The first aerial circumnavigation is completed by a team from the US Army.
The cruise ferry MS Estonia sinks in the Baltic Sea, killing 852 people.
Scale model of MS Estonia
|Port of registry:|
|Ordered:||11 September 1979|
|Builder:||Meyer Werft, Papenburg, West Germany|
|Laid down:||18 October 1979|
|Launched:||26 April 1980|
|Acquired:||29 June 1980|
|In service:||5 July 1980|
|Fate:||Capsized and sank on 28 September 1994|
|Beam:||24.21 m (79 ft 5 in)|
|Draught:||5.60 m (18 ft 4 in)|
|Speed:||21.1 knots (39.1 km/h; 24.3 mph)|
MS Estonia was a cruiseferry built in 1979/80 at the German shipyard Meyer Werft in Papenburg. The ship's 1994 sinking, in the Baltic Sea between Sweden, Åland, Finland and Estonia, was one of the worst maritime disasters of the 20th century. It is one of the deadliest peacetime sinkings of a European ship, after the RMS Titanic (1912) and the RMS Empress of Ireland (1914), and the deadliest peacetime shipwreck to have occurred in European waters, with 852 lives lost.
The ship was originally ordered from Meyer Werft by a Norwegian shipping company led by with intended traffic between Norway and Germany. At the last moment, the company withdrew their order and the contract went to Rederi Ab Sally, one of the partners in the Viking Line consortium (SF Line, another partner in Viking Line, had also been interested in the ship).
Originally the ship was conceived as a sister ship to Diana II, built in 1979 by the same shipyard for Rederi AB Slite, the third partner in Viking Line. When Sally took over the construction contract, the ship was lengthened from the original length of approximately 137 metres (449 ft) to approximately 155 metres (509 ft) and the superstructure of the ship was largely redesigned.
Meyer Werft had constructed a large number of ships for various Viking Line partner companies during the 1970s. The construction of the ship's bow consisted of an upwards-opening visor and a car ramp that was placed inside the visor when it was closed. An identical bow construction had also been used in Diana II.[JAIC 1]
Estonia previously sailed as Viking Sally (1980–1990), Silja Star (1990–1991), and Wasa King (1991–1993).
On 29 June 1980, Viking Sally was delivered to Rederi Ab Sally, Finland and was put into service on the route between Turku, Mariehamn and Stockholm (during summer 1982 on the Naantali–Mariehamn–Kapellskär route). She was the largest ship to serve on that route at the time. As with many ships, Viking Sally suffered some mishaps during her Viking Line service, being grounded in the Åland Archipelago in May 1984 and suffering some propeller problems in April of the following year. In 1985 she was also rebuilt with a "duck tail". In 1986, a passenger was murdered on board. In 1987, another murder and attempted murder took place. Rederi Ab Sally had been experiencing financial difficulties for most of the 1980s. In late 1987, Effoa and Johnson Line, the owners of Viking Line's main rivals Silja Line, bought Sally. As a result of this, SF Line and Rederi AB Slite forced Sally to withdraw from Viking Line. Viking Sally was chartered to Rederi AB Slite to continue on her current traffic for the next three years.
When her charter ended in April 1990, Viking Sally had an unusual change of service. She was painted in Silja Line's colours, renamed Silja Star and placed on the same route that she had plied for Viking Line: Turku–Mariehamn–Stockholm. The reason for this was that Silja's new ship for Helsinki–Stockholm service was built behind schedule and one of the Turku–Stockholm ships, Wellamo, was transferred to that route until the new ship was complete in November 1990. Also in 1990 Effoa, Johnson Line and Rederi Ab Sally merged into .
The following spring Silja Star began her service with Wasa Line, another company owned by EffJohn. Her name was changed to Wasa King and she served on routes connecting Vaasa, Finland to Umeå and Sundsvall in Sweden. It has been reported that the Wasa King was widely considered to be the best behaving ship in rough weather to have sailed from Vaasa.
In January 1993, at the same time when EffJohn decided to merge Wasa Line's operations into Silja Line, Wasa King was sold to for use on Estline's Tallinn–Stockholm traffic under the name Estonia. The actual ownership of the ship was rather complex, in order for Nordström & Thulin to get a loan to buy the ship. Although Nordström & Thulin was the company which bought the ship, her registered owner was Estline Marine Co Ltd, Nicosia, Cyprus, which chartered the ship to E.Liini A/S, Tallinn, Estonia (daughter company of Nordström & Thulin and ESCO), which in turn chartered the ship to Estline AB. As a result, the ship was actually registered in both Cyprus and Estonia.
|Nationality of the victims||Deaths|
The Estonia disaster occurred on Wednesday, 28 September 1994, between about 00:55 and 01:50 (UTC+2) as the ship was crossing the Baltic Sea, en route from Tallinn, Estonia, to Stockholm, Sweden. Estonia departed slightly behind schedule at 19:15 on 27 September and had been expected in Stockholm the next morning at about 09:00. She was carrying 989 people: 803 passengers and 186 crew.[JAIC 2] Most of the passengers were Swedish, although some were of Estonian origin, while most of the crew members were Estonian. The ship was fully loaded, and was listing slightly to starboard because of poor cargo distribution.
According to the final disaster report, the weather was rough, with a wind of 15 to 20 metres per second (29 to 39 kn; 34 to 45 mph), force 7–8 on the Beaufort scale and a significant wave height of 4 to 6 metres (13 to 20 ft)[JAIC 3] compared with the highest measured significant wave height in the Baltic Sea of 7.7 metres (25.3 ft). Esa Mäkelä, the captain of Silja Europa who was appointed on-scene commander for the subsequent rescue effort, described the weather as "normally bad", or like a typical autumn storm in the Baltic Sea. All scheduled passenger ferries were at sea. The official report says that while the exact speed at the time of the accident is not known, Estonia had very regular voyage times, averaging 16 to 17 knots (30 to 31 km/h; 18 to 20 mph). The chief mate of the Viking Line cruiseferry Mariella tracked Estonia's speed by radar at approximately 14.2 knots (26.3 km/h; 16.3 mph) before the first signs of distress, while the Silja Europa's officers estimated her speed at 14 to 15 knots (26 to 28 km/h; 16 to 17 mph) at midnight.
The first sign of trouble aboard Estonia was when a metallic bang was heard, caused by a heavy wave hitting the bow doors around 01:00, when the ship was on the outskirts of the Turku archipelago, but an inspection—limited to checking the indicator lights for the ramp and visor—showed no problems. Over the next 10 minutes, similar noises were reported by passengers and other crew. At about 01:15, the visor separated and the ship's bow door opened. The ship immediately took on a heavy starboard list (initially around 15 degrees, but by 01:30, the ship had rolled 60 degrees and by 01:50 the list was 90 degrees) as water flooded into the vehicle deck. Estonia was turned to port and slowed before her four engines cut out completely.
At about 01:20, a quiet female voice called "Häire, häire, laeval on häire", Estonian for "Alarm, alarm, there is alarm on the ship", over the public address system, which was followed immediately by an internal alarm for the crew, then one minute later by the general lifeboat alarm. The vessel's rapid list and the flooding prevented many people in the cabins from ascending to the boat deck, as water not only flooded the vessel via the car deck, but also through windows in cabins as well as the massive windows along deck 6. The windows gave way to the powerful waves as the ship listed and the sea reached the upper decks. Survivors reported that water flowed down from ceiling panels, stairwells and along corridors from decks that were not yet under water. This contributed to the rapid sinking. A mayday was communicated by the ship's crew at 01:22, but did not follow international formats. Estonia directed a call to Silja Europa and only after making contact with her did the radio operator utter the word "Mayday". The radio operator on Silja Europa, chief mate Teijo Seppelin, replied in English: "Estonia, are you calling mayday?" After that, the voice of third mate Andres Tammes took over on Estonia and the conversation shifted to Finnish. Tammes was able to provide some details about their situation but, due to a loss of power, he could not give their position, which delayed rescue operations somewhat. Some minutes later, power returned (or somebody on the bridge managed to lower himself to the starboard side of the bridge to check the marine GPS, which will display the ship's position even in blackout conditions), and the Estonia was able to radio its position to Silja Europa and Mariella. The ship disappeared from the radar screens of other ships at around 01:50, and sank at in international waters, about 22 nautical miles (41 km; 25 mi) on bearing 157° from Utö island, Finland, to the depth of 74 to 85 metres (243 to 279 ft) of water. According to survivor accounts, the ship sank stern first after taking a list of 90 degrees.
Search and rescue followed arrangements set up under the 1979 International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue (the SAR Convention), and the nearest Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre MRCC Turku coordinated the effort in accordance with Finland's plans. The Baltic is one of the world's busiest shipping areas, with 2,000 vessels at sea at any time, and these plans assumed the ship's own boats and nearby ferries would provide immediate help and that helicopters could be airborne after an hour. This scheme had worked for the relatively small number of accidents involving sinkings, particularly as most ships have few people on board.
Mariella, the first of five ferries to reach the scene of the accident, arrived at 02:12. MRCC Turku failed to acknowledge the Mayday immediately and Mariella's report was relayed by Helsinki Radio as the less urgent pan-pan message. A full-scale emergency was only declared at 02:30. Mariella winched open liferafts into the sea onto which 13 people on Estonia's rafts successfully transferred, and reported the location of other rafts to Swedish and Finnish rescue helicopters, the first of which arrived at 03:05. The former took survivors to shore, while the latter—Finnish border guard helicopters Super Puma OH-HVG and Agusta Bell 412 OH-HVD—chose the riskier option of landing on the ferries. The pilot of OH-HVG stated that landing on the ferries was the most difficult part of the whole rescue operation; despite that, this single helicopter rescued 44 people, more than all the ferries. MS Isabella saved 16 survivors with its rescue slide.
Of the 989 on board, 138 were rescued, one of whom died later in hospital. Ships rescued 34 and helicopters 104; the ferries played a much smaller part than the planners had intended because it was too dangerous to launch their man-overboard (MOB) boats or lifeboats. The accident claimed 852 lives. Most died by drowning and hypothermia, as the water temperature was 10–11 °C/50–52 °F. One of the victims of the sinking was the Estonian singer Urmas Alender. In total, 94 bodies were recovered: 93 within 33 days of the accident, the last victim was found 18 months later. By the time the rescue helicopters arrived, around a third of those who escaped from the Estonia had died of hypothermia, while fewer than half of those who had managed to leave the ship were eventually rescued. The survivors of the shipwreck were mostly young males with strong constitutions. Seven over 55 years of age survived and there were no survivors under age 12. About 650 people were still inside the ship when it sank.[JAIC 2] The commission estimated that up to 310 passengers reached the outer decks, 160 of whom boarded the life-rafts or lifeboats.
Effects of the disaster
Official investigation and report
The wreck was examined and videotaped by remotely operated underwater vehicles and by divers from a Norwegian company, Rockwater A/S, contracted for the investigation work.[JAIC 4] The official report indicated that the locks on the bow door had failed from the strain of the waves and the door had separated from the rest of the vessel, pulling the ramp behind it ajar.[JAIC 5] The bow visor and ramp had been torn off at points that would not trigger an "open" or "unlatched" warning on the bridge, as is the case in normal operation or failure of the latches. The bridge was also situated too far back on the ferry for the visor to be seen from there.[JAIC 6] While there was video monitoring of the inner ramp, the monitor on the bridge was not visible from the conning station.[JAIC 7] The bow visor was under-designed, as manufacturing and approval process did not consider the visor and its attachments as critical items regarding ship safety. The first metallic bang was believed to have been the sound of the visor's lower locking mechanism failing, and subsequent noises were the visor 'flapping' against the hull as the other locks failed, before tearing free and exposing the bow ramp. The subsequent failure of the bow ramp allowed water into the vehicle deck, which was identified as the main cause of the capsizing and sinking: RORO ferries with their wide vehicle decks are particularly vulnerable to capsizing if the car deck is even slightly flooded because of free surface effect: the fluid's swirling motion across such a large area hampers the boat's ability to right itself after rolling with a wave. The same effect caused the capsizing of MS Herald of Free Enterprise seven years earlier.
The report was critical of the crew's actions, particularly for failing to reduce speed before investigating the noises emanating from the bow, and for being unaware that the list was being caused by water entering the vehicle deck. There were also general criticisms of the delays in sounding the alarm, the passivity of the crew, and the lack of guidance from the bridge.
Recommendations for modifications to be applied to similar ships included separation of the condition sensors from the latch and hinge mechanisms.[JAIC 8]
Changes stemming from the disaster
In 1999, special training requirements in crowd and crisis management and human behaviour were extended to crew on all passenger ships, and amendments were made to watch-keeping standards. Estonia's distress beacons or EPIRBs required manual activation, which did not happen. Had they been activated automatically, it would have been immediately obvious that the ship had sunk and the location would have been clear. All EPIRBs were subsequently required to deploy automatically and the accident was "instrumental in the move to legislate Voyage Data Recorders". New International Maritime Organization (IMO) Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) liferaft regulations for rescue from listing ships in rough water were introduced, though launching such craft, even in training exercises, remains dangerous for the crew.
New designs, the "citadel concept" once again influenced by Estonia, aim to ensure damaged ships have sufficient buoyancy to remain afloat, though cost will determine if any are built. SOLAS 90, which came into effect in 2010, specifies existing passenger ships' stability requirements and those in North West Europe must also be able to survive 50 centimetres (20 in) of water on the car deck.
Alternative theories exist about the cause of the sinking. German journalist Jutta Rabe and the left-wing magazine New Statesman claim that laboratory tests on debris recovered illegally from Estonia's bow yielded trace evidence of a deliberate explosion, which they allege was concealed by the Swedish, British, and Russian governments to cover up an intelligence operation smuggling military hardware via the civilian ferry. Members of the Joint Accident Investigation Commission denied these claims, saying that the damage seen on the debris occurred during the visor's detachment from the vessel. The JAIC cited results from Germany's Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, which found that Jutta Rabe's samples did not prove an explosion occurred.
Transportation of military equipment
In the autumn of 2004, a former Swedish customs officer claimed on Sveriges Television that Estonia had been used to transport military equipment in September 1994. The Swedish and Estonian governments subsequently launched separate investigations, which both confirmed that non-explosive military equipment was aboard the ship on 14 and 20 September 1994. According to the Swedish Ministry of Defence, no such equipment was on board on the day of the disaster, and previous investigations by the Swedish Customs Service found no reports of any anomalous activity around the day of the disaster.
2020 Swedish documentary
On 28 September 2020 a Swedish documentary was released which used underwater equipment to film the wreck. This investigation found a 4-metre hole in the ship's hull. This prompted the Estonian prime minister and foreign minister to meet with their Swedish and Finnish equivalents and announce that a "new technical investigation" would take place. The head of the Estonian investigation stated publicly that he believes this new information points to a collision with a submarine and that the hole could not have happened post-sinking.
Protection of the wreck
In the aftermath of the disaster, many relatives of the deceased demanded that their loved ones be raised from international waters and given a land burial. Demands were also made that the entire ship be raised so that the cause of the disaster could be discovered by detailed inspection. Citing the practical difficulties and the moral implications of raising decaying bodies from the sea floor (the majority of the bodies were never recovered), and fearing the financial burden of lifting the entire hull to the surface and the salvage operation, the Swedish government suggested burying the whole ship in situ with a shell of concrete. As a preliminary step, thousands of tons of pebbles were dropped on the site. The Estonia Agreement 1995, a treaty among Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Poland, Denmark, Russia and the United Kingdom, declared sanctity over the site, prohibiting their citizens from even approaching the wreck. The treaty is, however, only binding for citizens of the countries that are signatories. At least twice, the Swedish Navy has discovered diving operations at the wreck. The wreck's location is monitored by radar by the Finnish Navy.
Decks and facilities
The MS Estonia consisted of 11 decks, counting from the lowest (0) to the highest (10). Passenger facilities were located on decks 6, 5, 4, 1, while the crew members occupied the decks 9 and 7. Decks 2 and 3 were dedicated to the respective cargo.
As Viking Sally
|7||Crew cabins & facilities, sundeck|
|6||Restaurant deck – Buffet dining room, à la carte restaurant, bar, outside and inside cabins|
|5||Entrance & cafeteria deck – Tax-free shops, cafeteria, snack bar, discotheque, air seats, children's playroom, outside and inside cabins|
|4||Conference deck – Conference rooms, nightclub, cinema, inside and outside cabins|
|1||Inside cabins, engine room|
|0||Sauna, swimming pool, conference rooms|
The sinking of the Estonia has been the subject of a number of documentaries in addition to the feature film Baltic Storm, including:
- History Channel: Sinking of the Estonia
- Zero Hour: The Sinking of the Estonia (2006)
- Built from Disaster: Ships (2009)
In addition, the disaster has inspired several musical works:
- Canticum Calamitatis Maritimae, a choral work by Jaakko Mäntyjärvi
- Incantatio maris aestuosi, a choral work by Veljo Tormis
- "Estonia", a song by Marillion
- "Ever so blue", a song by and performed by Rodrigo Fomins
- "Vedenalainen maailma", a song by Laura Sippola
- "Estonia hukk", a lament by
- Lamento, for organ ("Lament over the Estonia Catastrophe") by Erland von Koch
- List of RORO vessel accidents
- List of accidents and disasters by death toll
- List of shipwrecks in 1994
- Final report on the capsizing on 28 September 1994 in the Baltic Sea of the Ro-Ro passenger vessel MN Estonia, Chapter 3: The vessel. The Joint Accident Investigation Commission of Estonia, Finland and Sweden, December 1997.
- Soomer, H.; Ranta, H.; Penttilä, A. (2001). "Identification of victims from the M/S Estonia". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 114 (4–5): 259–262. doi:10.1007/s004140000180. PMID 11355406. S2CID 38587050.
- Boesten, E. (2006): The M/S Estonia Disaster and the Treatment of Human Remains. In: Bierens, J.J.L.M. (ed.): Handbook on Drowning: 650–652. ISBN 978-3-540-43973-8.
- "Estonia shipwreck investigator and nautical linguist Captain Uno Laur dies". ERR. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
- "Wasa King" (in Swedish). Vasabåtarna.se. Retrieved 29 October 2007.
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- "The Sinking of the Estonia." Surviving Disaster. BBC.[dead link]
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- Whittingham, The Blame Machine, p. 138
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- Joughin, R.W. "The Revised SOLAS Regulations for Ro-Ro Ferries". Warsah Maritime Centre. Archived from the original on 3 April 2008. Retrieved 3 April 2008.
- Whittingham, The Blame Machine, p. 139
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- Whittingham, The Blame Machine, p. 142
- "Passenger information required on all passenger ships from 1 January 1999". International Maritime Organization. Archived from the original on 12 November 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2007.
- Simplified Voyage Data Recorders -Why choose float free Archived 12 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 22 October 2007
- Liferaft Systems Australia: Maib Interim Safety Recommendation on The Use of Vertical Chute Type Marine Evacuation Systems Archived 29 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 21 October 2007
- Sturcke, James (6 March 2007). "Herald of sea changes". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 November 2007.
- Davis, Stephen (23 May 2005). "Death in the Baltic: the MI6 connection". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 12 July 2005. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- Tukkimäki, Paavo (20 February 2001). "Finnish Estonia Commission members still reject explosion theories". Helsingin Sanomat. Archived from the original on 12 May 2011.
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- "Utredningen om transport av försvarsmateriel på M/S Estonia" (in Swedish). Ministry of Defence (Sweden). 21 January 2005.
- "Riigikogu Committee of Investigation to Ascertain the Circumstances Related to the Export of Military Equipment from the Territory of the Republic of Estonia on the Ferry Estonia in 1994 – Final Report". Riigikogu. 19 December 2006. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011.
- Tambur, Silver (28 September 2020). "Documentary: MS Estonia has a large hole in the hull". Estonian World. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
- Kristjan Kallaste (29 September 2020). "Head of MS Estonia investigation: Estonia sank on collision with submarine". Eesti Rahvusringhääling. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
- Wallius, Anniina (29 September 2004). "Estonian tuho lietsoi salaliittoteorioita" (in Finnish). YLE. Archived from the original on 12 May 2011.
- Whittingham, The Blame Machine, p. 140
- "Justitieutskottets betänkande 1994/95: JuU23 Gravfrid över m/s Estonia" (in Swedish). The Riksdag. 18 May 1995.
- "Chapter 50: Övertäckningen stoppas". En granskning av Estoniakatastrofen och dess följder. Statens offentliga utredningar (in Swedish). SOU 1998:132. Statens offentliga utredningar.
- "Agreement between the Republic of Estonia, the Republic of Finland and the Kingdom of Sweden regarding the M/S Estonia". Ministry for Foreign Affairs (Sweden). 23 February 1995.
- Danné, Ulla; Nilsson, Birgitta /TT (18 May 1998). "Sjöfartsverket höll tyst om stoppade Estonia-dykare". Aftonbladet (in Swedish).
- "Viking Sally deck plan". Viking Line brochure (in Finnish, Swedish, and English). Vasabåtarna.se. Retrieved 20 December 2008.
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- "Viking Sally Restaurant deck 6 plan". Viking Line brochure (in Swedish and Finnish). Vasabåtarna.se. Retrieved 20 December 2008.
- "Viking Sally Conference deck 4 plan". Viking Line brochure (in Swedish and Finnish). Vasabåtarna.se. Retrieved 20 December 2008.
- "Viking Sally cutaway". Viking Line brochure (in Swedish, Finnish, and English). Vasabåtarna.se. Retrieved 20 December 2008.
- "Built From Disaster Season 1 Episode 2: Ships". TV Guide. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
- Whittingham, Robert B. (2004). "Design errors". The Blame Machine: why human error causes accidents. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-5510-0.
- "Final report on the MV ESTONIA disaster of 28 September 1994". Helsinki: Joint Accident Investigation Commission. 1997. Archived from the original on 2 June 2001. Cite journal requires
|journal=(help)CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- "Chapter 11.3 – The DIANA II incident". Archived from the original on 2 June 2001. Cite journal requires
- "Chapter 7.6 – The human outcome". Archived from the original on 2 June 2001. Cite journal requires
- "Chapter 5.4 – Meteorological conditions". Archived from the original on 2 June 2001. Cite journal requires
- "Condition Survey of the Vessel "Estonia" for the Swedish National Maritime Administration. Survey Report. (Supplement No. 503)" (PDF). Rockwater A/S. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2011. Cite journal requires
- "Chapter 13.5 – Failure sequence of bow visor and ramp". Archived from the original on 2 June 2001. Cite journal requires
- "Figure 3.4 Approximate field of vision from the bridge. (Chapter 3.2.7 – Bridge layout)". Archived from the original on 2 June 2001. Cite journal requires
- "Chapter 13.4 – Advance indications and alarms from the bow area". Archived from the original on 2 June 2001. Cite journal requires
- "Chapter 22 – Recommendations". Archived from the original on 2 June 2001. Cite journal requires
- Carlqvist, Knut (2001). Tysta leken. Fischer & Co. ISBN 91-7054-917-6.
- The German 'Group of Experts' (2006). Investigation report on the capsizing on 28 September 1994 in the Baltic Sea of the Ro-Ro Passenger Vessel MV Estonia
- Johnson, Kent L. & Smith, Kenneth M.Jr. (June 2009) "Failure Analysis of the Estonia." Advanced Materials & Processes 167(6): 29–33. 
- The Joint Accident Investigation Commission, Animated video (4 min) of the damage to visor and ramp.
- Rabe, Jutta (2001), Die Estonia. Tragödie eines Schiffsuntergangs(The Estonia. Tragedy of a ship setting), Bielefeld: Delius Klasing, ISBN 3-7688-1267-7.
- Rabe, Jutta (2004). The Case Estonia – A journalist searching for the truth. Video report about the investigation of the sinking of the Estonia.
- Langewiesche, William (2005). The Outlaw Sea: A World of Freedom, Chaos, and Crime. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-86547-722-1.
- Langewiesche, William, A Sea Story, The Atlantic Magazine, May 2004.
- Limburg, Peter R. (2005), "Deep-Sea Detectives: Maritime Mysteries and Forensic Science". New York: ASJA Press. ISBN 978-0-595-37604-9.
- Wilson, Drew (2006), "The Hole: Another look at the sinking of the Estonia Ferry on September 28th 1994". Liskeard: Exposure. ISBN 978-1-84685-132-2.
- Ångström, Lars. Report to the Chancellor of Justice in Sweden, 12 September 2006
- "1994: Hundreds feared dead in ferry disaster". BBC News. 28 September 1994. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
- "Chronological narrative of the sinking by City Paper". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-18.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- Passenger vessel Evacuation descriptions, p29. Det Norske Veritas.
- Safety at Sea Ltd (UK). A collection of scientific papers on the sinking presented in maritime experts' meetings.
- Estonian/Finnish/Swedish Accident Investigation Commission (JAIC) Final Report
- The ESTONIA accident 1994 – Swedish Accident Investigation Board
- MV Estonia – Accident Investigation Board of Finland
- Estoniasamlingen – In Swedish. Governmental resource of material relevant to the catastrophe.
- The Mayday call from Estonia (audio)
- Transcript of radio communication
- Estonia Litigation Association – Organization of Relatives and Victims Pressing for Truth through Litigation
- Ferry-Site.dk historic images of Viking Sally and Silja Star
-  Recording of Jaakko Mäntyjärvi composition: Canticum Calamitatis Maritimae about the disaster
- Photos of the memorial for the sunken Estonia at sites-of-memory.de
- YouTube: Complete radio conversations (audio)
- YouTube: MS Estonia - discovering the hole
Race riots start in Omaha, Nebraska.
Race riots rocked Omaha, Neb., on Sept. 28–29, 1919. The result of the riots was the lynching of Will Brown, an African American, and the death of two white men. The angry mob also attempted to hang Mayor Edward Parsons Smith, and it burnt down the Douglas County Courthouse in downtown Omaha. The Omaha riots were just one of many that took place throughout the United States in the summer of 1919, known as Red Summer.
The troubles in Omaha began on Sept. 25, when Agnes Loebeck, a white woman, claimed that she had been assaulted by an African-American male. The next morning, the newspapers blasted the story with headlines referring to the black man as a “Black Beast.” The newspaper accounts of the incident fueled the anger of the white citizens of Omaha. Later that afternoon, the police brought a black man, whom they believed was the suspect, to Agnes Loebeck’s house for identification. Agnes identified the man, Will Brown, 41, who worked in a local packinghouse and suffered from a severe case of rheumatism, as the attacker.
As the police were about to leave Loebeck’s house, a large unruly mob began to gather in front of the house and threatened to grab Brown. A confrontation ensued, and after an hour, additional police arrived; police were able to transfer Brown to the Douglas County Courthouse. In order to prevent any trouble, 46 police officers were ordered to remain at police headquarters all night.
The Frenzy Increases
That night, rumors began to spread that a group of white people were once again planning to take Brown away from police custody and “take care of him.” On Sunday morning, Sept. 28, a group of young men began to march toward the courthouse. The angry crowd rapidly grew, and within a short period of time, the crowd swelled to between 5,000 to 10,000 people. They laid siege to the courthouse, and all city officials who were inside became prisoners and could not leave. Later that evening, the angry mob began firing into the courthouse, using rifles and guns that they had looted from nearby gun shops. In the gun battle, two people were killed. By about 8:30 p.m., the building was set on fire, and the mob refused to allow firefighters to come close to the building to extinguish the fire.
All the while Mayor Smith was at the scene of the courthouse and even went in several times to talk to town officials. At one point, he came outside and asked to address the crowd. He implored the crowd to remain calm, go home and forget about the prisoner. He begged them to let the firefighters get close to the building and do their job. The mob was furious, and suddenly the mayor received a blow to his head and was knocked to the ground. The next thing he saw was some people flinging one end of a long thick rope around a lamp post, and the other end was shaped into a noose and tightened around his neck. At that point he blacked out and had no recollection of what happened to him. He woke up in the hospital with head injuries. He remained in the hospital for several days. There are conflicting reports as to how he was rescued. One version is that a group of police personnel were responsible for the rescue. Others say that he was saved by a young bystander, Russel Norgaard. Once the mayor had been taken to the hospital, the mob turned its attention to Brown.
The wild crazed mob stormed the courthouse and got hold of Brown. They tore off his clothing, beat him until he was unconscious, dragged him outside and dropped him at a lamp post. The mob went into a frenzy and began shouting for the death of Brown. A rope was tightened around his neck, and he was hoisted to the top of the pole. As his body was spinning around, it was riddled with bullets. After he was lowered, his body was hitched to a car and dragged through the streets. At the corner of Dodge and 17th, his body was doused with fuel and set on fire. His burnt body was dragged through the streets of downtown Omaha. The rope that was used to hang Brown was cut into small pieces and sold for 10 cents a piece.
Alexander Fleming notices a bacteria-killing mold growing in his laboratory leading to the discovery of penicillin.
Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming makes a curious discovery when he returns to his lab after a vacation. In one of the dirty Petri dishes he had stacked in a tray filled with Lysol—one that had not be submerged in the disinfectant—he notices that mold has grown and that it seems to have killed the staph bacteria Fleming had cultivated in the dish.
That intrigues Fleming because for years, he’d been researching the antibacterial properties of enzymes, such as those found in human tears. He wonders if this mold could lead him to developing the wonder drug he’d been looking for.
Fleming soon determines that the mold likely floated up in spores from the lab in the floor below him, where one of his colleagues has been collecting mold samples as part of asthma research. They identify it as a mold known as Penicillium so Fleming decides to call its bacteria-killing “juice” penicillin.
Fleming, however, was not a chemist and he wasn’t able to isolate whatever was killing the bacteria. He did publish a paper about his discovery in 1929, but it didn’t generate much interest.
Then, a worldwide depression dried up funding for scientific research. It wasn’t until 1938 that an Oxford University scientist named Ernst Chain happened upon Fleming’s paper on penicillin. He began working with his boss, researcher Howard Florey, and they found that it cured bacterial infections in mice. Then they tried it on humans, with similar success.
A race riot occurred in Omaha, Nebraska on September 28, 1919. Three weeks before the riot started, federal investigators had noted that there had been a clash between white and black workers in the local stockyards. It then resulted in the lynching of a black worker, Will Brown; the death of two white men; as well as the attempted hanging of Mayor, Ed Smith; and a public riot thousands of whites who set fire to the Douglas County Courthouse in downtown Omaha. It was then followed by more than 20 race riots in major cities around United States during the Red Summer of 1919.
The Omaha Riot was severely condemned throughout the country. The arrest and prosecution of the riot mob leaders was widely called for in the media. Police and army authorities arrested many of the participants on charges that ranged from murder to arson and held them for trial. The Army presence in Omaha was the largest in response to any of the race riots. By early October, the emergency had passed and the Army presence was reduced by middle of October.
The district court ordered a grand jury to convene to further investigate the riots, and a grand jury was impaneled for this. After a 6 week session, the grand jury produced a report that criticized the Smith government administration for its ineffective leadership as well as the incompetence of the police. Witnesses from the army testified that they believed a more prompt police action could have controlled the riot. 120 indictments were handed down for involvement in the riots.
Of the 120 persons that were initially indicted for there involvement in the riot, most were never successfully prosecuted, and they all were eventually released after not serving any term of imprisonment.
The Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and the PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat sign the Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip
Nine people are taken hostage in London in what was known as the Spaghetti House siege
Nine people are taken hostage in the Spaghetti House siege in London.
PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin sign the Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.