5 August 1781

The Battle of Dogger Bank takes place.

Battle of Dogger Bank (1781)

Battle of Dogger Bank
Part of the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War
The Battle of the Dogger Bank 5 August 1781.jpg
The Battle of Dogger Bank, by Thomas Luny. NMM
Date5 August 1781
Location
Coordinates: 54°43′26″N 2°46′08″E / 54.724°N 2.769°E / 54.724; 2.769
Result Tactically indecisive;
Strategic British victory[1]
Belligerents
 Great Britain  Dutch Republic
Commanders and leaders
Kingdom of Great Britain Sir Hyde Parker, 5th Baronet Dutch Republic Johan Zoutman
Strength
7 ships of the line 7 ships of the line
Casualties and losses
104 killed, 339 wounded[2] 142 killed, 403 wounded,[2]
(Some sources repute as high as 1,100)
1 ship sunk[3]

The Battle of the Dogger Bank was a naval battle that took place on 5 August 1781 during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, contemporaneously related to the American Revolutionary War, in the North Sea. It was a bloody encounter between a British squadron under Vice Admiral Sir Hyde Parker and a Dutch squadron under Vice Admiral Johan Zoutman, both of which were escorting convoys.

Background

In December 1780, Great Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic, drawing it militarily into the American War of Independence.[4] The Dutch had for several years been supplying the Americans and shipping French supplies to the Americans, in support of the American war effort.[5] The opening of hostilities with the Dutch meant that Britain's trade with countries on the Baltic Sea (where key supplies of lumber for naval construction were purchased) was potentially at risk, and that the British had to increase protection of their shipping in the North Sea. In order to accomplish this, the British began blockading the Dutch coast to monitor and intercept any significant attempts to send shipping into or out of Dutch ports, and began to protect merchant shipping convoys with armed vessels.

The Dutch were politically in turmoil, and were consequently unable to mount any sort of effective actions against the British.[6] The result of this inaction was the collapse of their economically important trade.[7] It was finally decided that a merchant fleet had to be launched. On 1 August 1781, Admiral Johan Zoutman led a fleet of some 70 merchantmen from the Texel, protected by seven ships of the line as well as a number of frigates and smaller armed vessels.

Depiction of the Dutch line August 5, 1781.

Admiral Hyde Parker was accompanying a convoy of ships from the Baltic when he spotted the sails of the Dutch fleet at 4am on the morning of 5 August. He immediately despatched his convoy toward the English coast, and ordered his line to give chase rather than prepare for battle.[8]:48 Zoutman, whose ships had been interspersed with the merchantmen, signalled his line to form in between Parker and the convoy.

The ships of Parker's fleet were not in the best of condition, since great demands were placed on the Royal Navy by the demands of the war, and all manner of ships were pressed into service, or did not receive necessary maintenance. Some ships were in such poor condition that the number of guns available to fire was reduced from its normal complement. The ships had had no time to practise the normal fleet manoeuvres.[8]:46 In spite of this, Berwick and Parker's flagship Fortitude, both 74 guns, were both relatively new and in good shape. The Dutch fleet had not seen any significant action due to the British blockade.

Battle

Batavier

With a calm sea and a breeze from the north-east, Zoutman manoeuvred his line onto a port tack, heading south-east by east, and awaited Parker, who held the weather gage. The British fleet closed, raggedly at first due to the poor condition of some of the ships, into a line of battle abreast in accordance with the signal raised at 6.10 am. Two ships were told to change places, which led to a mistake and placed the Dolphin (44) against one of the largest Dutch ships and the Bienfaisant without an opponent.[8]:48

When Parker raised the battle flag shortly before 8 am, for close action, the British fleet moved closer. Surprisingly,the Dutch ships did not fire as the British approached until the two fleets were about half a musket shot apart. Zoutman then also raised his flag and opened fire, raking the Fortitude with a broadside. Close action ensued, lasting for three hours and forty minutes.[8]:49 Around mid-morning, the Dutch merchantmen moved away from the action and headed back to Texel. At 11.35 am Parker gave the signal to reform his line as the ships had become unmanageable. His fleet dropped to leeward and limped away from the Dutch.[8]:50

Casualties on both sides were high, considering the number of ships involved. (Fewer casualties were suffered, for example, in the Battle of the Chesapeake, fought a month later between fleets more than twice as large.) The British claimed 104 killed and 339 wounded, while the Dutch claimed 142 killed and 403 wounded.[2] There were private reports that the Dutch casualties were actually much higher, possibly reaching 1,100. The Hollandia sank the same night. Her flag, which was kept flying, was taken away by the Belle Poule, and carried to Admiral Parker.[3]

Aftermath

Although the Dutch celebrated the battle as victory, their fleet did not leave harbour again during the war and their merchant trade remained crippled. At least one convoy did make it to the Baltic, but it flew under Swedish flags and was accompanied by a Swedish frigate.[9]

Parker claimed victory but considered that he had not been properly equipped for his task, and on arrival at the Nore, met King George telling him "I wish Your Majesty better ships and younger officers. As for myself, I am now too old for the service".[8]:52 He then resigned his command.

The battle had no real impact on the general course of the war.

Order of battle

The order of battle is provided by Clowes, p. 505.

References

  1. ^ Syrett p. 131
  2. ^ a b c Clowes, p. 508
  3. ^ a b Allen pg .319
  4. ^ Edler, p. 343
  5. ^ Davies, p. 469
  6. ^ Edler, pp. 169-176
  7. ^ Davies, p. 468
  8. ^ a b c d e f Ross, Sir John. Memoirs of Admiral de Saumarez Vol 1.
  9. ^ Davies, p. 472

Sources

5 August 1973

Mars 6 is launched from the USSR.

The Mars 6 spacecraft carried an array of instruments to study Mars. The lander was equipped with a thermometer and barometer to determine the surface conditions, an accelerometer and radio altimeter for descent, and instruments to analyse the surface material including a mass spectrometer. The coast stage, or bus, carried a magnetometer, plasma traps, cosmic ray and micrometeoroid detectors, and an instrument to study proton and electron fluxes from the Sun.

Built by Lavochkin, Mars 6 was the first of two 3MP spacecraft launched to Mars in 1973 and was followed by Mars 7. Two orbiters, Mars 4 and Mars 5, were launched earlier in the 1973 Mars launch window and were expected to relay data for the two landers. However, Mars 4 failed to enter orbit, and Mars 5 failed after a few days in orbit.

Mars 6 was launched by a Proton-K carrier rocket with a Blok D upper stage, flying from Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 81/23. The launch occurred at 17:45:48 UTC on 5 August 1973, with the first three stages placing the spacecraft and upper stage into a low Earth parking orbit before the Blok D fired to propel Mars 6 into heliocentric orbit bound for Mars. The spacecraft performed a course correction on 13 August 1973.

Mars 6’s lander separated from the flyby bus on 12 March 1974 at an altitude of 48,000 kilometres 30,000 mi from the surface of Mars. The bus made a flyby with a closest approach of 1,600 kilometres 990 mi. The lander encountered the atmosphere of Mars at 09:05:53 UTC, slowing from 5,600 to 600 metres per second 12,500 to 1,300 mph as it passed through the upper atmosphere. A parachute was then deployed to further slow the probe’s descent, and retrorockets were intended to fire during the last seconds before the probe reached the ground.

The spacecraft returned data for 224 seconds during its descent through the Martian atmosphere. However, at 09:11:05 UTC, with the spacecraft about to fire its retrorockets in preparation for landing, all contact was lost. Due to a design flaw, a chip aboard the spacecraft had degraded during the mission, and a large amount of the data which had been returned was unusable.

5 August 1620

The Mayflower sets sail from Southampton, England on its first attempt to reach North America.

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The Mayflower was hired in London, and sailed from London to Southampton in July 1620 to begin loading food and supplies for the voyage–much of which was purchased at Southampton. The Pilgrims were mostly still living in the city of Leiden, in the Netherlands. They hired a ship called the Speedwell to take them from Delfshaven, the Netherlands, to Southampton, England, to meet up with the Mayflower. The two ships planned to sail together to Northern Virginia. The Speedwell departed Delfthaven on July 22, and arrived at Southampton, where they found the Mayflower waiting for them. The Speedwell had been leaking on her voyage from the Netherlands to England, though, so they spent the next week patching her up.

On August 5, the two ships finally set sail for America. But the Speedwell began leaking again, so they pulled into the town of Dartmouth for repairs, arriving there about August 12. The Speedwell was patched up again, and the two ships again set sail for America about August 21. After the two ships had sailed about 300 miles out to sea, the Speedwell again began to leak. Frustrated with the enormous amount of time lost, and their inability to fix the Speedwell so that it could be sea-worthy, they returned to Plymouth, England, and made the decision to leave the Speedwell behind. The Mayflower would go to America alone. The cargo on the Speedwell was transferred over to the Mayflower; some of the passengers were so tired and disappointed with all the problems that they quit and went home. Others crammed themselves onto the already very crowded Mayflower.