29 November 1549

The papal conclave of 1549–50 starts.

Titian_-_Pope_Paul_III_-_WGA22962

The papal conclave from November 29, 1549, to February 7, 1550, convened after the death of Pope Paul III and eventually elected Giovanni Del Monte to the papacy as Pope Julius III. It was the second-longest papal conclave of the 16th century, and the largest papal conclave in history in terms of the number of cardinal electors. The cardinal electors were roughly divided between the factions of Henry II of France, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and Alessandro Farnese, the cardinal-nephew of Paul III.

Noted for the extensive interference of European powers, the conclave was to determine whether and on what terms the Council of Trent would reconvene and the fate of the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza. Although the conclave nearly elected Reginald Pole, the late arrival of additional French cardinals pushed the conclave back into deadlock, and eventually Giovanni del Monte was elected Pope Julius III as a compromise candidate.

The French hoped that Julius III would be hostile to the interests of the Holy Roman Empire. Nevertheless, tensions between him and the French boiled over when he reconvened the Council of Trent in November 1550, culminating in the threat of schism in August 1551 and the brief War of Parma fought between French troops allied with Ottavio Farnese and a papal-imperial army. French prelates did not attend the 1551–1552 sessions of the Council of Trent and were slow to accept its reforms; because Henry II would not allow any French cardinals to reside in Rome, many missed the election of Pope Marcellus II, arriving in Rome just in time to elect Marcellus II’s successor Pope Paul IV after Marcellus II’s brief reign.

29 November 1847

whitman-massacre

The missionaries Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife along with 15 others are killed by Cayuse and Umatilla Indians. this leads to the Cayuse War.

On November 29, 1847, a small group of Cayuse Indians attack the Whitman Mission near Walla Walla in what will become known as the Whitman Massacre. Dr. Marcus Whitman (1802-1847), his wife Narcissa Prentiss Whitman (1808-1847), nine other men, and two teenage boys are killed during several days of bloodshed, most of them on the first day. Another man escapes to Fort Walla Walla but is believed to have drowned shortly thereafter; he is counted as a 14th victim. About 50 survivors are held hostage for a month and then ransomed by the Hudson’s Bay Company. The attack, a pivotal event in Northwest history, will lead to a war of retaliation against the Cayuse and the extension of federal control over the present-day states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and parts of Montana and Wyoming.

The incident remains controversial to this day: the Whitmans are regarded by some as pioneer heroes; others see them as white settlers who attempted to impose their religion on the Native Americans and otherwise unjustly intrude, even allegedly poisoning the natives.