28 October 2009

The 28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing kills 117 and wounds 213.

28 October 2009 Peshawar Market Bombing
LocationPeshawar, Pakistan
CoordinatesCoordinates: 34°00′31″N 71°34′32″E / 34.008723°N 71.575552°E / 34.008723; 71.575552
Date28 October 2009
1300 hrs (UTC+5)
TargetMeena Bazar
Attack type
Car bombing,[1] fire
Weapons150 kilograms (330 lb) of explosive

The 28 October 2009 Peshawar bombing occurred in Peshawar, Pakistan, when a car bomb was detonated in a Mina Bazar (Market for women and children) of the city. The bomb killed 137 people and injured more than 200 others, making it the deadliest attack in Peshawar's history. Pakistani government officials believe the Taliban to be responsible, but both Taliban and Al-Qaeda sources have denied involvement in the attack.


The blast was so huge that it jolted the entire
area and within seconds plumes of smoke and dust
started emitting out of a building near Al-Falah Mosque.

shopkeeper Karim Khan[3]

According to the North West Frontier Province's information minister Mian Iftikhar Hussain, most of the victims were women and children,[3] in the woman-exclusive Peepal Mindi shopping section of Peshawar.[1][4] The blast originated from a car bomb parked outside of the city's Meena Bazar. The bomb was said to contain 150 kilograms (330 lb) of explosives, according to bomb squad worker Shafqatullah Malik.[1][5] The blast caused widespread fires among stores selling flammable fabrics, which caused further damage and casualties;[6] the bomb was stated to be the deadliest since the 2007 Karachi bombing, and the worst in Peshawar's history.[7] The death toll was expected to rise, from an original estimate of 90,[6] as rescuers and civilians sifted through the rubble of a four-story building that was collapsed by the blast;[1] the explosion also collapsed a mosque and damaged four other four-story buildings.[7][8] Among the dead was a female teacher doing winter shopping for her young children.[8] Many of the wounded were seriously injured and would later succumb to their injuries.[5] According to Mohammad Usman, whose shoulder was wounded, "There was a deafening sound and I was like a blind man for a few minutes... I heard women and children crying and started to help others. There was the smell of human flesh in the air."[7] The location of the bombing, Meena Bazar, usually draws low-income female shoppers.[9]

Pakistani authorities believed that the Taliban were responsible for orchestrating the attack,[1][4][7] but the group has denied any involvement.[10] Information minister Hussain stated that the government believed the bombing to be a response to a recent anti-militant operation in South Waziristan.[8]


On 24 April 2015 Italian DIGOS detectives arrested a terror cell that plotted to bomb the Vatican. According to Mario Carta, an officer in the anti-terrorism unit, there was evidence that the 2009 Peshawar attack was substantially planned and financed from Olbia, Sardinia, and that Italy-based militants had taken part in it.[11]


United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, who was visiting Pakistan, condemned the attacks, saying that the perpetrators were on the "losing side of history".[6] Clinton added, "We commit to stand shoulder to shoulder with the Pakistani people in your fight for peace and security, we will give you the help that you need in order to achieve your goal."[12] Meanwhile, nearby Lady Reading Hospital went into a state of emergency[4] as the injured were transferred there;[6] medical officials pleaded with the public to donate blood for the blast's victims.[12]

A state of emergency has been declared at
the hospital... We don’t even have time to count the bodies.
It's absolutely mayhem here. We have called for blood
donation to meet with the crisis...

Anonymous medical official[4]

Lady Reading Hospital

Medical staff complained that the authorities were not adequately prepared to deal the repercussions of an attack with so many casualties.[12] According to Muzamil Hussain, a responder, "There are a lot of wounded people. We tried to help them but there were no ambulances so we took the victims on rickshaws and other vehicles." Muzamil Hussain added that, "There were no police. The police and government didn't help us, the police even opened fire on us." Another man claimed that there was only a pretense of security, and that the government was actually unable to stop such attacks.[12] Government officials acknowledged Peshawar's lack of ability to prepare for terrorist attacks, and Azam Khan, the city's senior-most civil servant, stated that, "The police strength of Peshawar cannot secure everything," and explained how the militants had penetrated a "three-ring police cordon" around the city.[4]

Sahibzada Anees, Peshawar's deputy coordination officer, cited the city's lack of trained firefighters, and the inability to move excavating machinery into areas where people had been buried alive because of the city's narrow streets.[4] A local government official added that crowds were hindering rescue efforts, stating how, "People have thronged the scene... They have made it difficult for us to remove the rubble and retrieve bodies and those still alive."[4] All shops in the area were closed after the blast.[3] An inquiry was ordered by NWFP Chief Minister Amir Hyder Khan Hoti.[5]

As many as 60 people were considered unaccounted for as of 30 October.[13]


  • Pakistan: President Asif Ali Zardari condemned the attack while Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani denounced the attacks and directed the government officials to provide the best possible treatment to the injured.[14] Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi said the violence would not break his government's will to fight back. The resolve and determination will not be shaken," Qureshi said. "People are carrying out such heinous crimes – they want to shake our resolve. I want to address them: We will not buckle. We will fight you. We will fight you because we want peace and stability in Pakistan."[15] NWFP Information Minister Mian Iftikhar Hussain said, "Terrorism cannot be described as jihad as our religion does not allow taking lives of innocent people".[3]
  • Afghanistan: Afghan president, Hamid Karzai, called Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari to condemn the Peshawar blast. He also expressed grief over loss of innocent lives.[2]
  • United States: Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, who was in Pakistan to discuss the growing number of militant attacks in the country, condemned the attacks, stating that the U.S. would "commit to stand shoulder to shoulder with the Pakistani people in your fight for peace and security, we will give you the help that you need in order to achieve your goal."[12]
  • : Al-Qaeda sent an e-mail to media outlets stating that they do not explode bombs in bazaars and mosques. They said that separate forces, "who want to defame jihad and refugees, are behind the Peshawar bomb blast."[10]
  • Afghanistan: Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan also condemned the attacks and denied their involvement in the blast.[10]
  •  United Nations: U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon stated that he wanted to "express my outrage at the loss of so many innocent lives, no cause can justify such inhuman and indiscriminate violence."[16]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f "95 killed, over 200 injured in Peshawar blast". India Today. 28 October 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
  2. ^ a b Hazrat Bacha, Ali (30 October 2009). "Death toll from Peshawar blast rises to 117". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
  3. ^ a b c d Hazrat Bacha, Ali (29 October 2009). "Peshawar bomb targets women, children". Dawn. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Ismail Khan (28 October 2009). "Bomb Kills Scores in Pakistan as Clinton Arrives". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
  5. ^ a b c "Peshawar death tally climbs to 106". Geo TV. 28 October 2009. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
  6. ^ a b c d "Powerful car bomb kills at least 90 in Peshawar market". CNN. 28 October 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
  7. ^ a b c d "Car bomb kills 93 in Pakistani city of Peshawar". Associated Press. 28 October 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
  8. ^ a b c Karen DeYoung (29 October 2009). "Scores Dead in Pakistan bombing". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
  9. ^ "Car bomb in crowded Pakistan market kills 100". Associated Press. 28 October 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
  10. ^ a b c "Taliban, al-Qaeda disown blast". The News. 29 October 2009. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
  11. ^ "Italy terror cell that plotted to bomb Vatican smashed, prosecutors say". The Guardian. 24 April 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
  12. ^ a b c d e "Carnage as car bomb hits Peshawar". BBC. 28 October 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
  13. ^ Farhan Sharif (30 October 2009). "Pakistan's Death Toll From Peshawar Bomb Rises to 117". Bloomberg. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
  14. ^ "45 killed in Peshawar blast: hospital sources". The News. 28 October 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
  15. ^ Khan, Riaz (27 October 2009). "Car bomb kills 93 in Pakistani city of Peshawar". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
  16. ^ "US, UN, UK denounce Peshawar terror attack". The Nation. 29 October 2009. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2009.

28 October 1453

Ladislaus the Posthumous is crowned the king of Bohemia in Prague.

Ladislaus the Posthumous, known also as Ladislas was Duke of Austria, and King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia. He was the posthumous son of Albert of Habsburg with Elizabeth of Luxembourg. Albert had bequeathed all his realms to his future son on his deathbed, but only the Estates of Austria accepted his last will. Fearing an Ottoman invasion, the majority of the Hungarian lords and prelates offered the crown to Vladislaus III of Poland. The Hussite noblemen and towns of Bohemia did not acknowledge the hereditary right of Albert’s descendants to the throne, but also did not elect a new king.

After Ladislaus’s birth, his mother seized the Holy Crown of Hungary and had Ladislaus – known as Ladislaus V in Hungary – crowned king in Székesfehérvár on 15 May 1440. However, the Diet of Hungary declared Ladislaus’s coronation invalid and elected Vladislaus king. A civil war broke out which lasted for years. Elizabeth appointed her late husband’s distant cousin, Frederick III, King of the Romans, Ladislaus’ guardian. Ladislaus lived in Frederick’s court, where Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini wrote a treatise of his education.

After his mother died in late 1442, Ladislaus’ interests were represented by a Czech condottiere, John Jiskra of Brandýs, in Hungary, and by the Czech Catholic lord, Ulrich II of Rosenberg, in Bohemia. Ladislaus’ rival in Hungary, Vladislaus, fell in the Battle of Varna in November 1444. The next year, the Diet of Hungary offered to acknowledge Ladislaus as king if Frederick III renounced his guardianship. After Frederick III rejected the offer, the Diet of Hungary elected John Hunyadi regent in 1446. In Bohemia, the head of the moderate Hussites, George of Pod?brady, took control of Prague in 1448. The Estates of Austria forced Frederick III to resign the guardianship and hand over Ladislaus to them in September 1452. Royal administration was formally restored in Hungary after Hunyadi resigned the regency in early 1453, but he continued to control most royal castles and revenues.

Ulrich II, Count of Celje became Ladislaus’ main advisor, but an Austrian baron, Ulrich Eytzinger, forced Ladislaus to expel Celje from his court. Although Ladislaus was crowned king of Bohemia on 28 October 1453, Pod?brady remained in full control of the government. During the following years, Eytzinger, Hunyadi and Pod?brady closely cooperated to mutually secure their positions. Ladislaus was reconciled with Ulrich II in early 1455. With the support of the leading Hungarian barons, Ladislaus persuaded Hunyadi to withdraw his troops from most royal castles and renounce the administration of part of the royal revenues.

After the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II decided to invade Hungary, Ladislaus and Ulrich II left the kingdom. The sultan laid siege to Belgrade. Hunyadi relieved the fortress on 22 July 1456, but he died two weeks later. Ladislaus and Ulrich II returned to Hungary and tried to force Hunyadi’s son, Ladislaus, to renounce all royal castles and revenues, but Ladislaus Hunyadi murdered Ulrich II on 9 November, forcing Ladislaus to grant an amnesty to him. However, most Hungarian barons were hostile towards Ladislaus Hunyadi. With their support, Ladislaus captured him and his brother, Matthias. After Ladislaus Hunyadi was executed in March 1457, his relatives stirred up a rebellion against Ladislaus, forcing him to flee from Hungary. Ladislaus died unexpectedly in Prague. He was the last male member of the Albertinian Line of the House of Habsburg.

28 October 2009

A bombing in Peshawar kills 117 and wounds 213.


Militants in Pakistan and Afghanistan punctuated Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton’s arrival here with deadly attacks on Wednesday, underscoring their ability to cause chaos even in the face of offensives on both sides of the border.

In Pakistan, a devastating car bomb tore through a congested market in the northwest city of Peshawar, killing as many as 101 people, many of them women and children. Pakistani authorities said the attack was the country’s most serious in two years, and the deadliest ever in Peshawar, which has become a front line for Taliban efforts to destabilize the government through violence.

In the Afghan capital, Kabul, Taliban militants stormed a guesthouse, killing five United Nations employees and three other people in a furious two-hour siege. The attack was meant to scare Afghans away from voting in a runoff election on Nov. 7 between President Hamid Karzai and his challenger, Abdullah Abdullah, a Taliban spokesman said.

The violence cast a shadow over the visit of Mrs. Clinton, who was meeting with government ministers in Islamabad, 90 miles southwest of Peshawar, when news of the Peshawar explosion came over television screens. Mrs. Clinton immediately condemned the bombing, which in killing women and children in Peshawar seemed aimed at the very constituencies she has championed in her travels to other developing countries.

“These attacks on innocent people are cowardly; they are not courageous, they are cowardly,” Mrs. Clinton said at a news conference with the Pakistani foreign minister, her voice raw with anger.

“They know they are on the losing side of history,” she said of the militants. “But they are determined to take as many lives with them as their movement is finally exposed for the nihilistic, empty effort it is.”

28 October 1962


The Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev orders the removal of the Soviet missiles from Cuba, ending the Cuban missile crisis.

As the Cuban missile crisis unfolded in October 1962, President John F Kennedy found himself wondering why Nikita Khrushchev would gamble with putting nuclear missiles into Cuba. The Soviet leader felt he had justification enough. There were American missiles in Turkey and Italy; US bases dotted the globe; and Castro was a friend and ally under threat from the US.

It was a gamble, and most observers argue that Khrushchev lost. In his memoirs, Khrushchev claims that the outcome of the missile crisis was a “triumph of Soviet foreign policy and a personal triumph”, but few, even on the Soviet side, have seen it that way. Khrushchev’s then foreign minister, the dour Andrei Gromyko, in his scanty memoir account of the Cuban events praises Kennedy. While the crisis is historically the “Cuban” crisis, Cuba was perhaps a subsidiary consideration for Khrushchev, as Castro later noted – ruefully – in conversation with Soviet emissary Anastas Mikoyan.