9 November 1953

Cambodia gains independence from France.

Independence Day is a national holiday observed annually in Cambodia every 9 November. The date celebrates Cambodia’s Declaration of Independence from France on 9 November 1953. The site to celebrate the ceremony is at Independence Monument. The vital celebrations are held in the capital city, Phnom Penh although there are some celebrations in many provinces.

France started controlling Cambodia in 1863. After being colonized around 80 years, King Norodom Sihanouk began claiming dependence from France in 1949. In 1953, he was successful to gain full independence, and France agreed to decolonize the whole country. Due to this accomplishment, Cambodian citizens viewed him as “the father of independence, which depicts that he was the hero of the country. He made the country to develop rapidly.

Every year, Independence Day is a very special and happy day for the whole nation. It portrayed the Khmer success over colonization. It is celebrated in many places around the country, and the absolutely crucial one takes place at Independence Monument in Phnom Penh.

On that day, all the leaders and representatives of state organizations and public departments must participate and celebrate the formal ceremony in the morning. Usually the roads around the Independence Monument are closed to provide the space for the ceremony. The whole ceremony is broadcast on national television and radio. Other channels also broadcast it from the National TV. Therefore, the people around the country can watch it.

Every state palace is decorated with some slogans related to the independence of Cambodia, and the lights. At night, there is firework in the Chatomuk River located in front of the Royal Palace. Because it is the holiday, there are a lot of people going out to see that event in front of the Royal Palace and Chroy Changvar area, which is opposite to the Royal Palace.

9 November 1994

The chemical element darmstadtium is discovered.

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Darmstadtium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Ds and atomic number 110. It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element. The most stable known isotope, darmstadtium-281, has a half-life of approximately 10 seconds. Darmstadtium was first created in 1994 by the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research near the city of Darmstadt, Germany, after which it was named.

In the periodic table, it is a d-block transactinide element. It is a member of the 7th period and is placed in the group 10 elements, although no chemical experiments have yet been carried out to confirm that it behaves as the heavier homologue to platinum in group 10 as the eighth member of the 6d series of transition metals. Darmstadtium is calculated to have similar properties to its lighter homologues, nickel, palladium, and platinum.

Darmstadtium was first created on November 9, 1994, at the Institute for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany, by Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg, under the direction of Sigurd Hofmann. The team bombarded a lead-208 target with accelerated nuclei of nickel-62 in a heavy ion accelerator and detected a single atom of the isotope darmstadtium.

In the same series of experiments, the same team also carried out the reaction using heavier nickel-64 ions. During two runs, 9 atoms of 271Ds were convincingly detected by correlation with known daughter decay properties.

9 November 1994

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The chemical element ‘darmstadtium’ is first discovered.

Darmstadtium was discovered by S. Hofmann, V. Ninov, F. P. Hessberger, P. Armbruster, H. Folger, G. Münzenberg, H. J. Schött, and others in 1994 at Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany.The name darmstadtium lies within the long established tradition of naming an element after the place of its discovery, Darmstadt, in Germany.

On the 9th of November 1994,the first atom of element 110, darmstadtium, was detected at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. The isotope discovered has an atomic number of 269 that is 269 times heavier than hydrogen.The new element was produced by fusing a nickel and a lead atom together. This was achieved by accelerating the nickel atoms to a high energy in the heavy ion accelerator UNILAC at GSI. Over a period of many days, many billion billion nickel atoms were fired at a lead target in order to produce and identify a single atom of darmstadtium.