NASA’s Pathfinder space probe lands on the surface of Mars.
In Alabama, the Tuskegee Institute opens.
|Motto||Scientia Principatus Opera|
Motto in English
|Knowledge, Leadership, Service|
|Type||Private, HBCU, Land-grant|
|Established||July 4, 1881|
|Endowment||$126.9 million (2018)|
|Students||2,877 (Fall 2019)|
|Undergraduates||2,395 (Fall 2019)|
|Postgraduates||482 (Fall 2019) |
|Campus||Rural, 5,200 acres|
|Colors||Crimson and Gold|
|NCAA Division II – SIAC|
Tuskegee University is a private, historically black university in Tuskegee, Alabama. The campus is designated as the Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site by the National Park Service. The university was home to scientist George Washington Carver and to World War II's Tuskegee Airmen.
Tuskegee University offers 40 bachelor's degree programs, 17 master's degree programs, a five-year accredited professional degree program in architecture, 4 doctoral degree programs, and the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. The university is home to nearly 3,000 students from the U.S. and 30 foreign countries.
The university's campus was designed by architect Robert Robinson Taylor, the first African American to graduate from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in conjunction with David Williston, the first professionally trained African-American landscape architect.
Planning and establishment
The school was founded on July 4, 1881, as the Tuskegee Normal School for Colored Teachers. This was a result of an agreement made during the 1880 elections in Macon County between a former Confederate Colonel, W.F. Foster, who was a candidate for re-election to the Alabama Senate, and a local Black Leader, Lewis Adams. W.F. Foster propositioned that if Adams could successfully persuade the Black constituents to vote for Foster, if elected, Foster would push the state of Alabama to establish a school for Black people in the county. At the time the majority of Macon County population was Black, thus Black constituents had political power. Adams succeeded and Foster followed through with the school. The school became a part of the expansion of higher education for blacks in the former Confederate states following the American Civil War, with many schools founded by the northern American Missionary Association. A teachers' school was the dream of Lewis Adams, a former slave, and George W. Campbell, a banker, merchant, and former slaveholder, who shared a commitment to the education of blacks. Despite lacking formal education, Adams could read, write, and speak several languages. He was an experienced tinsmith, harness-maker, and shoemaker and was a Prince Hall Freemason, an acknowledged leader of the African-American community in Macon County, Alabama.
Adams and Campbell had secured $2,000 from the State of Alabama for teachers' salaries but nothing for land, buildings, or equipment. Adams, Campbell (replacing Thomas Dryer, who died after his appointment), and M. B. Swanson formed Tuskegee's first board of commissioners. Campbell wrote to the Hampton Institute, a historically black college in Virginia, requesting the recommendation of a teacher for their new school. Samuel C. Armstrong, the Hampton principal and a former Union general, recommended 25-year-old Booker T. Washington, an alumnus and teacher at Hampton.
As the newly hired principal in Tuskegee, Booker T. Washington began classes for his new school in a rundown church and shanty. The following year (1882), he purchased a former plantation of 100 acres in size. In 1973 the Tuskegee Institute, now Tuskegee University, did an oral history interview with Annie Lou "Bama" Miller. In that interview she indicated that her grandmother sold the original 100 acres of land to Booker T. Washington. That oral history interview is located at the Tuskegee University archives. The earliest campus buildings were constructed on that property, usually by students as part of their work-study. By the start of the 20th century, the Tuskegee Institute occupied nearly 2,300 acres.
Based on his experience at the Hampton Institute, Washington intended to train students in skills, morals, and religious life, in addition to academic subjects. Washington urged the teachers he trained "to return to the plantation districts and show the people there how to put new energy and new ideas into farming as well as into the intellectual and moral and religious life of the people." Washington's second wife Olivia A. Davidson, was instrumental to the success and helped raise funds for the school.
Gradually, a rural extension program was developed, to take progressive ideas and training to those who could not come to the campus. Tuskegee alumni founded smaller schools and colleges throughout the South; they continued to emphasize teacher training.
Booker T. Washington's leadership
|Booker T. Washington||1881–1915|
|Robert Russa Moton||1915–1935|
|Frederick Douglass Patterson||1935–1953|
|Luther H. Foster Jr.||1953–1981|
|Benjamin F. Payton||1981–2010|
|Charlotte P. Morris (interim)||2010–2010|
|Gilbert L. Rochon||2010–2013|
|Charlotte P. Morris (interim)||2017–2018|
|Lily D. McNair||2018–present|
As a young free man after the Civil War, Washington sought a formal education. He worked his way through Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (now Hampton University) and attended college at Wayland Seminary in Washington, DC (now Virginia Union University). He returned to Hampton as a teacher.
Hired as principal of the new normal school (for the training of teachers) in Tuskegee, Alabama, Booker T. Washington opened his school on July 4, 1881, on the grounds of the Butler Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. The following year, he bought the grounds of a former plantation, out of which he expanded the institute in the decades that followed.
The school expressed Washington's dedication to the pursuit of self-reliance. In addition to training teachers, he also taught the practical skills needed for his students to succeed at farming or other trades typical of the rural South, where most of them came from. He wanted his students to see labor as practical, but also as beautiful and dignified. As part of their work-study programs, students constructed most of the new buildings. Many students earned all or part of their expenses through the construction, agricultural, and domestic work associated with the campus, as they reared livestock and raised crops, as well as producing other goods.
The continuing expansion of black education took place against a background of increased violence against blacks in the South, after Democrats regained power in state governments and imposed white supremacy in society. They instituted legal racial segregation and a variety of Jim Crow laws, after disfranchising most blacks by constitutional amendments and electoral rules from 1890 until 1964. Against this background, Washington's vision, as expressed in his "Atlanta compromise" speech, became controversial and was challenged by new leaders, such as W.E.B. Du Bois, who argued that blacks should have opportunities for study in classical academic programs, as well as vocational institutes. In the early twentieth century, Du Bois envisioned the rise of "the Talented Tenth" to lead African Americans.
Washington gradually attracted notable scholars to Tuskegee, including the botanist George Washington Carver, one of the university's most renowned professors.
Perceived as a spokesman for black "industrial" education, Washington developed a network of wealthy American philanthropists who donated to the school, such as Andrew Carnegie, Collis P. Huntington, John D. Rockefeller, Henry Huttleston Rogers, George Eastman, and Elizabeth Milbank Anderson. An early champion of the concept of matching funds, Henry H. Rogers was a major anonymous contributor to Tuskegee and dozens of other black schools for more than fifteen years.
Thanks to recruitment efforts on the island and contacts with the U.S. military, Tuskegee had a particularly large population of Afro-Cuban students during these years. Following small-scale recruitments prior to the 1898–99 school year, the university quickly gained popularity among ambitious Afro-Cubans. In the first three decades of the school's existence, dozens of Afro-Cubans enrolled at Tuskegee each year, becoming the largest population of foreign students at the school.
Washington developed a major relationship with Julius Rosenwald, a self-made man who rose to the top of Sears, Roebuck and Company in Chicago, Illinois. He had long been concerned about the lack of educational resources for blacks, especially in the South. After meeting with Washington, Rosenwald agreed to serve on Tuskegee's Board of Directors. He also worked with Washington to stimulate funding to train teachers' schools such as Tuskegee and Hampton institutes.
Washington was a tireless fundraiser for the institute. In 1905 he kicked off an endowment campaign, raising money all over America in 1906 for the 25th anniversary of the institution. Along with wealthy donors, he gave a lecture at Carnegie Hall in New York on January 23, 1906, called the Tuskegee Institute Silver Anniversary Lecture, in which Mark Twain spoke.
Beginning with a pilot program in 1912, Rosenwald created model rural schools and stimulated construction of new schools across the South. Tuskegee architects developed the model plans, and some students helped build the schools. Rosenwald created a fund but required communities to raise matching funds, to encourage local collaboration between blacks and whites. Rosenwald and Washington stimulated the construction and operation of more than 5,000 small community schools and supporting resources for the education of blacks throughout the rural the South into the 1930s.
Despite his travels and widespread work, Washington continued as principal of Tuskegee. Concerned about the educator's health, Rosenwald encouraged him to slow his pace. In 1915, Washington died at the age of 59, as a result of high blood pressure. At his death, Tuskegee's endowment exceeded US$1.5 million. He was buried on the campus near the chapel.
Tuskegee, in cooperation with church missionary activity, work to set up industrial training programs in Africa.
The years after World War I challenged the basis of the Tuskegee Institute. Teaching was still seen as a critical calling, but southern society was changing rapidly. Attracted by the growth of industrial jobs in the North, including the rapid expansion of the Pennsylvania Railroad, suffering job losses because of the boll weevil and increasing mechanization of agriculture, and fleeing extra-legal violence, hundreds of thousands of rural blacks moved from the South to Northern and Midwestern industrial cities in the Great Migration. A total of 1.5 million moved during this period. In the South, industrialization was occurring in cities such as Birmingham, Alabama and other booming areas. The programs at Tuskegee, based on an agricultural economy, had to change. During and after World War II, migration to the North continued, with California added as a destination because of its defense industries. A total of 5 million blacks moved out of the South from 1940–1970.
Tuskegee syphilis experiment
From 1932 to 1972, Tuskegee Institute collaborated with the United States government in the Tuskegee syphilis experiment by which the effects of deliberately untreated syphilis were studied. These experiments have become infamous for misleading study participants, African-American men, by telling them that they were being treated for syphilis when in fact researchers were only monitoring the progression of the disease. Syphilis is a debilitating disease that can leave its victims with permanent neurological damage and horrifying scars (see granulomatous gummas). Penicillin was discovered in 1927 and it was being used to treat human disease by the early 1940s. In 1947 it had become the gold standard in treating syphilis and often only required one intramuscular dose to completely eliminate the disease. The researchers were well aware of this information and in order to continue their experiments, they chose to withhold the life-saving treatment. The researchers proceeded to actively deter study participants from obtaining penicillin from other physicians. The patients were told that they had "bad blood." This experiment was conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service in collaboration with the Tuskegee Institute. This was a direct violation of the Hippocratic Oath; however, not a single researcher, nor the Tuskegee University was legally punished. Academic research has shown that the study had a long-term, damaging effects on black men's health and contributed to mistrust of medical professionals among black men.
World War II
In 1941, in an effort to train black aviators, the U.S. Army Air Corps established a training program at Tuskegee Institute, using Moton Field, about 4 miles (6.4 km) away from the campus center. The graduates became known as the Tuskegee Airmen. The Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site at Moton Field was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1998. The U.S. Army, Air Force, and Navy have R.O.T.C. programs on campus today.
Numerous presidents have visited Tuskegee, including Franklin D. Roosevelt. Eleanor Roosevelt was also interested in the Institute and its aeronautical school. In 1941 she visited Tuskegee Army Air Field and worked to have African Americans get the chance as pilots in the military. She corresponded with F.D. Patterson, the third president of the Tuskegee Institute, and frequently lent her support to programs.
The noted architect Paul Rudolph was commissioned in 1958 to produce a new campus master plan. In 1960 he was awarded, along with the partnership of John A. Welch and Louis Fry, the commission for a new chapel, perhaps the most significant modern building constructed in Alabama.
The postwar decades were a time of continued expansion for Tuskegee, which added new programs and departments, adding graduate programs in several fields to reflect the rise of professional studies. For example, its School of Veterinary Medicine was added in 1944. Mechanical Engineering was added in 1953, and a four-year program in Architecture in 1957, with a six-year program in 1965.
In 1985, Tuskegee Institute achieved university status and was renamed Tuskegee University.
Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site
Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site
|Nearest city||Tuskegee, Alabama|
|Architect||Robert Robinson Taylor|
|Architectural style||Greek Revival, Queen Anne|
|Website||Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site|
|NRHP reference No.||66000151|
|Added to NRHP||October 15, 1966|
|Designated NHL||June 23, 1965|
In 1965 Tuskegee University was declared a National Historic Landmark for the significance of its academic programs, its role in higher education for African-Americans, and its status in United States history. Congress authorized the establishment of the Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site.
The National Historic Site includes The Oaks, Booker T. Washington's home and the George Washington Carver Museum. As the landmark designation did not define a limited area, the district is believed to have included the entire Tuskegee University campus at the time. Points of "special historic interest," noted in the landmark description include:
- The Oaks (Washington's Home)
- Booker T. Washington monument, Lifting the Veil of Ignorance statue by Charles Keck
- Grave of Booker T. Washington
- Grave of George Washington Carver
- The George Washington Carver Museum
Tuskegee University provides 24-hour Campus Police protection for its students. All officers are state certified.
The Lifting the Veil of Ignorance statue of Booker T. Washington was designed by sculptor Charles Keck and unveiled on April 5, 1922. The statue depicts Dr. Washington lifting the veil of ignorance off his people, who had once been enslaved, by showing them the ways of a better life through education and skills.
Built in 1906 and completely renovated in 2013, Tompkins Hall serves as the primary student dining facility and student center. The building includes a ballroom, an auditorium, a game room, a retail restaurant, and a 24-hour student study with healthy food vending machines. It is home to the offices of the Student Government Association.
The Legacy Museum houses: The African collection (contains approximately 900 items), the antiques and miscellaneous items collection and The Lovette W. Harper Collection of African Art. Third Floor exhibition contains "The United States Public Health Service Untreated Syphilis Study in the Negro Male, Macon County, Alabama 1932-1972."
Booker T. Washington is laid to rest in the Tuskegee University Campus Cemetery. Many other notable university people are interred on the Tuskegee campus including: George Washington Carver, Cleveland L. Abbott, William L. Dawson, Luther Hilton Foster (4th president), Frederick D. Patterson (3rd president), many other Washington family members and others.
Kellogg Hotel & Conference Center
The Kellogg Hotel & Conference Center at the renovated Dorothy Hall (built 1901) was established in 1994 on the campus of Tuskegee University by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation. The Kellogg Conference Center offers multimedia meeting rooms, as well as a 300-seat auditorium and a ballroom that accommodates up to 350 guests. Students studying Hospitality Management within the Andrew F. Brimmer College of Business and Information Science & Dietetics students within the Department of Food and Nutrition Science are able to receive hands on experience at the Kellogg Hotel & Conference Center. The Kellogg Hotel & Conference Center is the only center at a historically black university; there are only 11 worldwide. Other Kellogg Conference Centers in the United States are located at: Michigan State University, Gallaudet University and the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona).
The academic programs are organized into five colleges and two schools: (1) The College of Agriculture, Environment and Nutrition Sciences; (2) The College of Arts and Sciences; (3) The Brimmer College of Business and Information Science; (4) The College of Engineering; (5) The College of Veterinary Medicine, Nursing and Allied Health; (6), The Taylor School of Architecture and Construction Science; and (7) The School of Education.
Tuskegee University is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges to award Baccalaureate, Master's, Doctorate, and professional degrees. The following academic programs are accredited by national agencies: Architecture, Business, Education, Engineering, Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Nursing, Occupational Therapy, Social Work, and Veterinary Medicine.
Tuskegee University is the only Historically Black University to offer the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M.); its School of Veterinary Medicine was established in 1944. The school is fully accredited by the Council on Education of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA).
Tuskegee University offers several Engineering degree programs all with ABET accreditation.
The Aerospace Science Engineering department was established in 1983. Tuskegee University is the first and only Historically Black University to offer an accredited B.S. degree in Aerospace Engineering. The Mechanical Engineering Department was established in 1954 and the Chemical Engineering Department began in 1977; The Department of Electrical Engineering is the largest of five departments within the College of Engineering. The program is accredited by EAC/ABET (Engineering Accreditation Commission/Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology) and the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools.
The Tuskegee University Andrew F. Brimmer College of Business and Information Science is fully accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB-International).
The school of Nursing was established as the Tuskegee Institute Training School of Nurses and registered with the Alabama State board of Nursing, September 1892 under the auspices of the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital. In 1948 the university began its baccalaureate program in Nursing; becoming the first nursing program in the state of Alabama. The Nursing department holds full accreditation from the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission and is approved by the Alabama State Board of Nursing.
The Occupational Therapy program is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE) of the American Occupational Therapy Association. The Clinical Laboratory Science Program is accredited by the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences. (NAACLS)
Tuskegee University began offering certificates in Architecture under the Division of Mechanical Industries in 1893. The 4-year curriculum in architecture leading to the Bachelor of Science degree was initiated in 1957 and the professional 6-year program in 1965. The Robert R. Taylor School of Architecture offers two professional programs: Architecture, and Construction Science and Management. The 5-year Bachelor of Architecture program is fully accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB). Graduates of the program are qualified to become registered architects.
In 2019, Tuskegee signed a partnership with the Ross University School of Medicine to help redress diversity shortages in the medical field. Qualified Tuskegee students will automatically gain admissions into the medical school with a tuition free first semester.
- U.S. News & World Report places Tuskegee 8th out of 80 Historically Black Colleges and Universities in their 2020 rankings.
- U.S. News & World Report also rated Tuskegee tied for 25th "Best Regional College in the South" for 2020 out of 136 schools evaluated.
- Tuskegee is ranked 589th among 606 master's universities (which award a significant number of master’s degrees but few or no doctoral degrees) in the U.S. according to the Washington Monthly 2019 rankings, which rate schools' contribution to the public good as measured by social mobility, research, and promoting public service.
National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care
National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care is the nation's first bioethics center devoted to engaging the sciences, humanities, law and religious faiths in the exploration of the core moral issues which underlie research and medical treatment of African Americans and other under-served people. The official launching of the Center took place two years after President Bill Clinton's apology to the nation, the survivors of the Syphilis Study, Tuskegee University, and Tuskegee/Macon County, Alabama for the U.S. Public Health Service medical experiment (1932–1972), where 399 poor—and mostly illiterate—African American sharecroppers became part of a study on non-treating and natural history of syphilis.
Tuskegee is a member of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division II and competes within the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference (SIAC). The university has a total of 10 varsity sports teams, five men's teams called the "Golden Tigers", and five women's teams called the "Tigerettes".
Tuskegee's Men's Basketball won the 2014 SIAC Championship and the 2014 NCAA Division South Region Championship. The Golden Tigers also made it to the Elite Eight during the 2014 NCAA Men's Division II Basketball Tournament. Tuskegee's Women's Softball won the 2014 SIAC Championship.
The Tuskegee Department of Athletics sponsors the following sports:
Men's athletic teams
Women's athletic teams
The Tuskegee University football team has won 29 SIAC championships (the most in SIAC history). As of 2013 the Golden Tigers continue to be the most successful HBCU with 652 wins.
In 2013 Tuskegee opted not to renew its contract to face rival Alabama State University (Division I FCS) in the Turkey Day Classic, the oldest black college football classic in the country. Instead, after going 10–2 the Golden Tigers made their first playoff appearance in school history for the 2013 NCAA Division II Football Championship, for which they had qualified in the past but could not participate due to the Turkey Day Classic. Tuskegee competed against the University of North Alabama in the first round of the playoffs, but lost 30–27. Tuskegee won the 2014 SIAC Football Championship and advanced to the first round of the NCAA Division II football playoffs with a loss of 20–17 to University of West Georgia.
Tuskegee won the 2013–14 SIAC Championship and advanced to the 2014 NCAA Division II Men's Basketball Tournament. Tuskegee won the NCAA Division II South Regional Championship by defeating Delta State University 80-59. The Golden Tigers fell to No. 1-ranked Metro State (Metropolitan State University of Denver), 106-87, in the Elite Eight of the NCAA Division II tournament at Ford Center, in Evansville, Indiana.
Track and field
Track began (Men and Women) at Tuskegee in 1916. The first Tuskegee Relays and Meet was held on May 7, 1927; it was the oldest African American relay meet.
The Tuskegee women's team won the championship of the Amateur Athletic Union national senior outdoor meet for all athletes 14 times in 1937–1942 and 1944–1951. The team likewise won the AAU national indoor championship four times in 1941, 1945, 1946 and 1948.
Tuskegee's Alice Coachman was the first African American woman to win an Olympic gold medal in any sport, at the 1948 Olympic Games in London. Iram Lewis, a Tuskegee graduate of architecture, is an Olympian relay runner who competed for the Bahamas.
Notable faculty and staff
|J. Pius Barbour||(1919–1921)||Executive director of the National Baptist Association, editor of the National Baptist Voice, mentor to Martin Luther King, Jr.|||
|George Washington Carver||African American scientist, botanist, educator, and inventor whose studies and teaching revolutionized agriculture in the Southern United States|
|C. M. Battey||Photography (1916–1927)||photographer who made portraits of many black leaders and shot covers for The Crisis magazine|
|General Daniel "Chappie" James||fighter pilot in the U.S. Air Force, who in 1975 became the first African American to reach the rank of four-star General|
|P. H. Polk||Photography (1933–1938)||photographer who documented working class African Americans, ex-slaves, and black leaders; also served as the institute's official photographer for four decades.|
|Ruth Logan Roberts||Physical education||Suffragist, YWCA leader on national level, activist for social and women's health issues, and host of a salon in Harlem|||
|Lamina Sankoh||early Sierra Leonean nationalist politician who taught at Tuskegee in the late 1920s|
|Robert Robinson Taylor||first African American graduate of MIT, architect for most of the Tuskegee campus buildings and founder of trades programs, served as second in command to Tuskegee's founder and first president, Dr. Booker T. Washington|
|Andrew P. Torrence||President of Tennessee State University (1968-1974); executive vice president and provost of Tuskegee University (1974-1980)|||
|Booker T. Washington||Appointed President for 1881–1915||first principal of the university|||
|Josephine Turpin Washington||Mathematics||1886 Howard University alumni, early writer on civil rights topics|||
|Nathaniel Oglesby Calloway||Chemistry||1930 Iowa State University alumni, first African-American to receive PhD|
|Deborah Wolfe||Education||1937 New Jersey City University alumni, 1938 and 1945 Columbia University alumni, esteemed educator and minister, Education Chief of the United States House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor|
|Chalmers Archer||1972||author of "Growing Up Black in Mississippi" and "Green Berets in the Vanguard"|
|Robert Beck||1970s writer known as Iceberg Slim|
|Amelia Boynton Robinson||1927||international civil and human rights activist, the first woman from Alabama to run for United States Congress in 1964 (affectionately known as "Queen Mother Amelia"), best known for her role in the "Bloody Sunday" event in Selma, Alabama on March 7, 1965|
|Roscoe Simmons||1899||columnist for the Chicago Tribune|
|William A. Campbell||1937||a member of the Tuskegee Airmen who rose to the rank of Colonel|
|Charles William Carpenter||1909||Baptist minister and civil rights activist|
|Carl Henry Clerk||1925||Gold Coast educator, administrator, journalist, editor, Presbyterian minister and fourth Synod Clerk, Presbyterian Church of the Gold Coast|
|Alice Marie Coachman||1942||athlete who specialized in high jump, and was the first black woman to win an Olympic gold medal|
|The Commodores||70s R&B band whose members met while attending Tuskegee|
|George Williamson Crawford||lawyer and city official in New Haven, Connecticut|||
|Leon Crenshaw||former NFL player|
|General Oliver W. Dillard||retired Army major general, Silver Star recipient in Korea – 1950|
|Ralph Ellison||scholar, author of Invisible Man|
|Milton C. Davis||1971||lawyer who researched and advocated for the pardon of Clarence Norris, the last surviving Scottsboro Boy|
|Cecile Hoover Edwards||B.A. 1946, M.A. 1947||Nutritional researcher and government consultant|||
|Chauncey Eskridge||1939||lawyer for Martin Luther King Jr. and Muhammad Ali|||
|Vera King Farris||1959||President of Richard Stockton College of New Jersey from 1983–2003|||
|Isaac Fisher||educator, taught at Hampton University and Fisk University|
|Drayton Florence||NFL defensive back|
|Lovett Fort-Whiteman||political activist and Comintern functionary|||
|Manet Harrison Fowler||1913||singer, founder of Mwalimu School in Harlem, president of Texas Association of Negro Musicians|
|Alexander N. Green||U.S. Representative from Texas's 9th congressional district|
|Winston C. Hackett||First African-American physician in Arizona|||
|Ken Howell||1982||former Major League Baseball pitcher|
|Marvalene Hughes||president of Dillard University|
|General Daniel "Chappie" James||1942||US Air Force Fighter pilot, in 1975 became the first African American to reach the rank of four-star General|
|Lonnie Johnson (inventor)||inventor of the Super Soaker, former NASA aerospace engineer|
|Ken Jordan||former NFL player|
|Tom Joyner||1971||radio host whose daily program, The Tom Joyner Morning Show, is syndicated across the United States and heard by over 10 million radio listeners.|
|John A. Lankford||20th century architect|
|Marion Mann||1940||former dean of the College of Medicine at Howard University and US Army Brigadier General (retired)|
|Claude McKay||1912||Jamaican writer and poet, Harlem Renaissance|
|Albert Murray||1939||literary and jazz critic, novelist, and biographer|
|Ray Nagin||1978||former mayor of New Orleans, Louisiana|
|Dimitri Patterson||NFL player|
|Dr. Ptolemy A. Reid||1955||Prime Minister of Guyana (1980–1984)|
|Lionel Richie||R&B singer, Grammy Award winner|
|Lawrence E. Roberts||a member of the Tuskegee Airmen and a colonel in The United States Air Force|
|John Robinson (aviator)||early aviator and colonel in the Imperial Ethiopian Air Force against Fascist Italy during WWII|
|George C. Royal||1943||microbiologist who is currently professor emeritus at Howard University|
|Roderick Royal||president of the Birmingham City Council|
|Jessica A. Scoffield||2002||microbiologist and professor at the University of Alabama at Birmingham|||
|Betty Shabazz||wife of Malcolm X|
|Jake Simmons Jr.||1919||oil broker and civil rights advocate|
|Danielle Spencer||television actress best known as Dee from the 1970s TV show What's Happening!!|
|McCants Stewart||1896||lawyer, first African American to practice law in Oregon|
|Frank Walker||NFL defensive back|
|Keenen Ivory Wayans||actor, comedian, and television producer|
|Alfreda Johnson Webb||1943||First African-American woman in the North Carolina General Assembly (1972)|||
|Jack Whitten||abstract painter|
|Dr. David Wilson||president of Morgan State University|
|Roosevelt Williams (gridiron football)||2000||former NFL player for the Chicago Bears, Cleveland Browns, New York Jets|
|Ken Woodard||former NFL player|
|Elizabeth Evelyn Wright||educator and humanitarian, founder of Voorhees College|
|Marilyn Mosby||2002||State's Attorney in Baltimore, MD|
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The USA celebrates its Bicentennial.
The United States Bicentennial was a series of celebrations and observances during the mid-1970s that paid tribute to historical events leading up to the creation of the United States of America as an independent republic. It was a central event in the memory of the American Revolution. The Bicentennial culminated on Sunday, July 4, 1976, with the 200th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence.
he nation had always commemorated the Founding, as a gesture of patriotism and sometimes as an argument in political battles. Historian Jonathan Crider points out that in the 1850s, editors and orators both North and South claimed their region was the true custodian of the legacy of 1776, as they used the Revolution symbolically in their rhetoric.
The plans for the Bicentennial began when Congress created the American Revolution Bicentennial Commission on July 4, 1966. Initially, the Bicentennial celebration was planned as a single city exposition that would be staged in either Philadelphia or Boston. After 6½ years of tumultuous debate, the Commission recommended that there should not be a single event, and Congress dissolved it on December 11, 1973, and created the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration, which was charged with encouraging and coordinating locally sponsored events. David Ryan, a professor at University College Cork, notes that the Bicentennial was celebrated only a year after the humiliating withdrawal from Vietnam in 1975 and that the Ford administration stressed the themes of renewal and rebirth based on a restoration of traditional values, giving a nostalgic and exclusive reading of the American past.
On December 31, 1975, the eve of the Bicentennial Year, President Gerald Ford recorded a statement to address the American people by means of radio and television broadcasts. Presidential Proclamation 4411 was signed as an affirmation to the Founding Fathers of the United States principles of dignity, equality, government by representation, and liberty.
Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem in the Battle of Hattin.
The battle in northern Palestine marked the defeat and annihilation of the Christian Crusader armies of Guy de Lusignan, king of Jerusalem, by the Muslim forces of Saladin. It paved the way for the Muslim reconquest of the city of Jerusalem and of the greater part of the three Crusader states—the county of Tripoli, the principality of Antioch, and the kingdom of Jerusalem—thus nullifying the achievements made in the Holy Land by the leaders of the first Crusades and alerting Europe to the need for a third Crusade.
In July 1187 the Crusaders were camped at Sepphoris, about 20 miles west of the Sea of Galilee, when word reached them that Saladin had attacked the city of Tiberias along the lake. The Crusader forces included several hundred Templars and Hospitallers, militant monastic orders that Saladin ranked among the Christian armies’ most-effective fighters. On July 3 about 20,000 Crusaders abandoned their camp to go to the relief of the besieged city. Their route took them through a hot, arid plain where, halfway to Tiberias, they ran out of water while under continual harassment from Saladin’s cavalry. The Crusaders’ condition worsened after a night spent without water, but the next morning they resumed their march, heading toward a range of hills above the village of ?a???n.
Confronted by Saladin’s army, the Crusaders, who were no longer able to fight effectively, left the road and were driven back against the two largest hills, the Horns of ?a???n, by the Muslims. Although mounted elements of the Crusader army made repeated charges against the Muslim lines, they were unable to effect any significant breakthrough. The 30,000-man Muslim army slaughtered many of the Crusaders on the field and captured a shard of the True Cross, a Christian relic that had been carried into the battle by the bishop of Acre. Saladin spared the lives of King Guy and most of the Christian lords, but he personally slew Reginald of Châtillon as an oath breaker for his role in shattering the truce that had been in place between Saladin and the Crusader states. Saladin also ordered the execution of virtually all captured Templars and Hospitallers; only Templar Grand Master Gerard de Ridefort avoided the blade. On the day after the battle, Saladin launched his campaign to retake the city of Jerusalem.
Particles consistent with the Higgs boson are announced as being discovered at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.
Philippine–American War officially ends
Philippine–American War end.
The United States Declaration of Independence is adopted by Congress.
Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland is first published.
The Grand Duke of Lithuania, Sigismund II Augustus and The King of Poland and sign the document creating new country called as Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a union between Poland and Lithuania.