5 October 1948

The Ashgabat earthquake kills between 10,000 and 110,000 people.

1948 Ashgabat earthquake

1948 Ashgabat earthquake
1948 Ashgabat earthquake is located in Turkmenistan
Serdar
Serdar
Darreh Gaz
Darreh Gaz
1948 Ashgabat earthquake
UTC time1948-10-05 20:12:09
ISC event897583
USGS-ANSSComCat
Local date6 October 1948 (1948-10-06)
Local time01:12:09 TMT
Magnitude7.3 Ms
Epicenter37°57′N 58°19′E / 37.95°N 58.32°E / 37.95; 58.32Coordinates: 37°57′N 58°19′E / 37.95°N 58.32°E / 37.95; 58.32
Areas affectedSoviet Union (Turkmen SSR)
Iran
Max. intensityX (Extreme)[1]
Casualties10,000–110,000[2]

The 1948 Ashgabat earthquake (Turkmen: 1948 Ашгабат ыер титремеси; 1948 Aşgabat yer titremesi; Russian: Ашхабадское землетрясение 1948 года; Ashkhabadskoye zemletryasenie 1948 goda) occurred on 6 October with a surface wave magnitude of 7.3 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme). The shock occurred in Turkmenistan near Ashgabat. Due to censorship by the Turkmen government, the event was not widely reported in the USSR's media. Historians tend to agree that the ban on reporting the extent of the casualties and damage did not allow the Soviet government to allocate enough financial resources to adequately respond.[3]

Details

The earthquake struck at 1:12 in the morning on 6 October 1948. The epicenter of the earthquake was located near the small village of , 25 kilometres southwest of Ashgabat. The earthquake caused extreme damage in Ashgabat and nearby villages, where almost all brick buildings collapsed, concrete structures were heavily damaged, and freight trains were derailed. Damage and casualties occurred in Darreh Gaz, Iran. Surface rupture was observed northwest and southeast of Ashgabat. Media sources vary on the number of the casualties, from 10,000 to 110,000, equivalent to almost 10% of the Turkmen SSR's population at the time.

According to memoirs of survivors, the city's infrastructure was badly damaged, with the exception of water pipes. Electricity was restored six days after the earthquake. The railway station began functioning on the third day.

This earthquake killed future Turkmen president Saparmurat Niyazov's mother Gurbansoltan Eje (his father having died during World War II) and the rest of his family, leaving him an orphan.[4] Aid to victims, as well as restoration of basic needs and infrastructure, was provided by the Soviet Army.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Comments for the significant earthquake". Significant Earthquake Database. National Geophysical Data Center. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  2. ^ USGS (September 4, 2009), PAGER-CAT Earthquake Catalog, Version 2008_06.1, United States Geological Survey
  3. ^ "List of the main Literature about the Ashkhabad Earthquake", Herald of the DGGGMS RAS, State registration number 0329700126, 2 (4), 1998
  4. ^ Cummings, Sally N. (2004). Power and Change in Central Asia. Taylor & Francis. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-203-16691-8.

External links

5 October 1938

In Nazi Germany, Jews’ passports are invalidated.

On October 5, 1938, the Reich Ministry of the Interior invalidates all German passports held by Jews. Jews must surrender their old passports, which will become valid only after the letter “J” has been stamped on them.

The government required Jews to identify themselves in ways that would permanently separate them from the rest of the German population. In an August 1938 law, authorities decreed that by January 1, 1939, Jewish men and women bearing first names of “non-Jewish” origin had to add “Israel” and “Sara,” respectively, to their given names. All German Jews were obliged to carry identity cards that indicated their heritage, and, in the autumn of 1938, all Jewish passports were stamped with an identifying red letter “J”. As Nazi leaders quickened their war preparations, antisemitic legislation in Germany and Austria paved the way for more radical persecution of Jews.

5 October 1962

The first James Bond movie, Dr. No, is released.

Dr._No_-_UK_cinema_poster

Dr. No is a 1962 British spy film, starring Sean Connery, with Ursula Andress and Joseph Wiseman, filmed in Jamaica and England. It is the first James Bond film. Based on the 1958 novel of the same name by Ian Fleming, it was adapted by Richard Maibaum, Johanna Harwood, and Berkely Mather and was directed by Terence Young. The film was produced by Harry Saltzman and Albert R. Broccoli, a partnership that would continue until 1975.

In the film, James Bond is sent to Jamaica to investigate the disappearance of a fellow British agent. The trail leads him to the underground base of Dr. No, who is plotting to disrupt an early American space launch with a radio beam weapon. Although the first of the Bond books to be made into a film, Dr. No was not the first of Fleming’s novels, Casino Royale being the debut for the character; the film makes a few references to threads from earlier books. This film also introduced the criminal organisation SPECTRE, which would also appear in six subsequent films.

Produced on a low budget, Dr. No was a financial success. While critical reaction was mixed upon release, over time the film has gained a reputation as one of the series’ best instalments. The film was the first of a successful series of 24 Bond films. Dr. No also launched a genre of “secret agent” films that flourished in the 1960s. The film also spawned a spin-off comic book and soundtrack album as part of its promotion and marketing.

5 October 1945

A six-month strike by Hollywood set decorators takes a turn as riots break out at the gates of Warner Brothers’ studios.

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On October 5, 1945, Hollywood Black Friday or “Bloody Friday” as what they said in the history of organized labor happened in the United States. A six-month strike by the set decorators represented by the Conference of Studio Unions has boiled over into a bloody riot at the gates of Warner Brothers’ studios in Burbank, California. The strike helped the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947 and led to the eventual breakup of the CSU and reorganization of then rival International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees leadership. An estimated 10,500 CSU workers went on strike and began picketing all the studios resulting in delays of several films.