c. 5-6 years
Anne[14]
(also Kingdom of Great Britain)
8 March 1702 30 April 1707 1,879 5 years, 53 days
Dub 962 c. 966-967 c. 1,800 c. 5 years
Cuilén c. 966-967 971 c. 1,800 c. 5 years
Domnall mac Ailpín 858 13 April 862 c. 1.300 c. 4 years
James VII[22] 6 February 1685 11 December 1688
(claimed until 16 September 1701.)
1,404
(claimed 6,065.)
3 years, 309 days
claimed 16 years, 222 days
Margaret 25 November 1286 26 September 1290 1,401 3 years, 305 days
John Balliol 17 November 1292 10 July 1296 1,331 3 years, 236 days
Donald III 13 November 1093 1097 c. 1,000 c. 3-4 years
Constantine III 1095 1097 c. 700 c. 2 years
Áed mac Cináeda 877 878 c. 365 c. 1 year
Lulach 15 August 1057 17 March 1058 212 212 days
Duncan II May 1094 12 November 1094 c. 195 "less than 7 months"

Ireland

The High King of Ireland (846–1198) was primarily a titular title (with the exception of Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair who was regarded as the first "King of Ireland"). The later Kingdom of Ireland (1542–1800) came into being under the Crown of Ireland Act 1542, the long title of which was "An Act that the King of England, his Heirs and Successors, be Kings of Ireland". In 1801 the Irish crown became part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Name Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair 1166 1193 c. 26-27 years
Edward Bruce (disputed) June 1315 14 October 1318 c. 3 years, 100 days
Brian Ua Néill (disputed) 1258 1260 c. 1-2 years

Principalities

Gwynedd

The Principality (or Kingdom) of Gwynedd (5th century–1216) was based in northwest Wales, its rulers were repeatedly acclaimed as "King of the Britons" before losing their power in civil wars or Saxon and Norman invasions. In 1216 it was superseded by the title Principality of Wales, although the new title was not first used until the 1240s.

Name Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
Gruffudd ap Cynan 1081 1137 c. 55-56 years
Llywelyn the Great 1195 11 April 1240 >16,172 c. 44-45 years
Owain Gwynedd 1137 1170 >11,688 c. 33 years
Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd 1170 1195 >8,766 c. 25 years
Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd 1170 1170 <1 year

Wales

The Principality of Wales (1216–1542) was a client state of England for much of its history, except for brief periods when it was de facto independent under a Welsh Prince of Wales (see House of Aberffraw). From 1301 it was first used as a title of the English (and later British) heir apparent. The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 formally incorporated all of Wales within the Kingdom of England.

Name Reign Duration
From To (days) (years, days)
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd 1253 11 December 1282 >10,572 c. 29 years
Owain Glyndŵr (disputed) 16 September 1400 c. 1416 >5,585 c. 16 years
Owain Goch ap Gruffydd 25 February 1246 1255 >3,000 c. 9 years
Owain Lawgoch (disputed) May 1372 July 1378 >2,221 c. 6 years
Dafydd ap Llywelyn 12 April 1240 25 February 1246 2,145 5 years, 319 days
Dafydd ap Gruffydd 11 December 1282 3 October 1283 296 296 days

Charles, Prince of Wales, is the longest-serving Prince of Wales, with a tenure of 62 years, 88 days since his proclamation as such in 1958.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Patricia Treble (30 December 2014). "Palace calculations: Queen Elizabeth II set to lap Victoria". Maclean's. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  2. ^ "Official Website of the British Monarchy". Retrieved 5 September 2015. On 9 September 2015, The Queen will become the longest reigning British Monarch, surpassing Queen Victoria.
  3. ^ Warren Gaebel. "Longest Reigning British Monarch". Warren Gaebel. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  4. ^ "Elizabeth is about to become Britain's longest-reigning queen. Here's how she's changed monarchy". The Spectator. 3 January 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  5. ^ "Famous Stewarts". www.stewartsociety.org. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  6. ^ "Thailand's King Bhumibol Adulyadej dies at 88". BBC News. 13 October 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  7. ^ By PA  Oct 13, 2016. "Queen takes over longest reign mantle after Thailand's King Bhumibol dies". Aol.co.uk. Retrieved 13 October 2016.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Victoria Arbiter (9 September 2015). "Queen Elizabeth II: The platinum monarch?". CNN. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  9. ^ Elledge, Jonn (9 September 2015). "Queen Elizabeth II is about to become Britain's longest reigning monarch so here are some charts". New Statesman.
  10. ^ "Royal And Parliamentary Titles Act 1927". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  11. ^ Updated daily according to UTC.
  12. ^ George III, King of Great Britain and Ireland, became King of the United Kingdom and Ireland on 1 January 1801.
  13. ^ George III, King of Great Britain, became King of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801.
  14. ^ a b c Anne, Queen of England and Queen of Scots, became Queen of Great Britain on 1 May 1707.
  15. ^ a b c d Monarch's total length of reign is the sum of the two reigns displayed.
  16. ^ a b Charles II King of England and King of Scots concurrently from 30 January 1649 to 6 February 1685.
  17. ^ a b Charles I was King of England and King of Scots concurrently.
  18. ^ a b James VI, King of Scots, became James I, King of England, in 1603.
  19. ^ a b William of Orange became William III, King of England, on 13 February 1689 and William II, King of Scots, on 11 May 1689.
  20. ^ a b Mary II became Queen of England on 13 February 1689 and Queen of Scots on 11 May 1689.
  21. ^ James was James II, King of England, and James VII, King of Scots, concurrently.
  22. ^ James was James II, King of England, and James VII, King of Scotland, concurrently.

9 September 1924

The Hanapepe massacre occurs on Kauai, Hawaii.

The Hanap?p? Massacre also called the Battle of Hanap?p? since both sides were armed happened on September 9, 1924. Toward the end of a long-lasting strike of Filipino sugar workers on Kaua?i, Hawai?i, local police shot dead nine strikers and fatally wounded seven, strikers shot and stabbed three sheriffs to death and fatally wounded one; a total of 20 people died. The massacre brought an end to armed protests in Hawaii.

By the 1920s, the sugarcane plantation owners in Hawai?i had become disillusioned with both Japanese and Filipino workers. They spent the next few years trying to get the U.S. Congress to relax the Chinese Exclusion Act so that they could bring in new Chinese workers. Congress prevented the importation of Chinese labor.

But organized labor in the 1920s’ U.S. mainland supported the Congress in this action, so that for a while it looked as though militant unionism on the sugarcane plantations was dead. To oppose organized labor, the Hawaiian Territorial Legislature passed the Criminal Syndicalism Law of 1919, Anarchistic Publications law of 1921, and the Anti-Picketing Law of 1923.

These laws, with penalties of up to 10 years in prison, increased the discontent of the workers. The Filipinos, who were rapidly becoming the dominant plantation labor force, had deep-seated grievances: as the latest immigrants they were treated most poorly. Although the planters had claimed there was a labor shortage and they were actively recruiting workers from the Philippines, they wanted only illiterate workers and turned back any arrivals who could read or write, as many as one in six.

By 1922 Filipino labor activist Pablo Manlapit had organized a new Filipino Higher Wage Movement which numbered some 13,000 members. In April 1924, it called for a strike on the island of Kaua?i, demanding $2 a day in wages and reduction of the workday to 8 hours. As they had previously, the plantation owners used armed forces, the National Guard, and strike breakers paid a higher wage than the strikers demanded. Again workers were turned out of their homes. Propaganda was distributed to whip up racism. Spying and infiltration of the strikers’ ranks was acknowledged by Jack Butler, executive head of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association.

Strike leaders were arrested in attempts to disrupt workers’ solidarity, and people were bribed to testify against them. On September 9, 1924, outraged strikers seized two strike breakers at Hanap?p? and prevented them from going to work. The police, armed with clubs and guns, came to union headquarters to rescue them. Filipino strikers were armed only with homemade weapons and knives.

The Associated Press flashed the story of what followed across the United States in the following words: Honolulu. – Twenty persons dead, unnumbered injured lying in hospital, officers under orders to shoot strikers as they approached, distracted widows with children tracking from jails to hospitals and morgues in search of missing strikers – this was the aftermath of a clash between cane strikers and workers on the McBryde plantation, Tuesday at Hanapepe, island of Kauai. The dead included sixteen Filipinos and four policemen.

After the massacre police rounded up all male protesters they could find, and a total of 101 Filipino men were arrested. 76 were brought to trial, and of these 60 received four-year jail sentences. Pablo Manlapit was charged with subornation of perjury and was sentenced to two to ten years in prison. The Hawai?i Hochi claimed that he had been railroaded into prison, a victim of framed-up evidence, perjured testimony, racial prejudice and class hatred. Shortly thereafter, he was paroled on condition that he leave Hawai?i. After eight months the strike disintegrated.

The Federationist, the official publication of the American Federation of Labor, reported that in 1924 the ten leading sugar companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange paid dividends averaging 17 percent. From 1913 to 1923, the eleven leading sugar companies paid cash dividends of 172.45 percent, and most of them issued large stock dividends.

After the 1924 strike, the labor movement in Hawai?i dwindled, but did not die, and discontent among the workers rarely surfaced again. Pablo Manlapit, who had been imprisoned and exiled, returned to the islands in 1932 and started a new labor organization, this time hoping to include other ethnic groups. But the time was not ripe in the Depression years. There were small nuisance strikes in 1933 that made no headway and involved mostly Filipinos. Protests since the massacre have discouraged carrying guns at demonstrations.

9 September 1990

Massacre of 184 Tamil civilians by the Sri Lankan Army in the Batticaloa District.

Batticaloa-1990-713x330

The uneasy relationship between Tamils and Sinhala has persisted for centuries, with cyclical exchanges of political power effected by means including war, economic dependence and turning-a-blind-eye coexistence. Periodically, the opposition explodes in frenzied violence at which both sides have considerable practice – without any warning.

In 1990 there was just such an explosion at Batticaloa, cm Sri Lanka’s east coast considered by the whole country to be a Tamil region not often involved with outright military confrontation. Episodes of violence there have generally consisted of ambushes, bombings and ‘guerrilla actions’. Severe incidents in which 20 or 30 people might be made to ‘disappear’ or be found dead and mutilated, increased in number until August 3 when armed Tamil Tiger personnel butchered 103 Muslims from the mosque at Kattankudy. The next day they killed over 300 men and boys from the Meera Jumma mosque on the Kandy-Batticaloa road, and about 40 more from the nearby Hussainya mosque.

Retaliation came in the shape of the Sri Lanka Army and Muslim guards, who on September 9 took 158 Tamil civilians sheltering in the East University Campus plus 184 Tamil villagers from Sathurukondan village and caused all 342 to ‘disappear’.

The Tamil attacks of August had included single-shot executions of men with their hands bound and horrific, very public mutilations by machetes, grenades and machine guns. SLA/Muslim attacks left less bloody evidence but many mass graves. Neither side achieved anything except more dates to be remembered with further violence. In the 20 years since, peace declarations have been made and refuted and actual war has flared repeatedly. The Batticaloa massacres serve only as a terrible example of pointless tit-for-tat violence executed on the civilians who have least to gain from either side winning power.