9 January 2015

The perpetrators of the Charlie Hebdo shooting in Paris two days earlier are both killed after a hostage situation; a second hostage situation, related to the Charlie Hebdo shooting, occurs at a Jewish market in Vincennes.

Charlie Hebdo shooting

Charlie Hebdo shooting
Part of the January 2015 Île-de-France attacks
Charlie-Hebdo-2015-11.JPG
Police officers, emergency vehicles, and journalists at the scene two hours after the shooting
Location10 Rue Nicolas-Appert, 11th arrondissement of Paris, France[1]
Coordinates48°51′33″N 2°22′13″E / 48.85925°N 2.37025°E / 48.85925; 2.37025Coordinates: 48°51′33″N 2°22′13″E / 48.85925°N 2.37025°E / 48.85925; 2.37025
Date7 January 2015
11:30 CET (UTC+01:00)
TargetCharlie Hebdo employees
Attack type
Mass shooting
Weapons
Deaths12
Injured11
PerpetratorsAl-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula[4]
AssailantsChérif and Saïd Kouachi
MotiveIslamic extremism

On 7 January 2015 at about 11:30am CET local time, two brothers, Saïd and Chérif Kouachi, forced their way into the offices of the French satirical weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo in Paris. Armed with rifles and other weapons, they killed 12 people and injured 11 others. The gunmen identified themselves as belonging to the Islamic terrorist group which took responsibility for the attack. Several related attacks followed in the Île-de-France region on 7–9 January 2015, including the Hypercacher kosher supermarket siege where a terrorist held 19 hostages, of whom he murdered 4 Jewish people.

France raised its Vigipirate terror alert and deployed soldiers in Île-de-France and Picardy. A major manhunt led to the discovery of the suspects, who exchanged fire with police. The brothers took hostages at a signage company in Dammartin-en-Goële on 9 January and were shot dead when they emerged from the building firing.

On 11 January, about two million people, including more than 40 world leaders, met in Paris for a rally of national unity, and 3.7 million people joined demonstrations across France. The phrase Je suis Charlie became a common slogan of support at the rallies and in social media. The staff of Charlie Hebdo continued with the publication, and the following issue print ran 7.95 million copies in six languages, compared to its typical print run of 60,000 in only French.

Background

Charlie Hebdo satirical works

Image of 3 November 2011 cover of Charlie Hebdo, renamed Charia Hebdo ("Sharia Hebdo"). The word balloon reads "100 lashes if you don't die of laughter!" with a cartoon featuring Muhammad.

Charlie Hebdo ([ʃaʁli ɛbdo]; French for Charlie Weekly) is a French satirical weekly newspaper that features cartoons, reports, polemics and jokes. The publication, irreverent and stridently non-conformist in tone, is strongly secularist, antireligious[5] and left-wing, publishing articles that mock Catholicism, Judaism, Islam and various other groups as local and world news unfolds. The magazine was published from 1969 to 1981, and has been again from 1992 on.[6]

Charlie Hebdo has a history of attracting controversy. In 2006, Islamic organisations under French hate speech laws unsuccessfully sued over the newspaper's re-publication of the Jyllands-Posten cartoons of Muhammad.[7][8][9] The cover of a 2011 issue retitled Charia Hebdo (French for Sharia Weekly), featured a cartoon of Muhammad, whose depiction is forbidden in most interpretations of Islam, with some Persian exceptions.[10] The newspaper's office was fire-bombed and its website hacked.[11][12] In 2012, the newspaper published a series of satirical cartoons of Muhammad, including nude caricatures;[13][14] this came days after a series of violent attacks on U.S. embassies in the Middle East, purportedly in response to the anti-Islamic film Innocence of Muslims, prompting the French government to close embassies, consulates, cultural centres, and international schools in about 20 Muslim countries.[15] Riot police surrounded the newspaper's offices to protect it against possible attacks.[14][16]

Cartoonist Stéphane "Charb" Charbonnier had been the director of publication of Charlie Hebdo since 2009.[17] Two years before the attack he stated, "We have to carry on until Islam has been rendered as banal as Catholicism."[18] In 2013, al-Qaeda added him to its most wanted list, along with three Jyllands-Posten staff members: Kurt Westergaard, Carsten Juste, and Flemming Rose.[17][19][20] Being a sport shooter, Charb applied for permit to be able to carry a firearm for self-defence. The application went unanswered.[21][22]

Numerous violent plots related to the Jyllands-Posten cartoons were discovered, primarily targeting cartoonist Westergaard, editor Rose, and the property or employees of Jyllands-Posten and other newspapers that printed the cartoons.[a] Westergaard was the subject of several attacks and planned attacks, and lives under police protection. On 1 January 2010, police used guns to stop a would-be assassin in his home,[27][28] who was sentenced to nine years in prison.[b][29][30] In 2010, three men based in Norway were arrested on suspicion of planning a terror attack against Jyllands-Posten or Kurt Westergaard; two of them were convicted.[31][32] In the United States, David Headley and Tahawwur Hussain Rana were convicted in 2013 of planning terrorism against Jyllands-Posten.[33][34][35]

Laïcité and blasphemy

In France, blasphemy law ceased to exist with progressive emancipation of the Republic from the Catholic church between 1789 and 1830. In France, the principle of laïcité – the separation of church and state – was enshrined in the 1905 law on the Separation of the Churches and the State, and in 1945 became part of the constitution. Under its terms, the government and all public administrations and services must be religion-blind and their representatives must refrain from any display of religion, but private citizens and organisations are free to practise and express the religion of their choice where and as they wish (although discrimination based on religion is prohibited).[36]

In recent years there has been a trend towards a stricter interpretation of laïcité which would also prohibit users of public services from expressing their religion (e.g. the 2004 law which bans school pupils from wearing "blatant" religious symbols[37]) or even ban citizens from expressing their religion in public even outside the administration and public services (e.g. a 2015 law project prohibiting the wearing of religious symbols by the employees of private crèches). This restrictive interpretation is not supported by the initial law on laïcité and is challenged by the representatives of all the major religions.[38]

Authors, humorists, cartoonists and individuals have the right to satirise people, public actors and religions, a right which is balanced by defamation laws. These rights and legal mechanisms were designed to protect freedom of speech from local powers, among which was the then-powerful Catholic Church in France.[39]

Though images of Muhammad are not explicitly banned by the Quran itself, prominent Islamic views have long opposed human images, especially those of prophets. Such views have gained ground among militant Islamic groups.[40][41][42] Accordingly, some Muslims take the view that the satire of Islam, of religious representatives, and above all of Islamic prophets is blasphemy in Islam punishable by death.[43] This sentiment was most famously actualized in the murder of the controversial Dutch filmmaker Theo van Gogh. According to the BBC, France has seen "the apparent desire of some younger, often disaffected children or grandchildren of immigrant families not to conform to western, liberal lifestyles – including traditions of religious tolerance and free speech".[44] Salafi scholar Muhammad Al-Munajjid indicates that the Islamic concept of Gheerah (protective jealousy) requires that Muslims protect Muhammad from blasphemy.[45]

Attack

Charlie Hebdo headquarters

On the morning of 7 January 2015, a Wednesday, Charlie Hebdo staff were gathered at 10 Rue Nicolas-Appert in the 11th arrondissement of Paris for the weekly editorial meeting starting around 10:30. The magazine had moved into an unmarked office at this address following the 2011 firebombing of their previous premises due to the magazine's original satirization of the Prophet Muhammad.[46]

Around 11:30am, two armed and hooded men first burst into the wrong address at 6 Rue Nicolas-Appert, shouting "Is this Charlie Hebdo?" and threatening people. After realizing their mistake and firing a bullet through a glass door, the two men left for 10 Rue Nicolas-Appert.[47] There, they encountered cartoonist Corinne "Coco" Rey outside and at gunpoint, forced her to enter the passcode into the electronic door.[48]

The men sprayed the lobby with gunfire upon entering. The first victim was maintenance worker Frédéric Boisseau, who was killed as he sat at the reception desk.[49] The gunmen forced Rey at gunpoint to lead them to a second-floor office, where 15 staff members were having an editorial meeting,[50] Charlie Hebdo's first news conference of the year. Reporter said they were interrupted by what they thought was the sound of a firecracker—the gunfire from the lobby—and recalled, "We still thought it was a joke. The atmosphere was still joyous."[51]

The gunmen burst into the meeting room and called out Charlie's name to target him before opening fire. The shooting lasted five to ten minutes. The gunmen aimed at the journalists' heads and killed them.[52][53] During the gunfire, Rey survived uninjured by hiding under a desk, from where she witnessed the murders of Wolinski and Cabu.[54] Léger also survived by hiding under a desk as the gunmen entered.[55] Other witnesses reported that the gunmen identified themselves as belonging to Al-Qaeda in Yemen.[56]

Psychoanalyst Elsa Cayat, a French columnist of Tunisian Jewish descent, was killed.[57] Another female columnist present at the time, crime reporter Sigolène Vinson, survived; one of the shooters aimed at her but spared her, saying, "I'm not killing you because you are a woman", and telling her to convert to Islam, read the Quran and wear a veil. She said he left shouting, "Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar!"[58][59][60][61]

Escape

Police vans arrive on the scene

An authenticated video surfaced on the Internet that shows two gunmen and a police officer, Ahmed Merabet, who is wounded and lying on a sidewalk after an exchange of gunfire. This took place near the corner of Boulevard Richard-Lenoir and Rue Moufle, 180 metres (590 ft) east of the main crime scene. One of the gunmen ran towards the policeman and shouted, "Did you want to kill us?" The policeman answered, "No, it's fine, boss", and raised his hand toward the gunman, who then gave the policeman a fatal shot to the head at close range.[62]

Sam Kiley, of Sky News, concluded from the video that the two gunmen were "military professionals" who likely had "combat experience", saying that the gunmen were exercising infantry tactics such as moving in "mutual support" and were firing aimed, single-round shots at the police officer. He also stated that they were using military gestures and were "familiar with their weapons" and fired "carefully aimed shots, with tight groupings".[63]

The gunmen then left the scene, shouting (according to witnesses), "We have avenged the Prophet Muhammad. We have killed Charlie Hebdo!"[64][65][61][60] They escaped in a getaway car, and drove to Porte de Pantin, hijacking another car and forcing its driver out. As they drove away, they ran over a pedestrian and shot at responding police officers.[66]

It was initially believed that there were three suspects. One identified suspect turned himself in at a Charleville-Mézières police station.[67][68] Seven of the Kouachi brothers' friends and family were taken into custody.[69] Jihadist flags and Molotov cocktails were found in an abandoned getaway car, a black Citroën C3.[70]

Motive

Charlie Hebdo had attracted considerable worldwide attention for its controversial depictions of Muhammad. Hatred for Charlie Hebdo's cartoons, which made jokes about Islamic leaders as well as the Islamic prophet Muhammad, is considered to be the principal motive for the massacre. Michael Morell, former deputy director of the CIA, suggested that the motive of the attackers was "absolutely clear: trying to shut down a media organisation that lampooned the Prophet Muhammad".[71]

In March 2013, Al-Qaeda's branch in Yemen, commonly known as Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), released a hit list in an edition of their English-language magazine Inspire. The list included Stéphane Charbonnier (mentioned above in this article as Charlie Hebdo editor who died in this shooting) and others whom AQAP accused of insulting Islam.[72][73] On 9 January, AQAP claimed responsibility for the attack in a speech from AQAP's top Shariah cleric Harith bin Ghazi al-Nadhari, citing the motive as "revenge for the honour" of Muhammad.[74]

Victims

Killed

A commemorative plaque.
Commemorative plaque at 10, rue Nicolas-Appert
  • Frédéric Boisseau, 42, building maintenance worker for Sodexo, killed in the lobby as came to the building on a call, first victim of the shooting.
  • Franck Brinsolaro, 49, Protection Service police officer assigned as a bodyguard for Charb.[75]
  • Cabu (Jean Cabut), 76, cartoonist.
  • Elsa Cayat, 54, psychoanalyst and columnist.[76][77] The only woman killed in the shooting.[78]
  • Charb (Stéphane Charbonnier), 47, cartoonist, columnist, and director of publication of Charlie Hebdo.
  • Philippe Honoré, 73, cartoonist.
  • Bernard Maris, 68, economist, editor, and columnist.[79][80]
  • Ahmed Merabet, 42, police officer, shot in the head as he lay wounded on the ground outside.[81]
  • Mustapha Ourrad, 60, copy editor.[82]
  • Michel Renaud, 69, a travel writer and festival organiser visiting Cabu.[83]
  • Tignous (Bernard Verlhac), 57, cartoonist.[84]
  • Georges Wolinski, 80, cartoonist.[85]

Wounded

  • Philippe Lançon, journalist—shot in the face and left in a critical condition, but recovered.[86]
  • Fabrice Nicolino, 59, journalist—shot in the leg.
  • Riss (Laurent Sourisseau), 48, cartoonist and editorial director—shot in the shoulder.[87]
  • Unidentified police officers.[50][88][89]

Uninjured and absent

Several people at the meeting were unharmed, including book designer Gérard Gaillard, who was a guest, and staff members, Sigolène Vinson,[90]  [fr], and Éric Portheault.

The cartoonist Coco was coerced into letting the murderers into the building, and was not harmed.[91] Several other staff members were not in the building at the time of the shooting, including medical columnist Patrick Pelloux, cartoonists Rénald "Luz" Luzier and  [fr] and film critic  [fr], who were late for work, cartoonist Willem, who never attends, editor-in-chief Gérard Biard and journalist Zineb El Rhazoui who were on holiday, journalist  [fr], who was at a funeral, and comedian and columnist Mathieu Madénian. Luz arrived in time to see the gunmen escaping.[92]

Assailants

Chérif and Saïd Kouachi

Biography

Chérif and Saïd Kouachi
 
Chérif Kouachi.jpg Saïd Kouachi.jpg
Chérif Kouachi (left) and Saïd Kouachi
BornChérif: (1982-11-29)29 November 1982
Saïd: (1980-09-07)7 September 1980
Died(2015-01-09)9 January 2015 (aged 32 and 34)
Cause of deathGunshot wounds
NationalityFrench
Details
Date7–9 January 2015
Location(s)Charlie Hebdo offices
Target(s)Charlie Hebdo staff
Killed12
Injured11
Weapons

Police quickly identified brothers Saïd Kouachi (French pronunciation: ​[sa.id kua.ʃi]; 7 September 1980 – 9 January 2015) and Chérif Kouachi ([ʃe.ʁif]; 29 November 1982 – 9 January 2015) as the main suspects.[c] French citizens born in Paris to Algerian immigrants, the brothers were orphaned at a young age after their mother's apparent suicide and placed in a foster home in Rennes.[94] After two years, they were moved to an orphanage in Corrèze in 1994, along with a younger brother and an older sister.[98][99] The brothers moved to Paris around 2000.[100]

Chérif, also known as Abu Issen, was part of an informal gang that met in the Parc des Buttes Chaumont in Paris to perform military-style training exercises and sent would-be jihadists to fight for al-Qaeda in Iraq after the 2003 invasion.[101][102] Chérif was arrested at age 22 in January 2005 when he and another man were about to leave for Syria, at the time a gateway for jihadists wishing to fight US troops in Iraq.[103] He went to Fleury-Mérogis Prison, where he met Amedy Coulibaly.[104] In prison, they found a mentor, Djamel Beghal, who had been sentenced to 10 years in prison in 2001 for his part in a plot to bomb the US embassy in Paris.[103] Beghal had once been a regular worshiper at Finsbury Park Mosque in London and a disciple of the radical preachers Abu Hamza[105] and Abu Qatada.

Upon leaving prison, Chérif Kouachi married and got a job in a fish market on the outskirts of Paris. He became a student of Farid Benyettou, a radical Muslim preacher at the Addawa Mosque in the 19th arrondissement of Paris. Kouachi wanted to attack Jewish targets in France, but Benyettou told him that France, unlike Iraq, was not "a land of jihad".[106]

On 28 March 2008, Chérif was convicted of terrorism and sentenced to three years in prison, with 18 months suspended, for recruiting fighters for militant Islamist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi's group in Iraq.[94] He said outrage at the torture of inmates by the US Army at Baghdad Central Prison in Abu Ghraib inspired him to help Iraq's insurgency.[107][108]

French judicial documents state Amedy Coulibaly and Chérif Kouachi travelled with their wives in 2010 to central France to visit Djamel Beghal. In a police interview in 2010, Coulibaly identified Chérif as a friend he had met in prison and said they saw each other frequently.[109] In 2010, the Kouachi brothers were named in connection with a plot to break out of jail with another Islamist, . Belkacem was one of those responsible for the 1995 Paris Métro and RER bombings that killed eight people.[103][110] For lack of evidence, they were not prosecuted.

From 2009 to 2010, Saïd Kouachi visited Yemen on a student visa to study at the San'a Institute for the Arabic Language. There, according to a Yemeni reporter who interviewed Saïd, he met and befriended Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, the perpetrator of the attempted bombing of Northwest Airlines Flight 253 later in 2009. Also according to the reporter, the two shared an apartment for "one or two weeks".[111]

In 2011, Saïd returned to Yemen for a number of months and trained with al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula militants.[112] According to a senior Yemeni intelligence source, he met al Qaeda preacher Anwar al-Awlaki in the southern province of Shabwa.[113] Chérif Kouachi told BFM TV that he had been funded by a network loyal to Anwar al-Awlaki, who was killed by a drone strike in 2011 in Yemen.[114] According to US officials, the US provided France with intelligence in 2011 showing the brothers received training in Yemen. French authorities monitored them until the spring of 2014.[115] During the time leading to the Charlie Hebdo attack, Saïd lived with his wife and children in a block of flats in Reims. Neighbours described him as solitary.[citation needed]

The weapons used in the attack were supplied via the Brussels underworld. According to the Belgian press, a criminal sold Amedy Coulibaly the rocket-propelled grenade launcher and Kalashnikov rifles that the Kouachi brothers used for less than 5,000 euros.[116]

In an interview between Chérif Kouachi and Igor Sahiri, one of France's BFM TV journalists, Chérif stated that "We are not killers. We are defenders of the prophet, we don’t kill women. We kill no one. We defend the prophet. If someone offends the prophet then there is no problem, we can kill him. We don’t kill women. We are not like you. You are the ones killing women and children in Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan. This isn’t us. We have an honour code in Islam."[117]

After the attack: Manhunt (8 and 9 January)

A massive manhunt began immediately after the attack. One suspect left his ID card in an abandoned getaway car.[118][119] Police officers searched apartments in the Île-de-France region, in Strasbourg and in Reims.[120][121]

Police detained several people during the manhunt for the two main suspects. A third suspect voluntarily reported to a police station after hearing he was wanted, and was not charged. Police described the assailants as "armed and dangerous". France raised its terror alert to its highest level and deployed soldiers in Île-de-France and Picardy regions.

At 10:30 CET on 8 January, the day following the attack, the two primary suspects were spotted in Aisne, north-east of Paris. Armed security forces, including the National Gendarmerie Intervention Group (GIGN) and the Force d'intervention de la police nationale (FIPN), were deployed to the department to search for the suspects.[122]

Later that day, the police search concentrated on the Picardy, particularly the area around Villers-Cotterêts and the village of Longpont, after the suspects robbed a petrol station near Villers-Cotterêts,[123] then reportedly abandoned their car before hiding in a forest near Longpont.[124] Searches continued into the surrounding Forêt de Retz (130 km2), one of the largest forests of France.[125]

The manhunt continued with the discovery of the two fugitive suspects early in the morning of 9 January. The Kouachis had hijacked a Peugeot 206 near the town of Crépy-en-Valois. They were chased by police cars for approximately 27 kilometres (17 miles) south down the N2 trunk road. At some point they abandoned their vehicle and an exchange of gunfire between pursuing police and the brothers took place near the commune of Dammartin-en-Goële, 35 kilometres (22 miles) northeast of Paris. Several blasts went off as well and Saïd Kouachi sustained a minor neck wound. Several others may have been injured as well but no one was killed in the gunfire. The suspects were not apprehended and escaped on foot.[126]

Dammartin-en-Goële hostage crisis, death of Chérif and Saïd (9 January)

At around 9:30 am on 9 January 2015, the Kouachi brothers fled into the office of Création Tendance Découverte, a signage production company on an industrial estate in Dammartin-en-Goële. Inside the building were owner Michel Catalano and a male employee, 26-year-old graphics designer Lilian Lepère. Catalano told Lepère to go hide in the building and remained in his office himself.[127] Not long after, a salesman named Didier went to the printworks on business. Catalano came out with Chérif Kouachi who introduced himself as a police officer. They shook hands and Kouachi told Didier, "Leave. We don't kill civilians anyhow." These words were what caused Didier to guess that Kouachi was a terrorist and he alerted the police.[128]

The Kouachi brothers remained inside and a lengthy standoff began. Catalano re-entered the building and closed the door after Didier had left.[129] The brothers were not aggressive towards Catalano, who stated, "I didn't get the impression they were going to harm me." He made coffee for them and helped bandage the neck wound that Saïd Kouachi had sustained during the earlier gunfire. Catalano was allowed to leave after an hour.[130] Catalano swore three times to the terrorists that he was alone and did not reveal Lepère's presence. The Kouachi brothers were never aware of him being there. Lepère hid inside a cardboard box and sent the Gendarmerie text messages for around three hours during the siege, providing them with "tactical elements such as [the brothers'] location inside the premises".[131]

Given the proximity (10 km) of the siege to Charles de Gaulle Airport, two of the airport's runways were closed.[126][132] Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve called for a Gendarmerie operation to neutralise the perpetrators. An Interior Ministry spokesman announced that the Ministry wished first to "establish a dialogue" with the suspects. Officials tried to establish contact with the suspects to negotiate the safe evacuation of a school 500 metres (1,600 feet) from the siege. The Kouachi brothers did not respond to attempts at communication by the French authorities.[133]

The siege lasted for eight to nine hours, and at around 4:30 p.m. there were at least three explosions near the building. At around 5:00 pm, a GIGN team landed on the roof of the building and a helicopter landed nearby.[134] Before gendarmes could reach them, the pair ran out of the building and opened fire on gendarmes. The brothers had stated a desire to die as martyrs[135] and the siege came to an end when both Kouachi brothers were shot and killed. Lilian Lepère was rescued unharmed.[136][137] A cache of weapons, including Molotov cocktails and a rocket launcher, was found in the area.[131]

During the standoff in Dammartin-en-Goële, another jihadist named Amedy Coulibaly, who had met the brothers in prison,[138] took hostages in a kosher supermarket at Porte de Vincennes in east Paris, killing those of Jewish faith while leaving the others alive. Coulibaly was reportedly in contact with the Kouachi brothers as the sieges progressed, and told police that he would kill hostages if the brothers were harmed.[126][139] Coulibaly and the Kouachi brothers died within minutes of each other.[140]

Suspected Charlie Hebdo attack driver

The police initially identified the 18-year-old brother-in-law of Chérif Kouachi, a French Muslim student of North African descent and unknown nationality, as a third suspect in the shooting, accused of driving the getaway car.[94] He was believed to have been living in Charleville-Mézières, about 200 km northeast of Paris near the border with Belgium.[141] He turned himself in at a Charleville-Mézières police station early in the morning on 8 January 2015.[141] The man said he was in class at the time of the shooting, and that he rarely saw Chérif Kouachi.[142] Many of his classmates said that he was at school in Charleville-Mézières during the attack.[143] After being detained for nearly 50 hours, police decided not to continue further investigations into the teenager.[144]

Peter Cherif

In December 2018, French authorities arrested Peter Cherif for playing an “important role in organizing” the Charlie Hebdo attack[145]. Not only was Cherif a close friend of brothers Cherif Kouachi and Said Kouachi,[146] but had been on the run from French authorities since 2011. Cherif fled Paris in 2011 just before a court sentenced him to five years in prison on terrorism charges for fighting as an insurgent in Iraq.

Aftermath

France

14 January 2015 cover of Charlie Hebdo rendered in the same style as the 3 November 2011 one. It depicts Muhammad holding a sign saying Je suis Charlie and the caption "All is forgiven".
Location of three anti-Muslim incidents that took place the night of 7 January 2015 and in the early hours of the morning across France.

The remaining staff of Charlie Hebdo continued normal weekly publication, and the following issue print run had 7.95 million copies in six languages.[147] In contrast, its normal print run was 60,000, of which it typically sold 30,000 to 35,000 copies.[148] The cover depicts Muhammad holding a "Je suis Charlie" sign, and is captioned: "All is forgiven".[149] The issue was also sold outside France.[150] The Digital Innovation Press Fund donated €250,000 to support the magazine, matching a donation by the French Press and Pluralism Fund.[151][152] The Guardian Media Group pledged £100,000 to the same cause.[153]

On the night of 8 January, police commissioner Helric Fredou, who had been investigating the attack, committed suicide in his office in Limoges while he was preparing his report shortly after meeting with the family of one of the victims. He was said to have been experiencing depression and burnout.[154]

In the week after the shooting, 54 anti-Muslim incidents were reported in France. These included 21 reports of shootings, grenade throwing at mosques and other Islamic centers, an improvised explosive device attack,[155] and 33 cases of threats and insults.[d] Authorities classified these acts as right-wing terrorism.[155]

On 7 January 2016, the one-year anniversary of the shooting, an attempted attack occurred at a police station in the Goutte d'Or district of Paris. The assailant, a Tunisian man posing as an asylum-seeker from Iraq or Syria, charged police officers with a meat cleaver while shouting "Allahu Akbar!" and was subsequently shot and killed.[162][163]

Denmark

On 14 February 2015 in Copenhagen, Denmark, a public event called "Art, blasphemy and the freedom of expression", was organised to honour victims of the attack in January against the French satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo. A series of shootings took place that day and the following day in Copenhagen, with two people killed and five police officers wounded. The suspect, Omar Abdel Hamid El-Hussein, a recently released, radicalized prisoner, was later shot dead by police on 15 February.

United States

On 3 May 2015, two men attempted an attack on the Curtis Culwell Center in Garland, Texas. The center was hosting an exhibit featuring cartoons depicting the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The event was presented as a response to the attack on Charlie Hebdo, and organised by the group American Freedom Defense Initiative (AFDI).[164] Both gunmen were killed by police. A Garland Independent School District police officer was injured by a shot to the ankle but survived.

Security

Following the attack, France raised Vigipirate to its highest level in history: Attack alert, an urgent terror alert which triggered the deployment of soldiers in Paris to the public transport system, media offices, places of worship and the Eiffel Tower[165]. The British Foreign Office warned its citizens about travelling to Paris. The New York City Police Department ordered extra security measures to the offices of the Consulate General of France in New York in Manhattan's Upper East Side as well as the Lycée Français de New York, which was deemed a possible target due to the proliferation of attacks in France as well as the level of hatred of the United States within the extremist community.[53] In Denmark, which was the centre of a controversy over cartoons of Muhammad in 2005, security was increased at all media outlets.[166]

Hours after the shooting, Spanish Interior Minister Jorge Fernández Díaz said that Spain's anti-terrorist security level had been upgraded, and that the country was sharing information with France in relation to the attacks. Spain increased security in public places such as railway stations and increased the police presence on streets throughout the country's cities.[167]

The British Transport Police confirmed on 8 January that they would establish new armed patrols in and around St Pancras International railway station in London, following reports that the suspects were moving north towards Eurostar stations. They confirmed that the extra patrols were for the reassurance of the public and to maintain visibility and that there were no credible reports yet of the suspects heading towards St Pancras.[168]

In Belgium, the staff of P-Magazine were given police protection, although there were no specific threats. P-Magazine had previously published a cartoon of Muhammad drawn by the Danish cartoonist Kurt Westergaard.[169]

Demonstrations

7 January

On the evening of the day of the attack, demonstrations against the shootings were held at the Place de la République in Paris[170] and in other cities including Toulouse,[171] Nice, Lyon, Marseille and Rennes.

The phrase Je suis Charlie (French for "I am Charlie") came to be a common worldwide sign of solidarity against the attacks.[172] Many demonstrators used the slogan to express solidarity with the magazine. It appeared on printed and hand-made placards, and was displayed on mobile phones at vigils, and on many websites, particularly media sites such as Le Monde. The hashtag #jesuischarlie quickly trended at the top of Twitter hashtags worldwide following the attack.[173]

Not long after the attack, it is estimated that around 35,000 people gathered in Paris holding "Je suis Charlie" signs. 15,000 people also gathered in Lyon and Rennes.[174] 10,000 people gathered in Nice and Toulouse; 7,000 in Marseille; and 5,000 each in Nantes, Grenoble and Bordeaux. Thousands also gathered in Nantes at the Place Royale.[175] More than 100,000 people in total gathered within France to partake in these demonstrations the evening of 7 January.[176]

Similar demonstrations and candle vigils spread to other cities outside France as well, including Amsterdam,[177] Brussels, Barcelona,[178] Ljubljana,[179] Berlin, Copenhagen, London and Washington, D.C.[180] Around 2,000 demonstrators gathered in London's Trafalgar Square and sang La Marseillaise, the French national anthem.[181][182] In Brussels, two vigils have been held thus far, one immediately at the city's French consulate and a second one at Place du Luxembourg. Many flags around the city were at half-mast on 8 January.[183] In Luxembourg, a demonstration was held in the Place de la Constitution.[184]

A crowd gathered on the evening of 7 January, at Union Square in Manhattan, New York City. French ambassador to the United Nations François Delattre was present; the crowd lit candles, held signs, and sang the French national anthem.[185] Several hundred people also showed up outside of the French consulate in San Francisco with "Je suis Charlie" signs to show their solidarity.[186] In downtown Seattle, another vigil was held where people gathered around a French flag laid out with candles lit around it. They prayed for the victims and held "Je suis Charlie" signs.[187] In Argentina, a large demonstration was held to denounce the attacks and show support for the victims outside the French embassy in the Buenos Aires.[188]

More vigils and gatherings were held in Canada to show support to France and condemn terrorism. Many cities had notable "Je suis Charlie" gatherings, including Calgary, Montreal, Ottawa and Toronto.[189] In Calgary, there was a strong anti-terrorism sentiment. "We're against terrorism and want to show them that they won't win the battle. It's horrible everything that happened, but they won't win," commented one demonstrator. "It's not only against the French journalists or the French people, it's against freedom – everyone, all over the world, is concerned at what's happening."[190] In Montreal, despite a temperature of −21 °C (−6 °F), over 1,000 people gathered chanting "Liberty!" and "Charlie!" outside of the city's French Consulate. Montreal Mayor Denis Coderre was among the gatherers and proclaimed, "Today, we are all French!" He confirmed the city's full support for the people of France and called for strong support regarding freedom, stating that "We have a duty to protect our freedom of expression. We have the right to say what we have to say."[191][192]

8 January

By 8 January, vigils had spread to Australia, with thousands holding "Je suis Charlie" signs. In Sydney, people gathered at Martin Place – the location of a siege less than a month earlier – and in Hyde Park dressed in white clothing as a form of respect. Flags were at half-mast at the city's French consulate where mourners left bouquets.[193] A vigil was held at Federation Square in Melbourne with an emphasis on togetherness. French consul Patrick Kedemos described the gathering in Perth as "a spontaneous, grass roots event". He added, "We are far away but our hearts today [are] with our families and friends in France. It [was] an attack on the liberty of expression, journalists that were prominent in France, and at the same time it's an attack, or a perceived attack on our culture."[194]

On 8 January over 100 demonstrations were held from 18:00 in the Netherlands at the time of the silent march in Paris, after a call to do so from the mayors of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht, and other cities. Many Dutch government members joined the demonstrations.[195][196]

10–11 January

Around 700,000 people walked in protest in France on 10 January. Major marches were held in Toulouse (attended by 180,000), Marseille (45,000), Lille (35–40,000), Nice (23–30,000), Pau (80,000), Nantes (75,000), Orléans (22,000), and Caen (6,000).[197]

On 11 January, up to 2 million people, including President Hollande and more than 40 world leaders, led a rally of national unity in the heart of Paris to honour the 17 victims. The demonstrators marched from Place de la République to Place de la Nation. 3.7 million joined demonstrations nationwide in what officials called the largest public rally in France since World War II.[e]

There were also large marches in many other French towns and cities, and marches and vigils in many other cities worldwide.[f]

Apologists for terrorism

About 54 people in France, who had publicly supported the attack on Charlie Hebdo, were arrested as "apologists for terrorism" and about 12 people were sentenced to several months in jail.[204][205] Comedian Dieudonné faces the same charges for having written on Facebook "I feel like Charlie Coulibaly".[206]

Planned attacks in Belgium

Following a series of police raids in Belgium, in which two suspected terrorists were killed in a shootout in the city of Verviers, Belgian police stated that documents seized after the raids appear to show that the two were planning to attack sellers of the next edition of Charlie Hebdo released following the attack in Paris.[207] Police named the men killed in the raid as Redouane Hagaoui and Tarik Jadaoun.[207]

Protests following resumed publication

Unrest in Niger following the publication of the post-attack issue of Charlie Hebdo resulted in ten deaths,[208] dozens injured, and at least 45 churches were burned down.[209] The Guardian reported seven churches burned in Niamey alone. Churches were also reported to be on fire in eastern Maradi and Goure. There were violent demonstrations in Karachi in Pakistan, where Asif Hassan, a photographer working for the Agence France-Presse, was seriously injured by a shot to the chest. In Algiers and Jordan, protesters clashed with police, and there were peaceful demonstrations in Khartoum, Sudan, Russia, Mali, Senegal, and Mauritania.[210] In the week after the shooting, 54 anti-Muslim incidents were reported in France. These included 21 reports of shootings and grenade-throwing at mosques and other Islamic centres and 33 cases of threats and insults.[g]

RT reported that a million people attended a demonstration in Grozny, the capital city of the Chechen Republic, protesting the depictions of Muhammad in Charlie Hebdo and proclaiming that Islam is a religion of peace. One of the slogans was "Violence is not the method".[211]

On 8 February 2015 the Muslim Action Forum, an Islamic rights organization, orchestrated a mass demonstration outside Downing Street in London. Placards read, "Stand up for the Prophet" and "Be careful with Muhammad".[212]

Reactions

French Government

President François Hollande addressed media outlets at the scene of the shooting and called it "undoubtedly a terrorist attack", adding that "several [other] terrorist attacks were thwarted in recent weeks".[213] He later described the shooting as a "terrorist attack of the most extreme barbarity",[9] called the slain journalists "heroes",[214] and declared a day of national mourning on 8 January.[215]

At a rally in the Place de la République in the wake of the shooting, mayor of Paris Anne Hidalgo said, "What we saw today was an attack on the values of our republic; Paris is a peaceful place. These cartoonists, writers and artists used their pens with a lot of humour to address sometimes awkward subjects and as such performed an essential function." She proposed that Charlie Hebdo "be adopted as a citizen of honour" by Paris.[216]

Prime Minister Manuel Valls said that his country was at war with terrorism, but not at war with Islam or Muslims.[217] French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said, "The terrorists' religion is not Islam, which they are betraying. It's barbarity."[218]

Other countries

Obama signs a book of condolences at the Embassy of France, Washington, D.C.

The attack received immediate condemnation from dozens of governments worldwide. International leaders including Barack Obama, Vladimir Putin, Stephen Harper, Narendra Modi, Benjamin Netanyahu, Angela Merkel, Matteo Renzi, David Cameron, Mark Rutte and Tony Abbott offered statements of condolence and outrage.[219]

Media

Some English-language media outlets republished the cartoons on their websites in the hours following the shootings. Prominent examples included Bloomberg News, The Huffington Post, The Daily Beast, Gawker, Vox, and The Washington Free Beacon.[h]

Other news organisations covered the shootings without showing the drawings, such as The New York Times, New York Daily News, CNN,[226] Al Jazeera America,[227] Associated Press, NBC, MSNBC, and The Daily Telegraph.[226] Accusations of self-censorship came from the websites Politico[227] and Slate.[226] The BBC, which previously had guidelines against all depictions of Muhammad, showed a depiction of him on a Charlie Hebdo cover and announced that they were reviewing these guidelines.[228]

Other media publications such as Germany's Berliner Kurier and Poland's Gazeta Wyborcza reprinted cartoons from Charlie Hebdo the day after the attack; the former had a cover of Muhammad reading Charlie Hebdo whilst bathing in blood.[229] At least three Danish newspapers featured Charlie Hebdo cartoons, and the tabloid BT used one on its cover depicting Muhammad lamenting being loved by "idiots".[166] The German newspaper Hamburger Morgenpost re-published the cartoons, and their office was fire-bombed.[230][231] In Russia, LifeNews and Komsomolskaya Pravda suggested that the US had carried out the attack.[232][233] "We are Charlie Hebdo" appeared on the front page of Novaya Gazeta.[233] Russia's media supervision body, Roskomnadzor, stated that publication of the cartoons could lead to criminal charges.[234]

Russian President Vladimir Putin has sought to harness and direct Muslim anger over the Charlie Hebdo cartoons against the West.[235] Putin is believed to have backed protests by Muslims in Russia against Charlie Hebdo and the West.[236]

In China, the state-run Xinhua advocated limiting freedom of speech, while another state-run newspaper, Global Times, said the attack was "payback" for what it characterised as Western colonialism.[237][238]

Media organisations carried out protests against the shootings. Libération, Le Monde, Le Figaro, and other French media outlets used black banners carrying the slogan "Je suis Charlie" across the tops of their websites.[239] The front page of Libération's printed version was a different black banner that stated, "Nous sommes tous Charlie" ("We are all Charlie"), while Paris Normandie renamed itself Charlie Normandie for the day.[166] The French and UK versions of Google displayed a black ribbon of mourning on the day of the attack.[9]

Ian Hislop, editor of the British satirical magazine Private Eye, stated, "I am appalled and shocked by this horrific attack – a murderous attack on free speech in the heart of Europe. ... Very little seems funny today."[240] The editor of Titanic, a German satirical magazine, declared, "[W]e are scared when we hear about such violence. However, as a satirist, we are beholden to the principle that every human being has the right to be parodied. This should not stop just because of some idiots who go around shooting".[241] Many cartoonists from around the world responded to the attack on Charlie Hebdo by posting cartoons relating to the shooting.[242] Among them was Albert Uderzo, who came out of retirement at age 87 to depict his character Astérix supporting Charlie Hebdo.[243] In Australia, what was considered the iconic national cartoonist's reaction[244] was a cartoon by David Pope in the Canberra Times, depicting a masked, black-clad figure with a smoking rifle standing poised over a slumped figure of a cartoonist in a pool of blood, with a speech balloon showing the gunman saying, "He drew first."[245]

In India, Mint ran the photographs of copies of Charlie Hebdo on their cover, but later apologised after receiving complaints from the readers.[246] The Hindu also issued an apology after it printed a photograph of some people holding copies of Charlie Hebdo.[247] The editor of the Urdu newspaper Avadhnama, Shireen Dalvi, which printed the cartoons faced several police complaints. She was arrested and released on bail. She began to wear the burqa for the first time in her life and went into hiding.[248][249]

Egyptian daily Al-Masry Al-Youm featured drawings by young cartoonists signed with "Je suis Charlie" in solidarity with the victims.[250] Al-Masry al-Youm also displayed on their website a slide show of some Charlie Hebdo cartoons, including controversial ones. This was seen by analyst Jonathan Guyer as a "surprising" and maybe "unprecedented" move, due to the pressure Arab artists can be subject to when depicting religious figures.[251]

In Los Angeles, the Jewish Journal weekly changed its masthead that week to Jewish Hebdo and published the offending Muhammad cartoons.[252]

The Guardian reported that many Muslims and Muslim organisations criticised the attack while some Muslims support it and other Muslims stated they would only condemn it if France condemned the killings of Muslims worldwide".[253] Zvi Bar'el argued in Haaretz that believing the attackers represented Muslims was like believing that Ratko Mladić represented Christians.[254] Al Jazeera English editor and executive producer Salah-Aldeen Khadr attacked Charlie Hebdo as the work of solipsists, and sent out a staff-wide e-mail where he argued: "Defending freedom of expression in the face of oppression is one thing; insisting on the right to be obnoxious and offensive just because you can is infantile." The e-mail elicited different responses from within the organisation.[255][clarification needed]

The Shia Islamic journal Ya lasarat Al-Hussein, founded by Ansar-e Hezbollah, praised the shooting, saying, "[the cartoonists] met their legitimate justice, and congratulations to all Muslims" and "according to fiqh of Islam, punishment of insulting of Muhammad is death penalty".[256][257][258][259][260][261]

Activist organisations

Reporters Without Borders criticised the presence of leaders from Egypt, Russia, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates, saying, "On what grounds are representatives of regimes that are predators of press freedom coming to Paris to pay tribute to Charlie Hebdo, a publication that has always defended the most radical concept of freedom of expression?"[262]

Hacktivist group Anonymous released a statement in which they offered condolences to the families of the victims and denounced the attack as an "inhuman assault" on freedom of expression. They addressed the terrorists: "[a] message for al-Qaeda, the Islamic State and other terrorists – we are declaring war against you, the terrorists." As such, Anonymous plans to target jihadist websites and social media accounts linked to supporting Islamic terrorism with the aim of disrupting them and shutting them down.[263]

Muslim reactions

Condemning the attack

Lebanon, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Bahrain, Morocco, Algeria, and Qatar denounced the incident, as did Egypt's Al-Azhar University, the leading Sunni institution of the Muslim world.[253] Islamic organisations, including the French Council of the Muslim Faith, the Muslim Council of Britain and Islamic Forum of Europe, spoke out against the attack. Sheikh Abdul Qayum and Imam Dalil Boubakeur stated, "[We] are horrified by the brutality and the savagery."[264] The Union of Islamic Organisations of France released a statement condemning the attack, and Imam Hassen Chalghoumi stated that those behind the attack "have sold their soul to hell".[265]

The US-based Muslim civil liberties group, the Council on American–Islamic Relations, condemned the attacks and defended the right to freedom of speech, "even speech that mocks faiths and religious figures".[266] The vice president of the US Ahmadiyya Muslim Community condemned the attack, saying, "The culprits behind this atrocity have violated every Islamic tenet of compassion, justice, and peace."[267] The National Council of Canadian Muslims, a Muslim civil liberties organisation, also condemned the attacks.[268]

The League of Arab States released a collective condemnation of the attack. Al-Azhar University released a statement denouncing the attack, stating that violence was never appropriate regardless of "offence committed against sacred Muslim sentiments".[269] The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation condemned the attack, saying that it went against Islam's principles and values.[270]

Both the Palestinian Liberation Organization and the Hamas government of the Gaza Strip stated that "differences of opinion and thought cannot justify murder".[271] The leader of Hezbollah, Hassan Nasrallah declared that "takfiri terrorist groups" had insulted Islam more than "even those who have attacked the Prophet".[272][273]

Malek Merabet, the brother of Ahmed Merabet, a Muslim police officer killed in the shooting, condemned the terrorists who killed his brother: "My brother was Muslim and he was killed by two terrorists, by two false Muslims".[274] Just hours after the shootings, the mayor of Rotterdam, Ahmed Aboutaleb, a Muslim born in Morocco, condemned Islamist extremists living in the West who "turn against freedom" and told them to "fuck off".[275]

Supporting the attack

Saudi-Australian Islamic preacher Junaid Thorne said: "If you want to enjoy 'freedom of speech' with no limits, expect others to exercise 'freedom of action'."[276] Anjem Choudary, a radical British Islamist, wrote an editorial in USA Today in which he professes justification from the words of Muhammad that those who insult prophets should face death, and that Muhammad should be protected to prevent further violence.[277] Hizb ut-Tahrir Australia[278] said that "as a result, it is assumed necessary in all cases to ensure that the pressure does not exceed the red lines, which will then ultimately lead to irreversible problems".[279] Bahujan Samaj Party leader Yaqub Qureishi, a Muslim MLA and former Minister from Uttar Pradesh in India, offered a reward of 510 million (US$8 million) to the perpetrators of the Charlie Hebdo shootings.[i] On 14 January, about 1,500 Filipino Muslims held a rally in Muslim-majority Marawi in support of the attacks.[284]

After the attack, Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula praised the attackers for killing Charb, and called for militants to murder others on their hit list.[73] A collection of global jihadist organisations condemned the cartoonists and praised the killers, including the Taliban in Afghanistan,[285][286] Al-Shabaab, a militant Islamist organisation in Somalia,[287] as well as Boko Haram of Nigeria.[288] Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) militants in Syria also praised the massacre.[289][290]

Two Islamist newspapers in Turkey ran headlines that were criticised on social media as justifying the attack. The Yeni Akit ran an article entitled "Attack on the magazine that provoked Muslims", and Türkiye ran an article entitled "Attack on the magazine that insulted our Prophet".[291] Yahoo Canada reported a rally in support of the shootings in southern Afghanistan, where the demonstrators called the gunmen "heroes" who meted out punishment for the disrespectful cartoons. The demonstrators also protested Afghan President Ashraf Ghani's swift condemnation of the shootings.[292] Around 40 to 60[293] people gathered in Peshawar, Pakistan, to praise the killers, with a local cleric holding a funeral for the killers, lionizing them as "heroes of Islam."[294][295]

Schools

Le Figaro reported that in a Seine-Saint-Denis primary school, up to 80% of the pupils refused[296] to participate in the minute of silence that the French government decreed for schools.[297] A student told a teacher, "I'll drop you with a Kalashnikov, mate." Other teachers were told Charlie Hebdo "had it coming", and "Me, I'm for the killers". One teacher requested to be transferred.[296] They also reported that students from a vocational school in Senlis tried to attack and beat students from a neighbouring school while saying "we will kill more Charlie Hebdos". The incident is being investigated by authorities who are handling 37 proceedings of "terrorism glorification" and 17 proceedings of threats of violence in schools.[298]

La Provence reported that a fight broke out in the l'Arc à Orange high school during the minute of silence, as a result of a student post on a social network welcoming the atrocities. The student was later penalised for posting the message.[299] Le Point reported on the "provocations" at a grade school in Grenoble, and cited a girl who said "Madame, people won't let the insult of a drawing of the prophet pass by, it is normal to take revenge. This is more than a joke, it's an insult!"[300]

Le Monde reported that the majority of students they met at Saint-Denis condemned the attack. For them, life is sacred, but so is religion. Marie-Hélène, age 17, said "I didn't really want to stand for the one minute silence, I didn't think it was right to pay homage to a man who insulted Islam and other religions too". Abdul, age 14, said "of course everyone stood for the one minute silence, and that includes all Muslims... I did it for those who were killed, but not for Charlie. I have no pity for him, he had no respect for us Muslims". It also reported that for most students at the Paul Eluard high school in Saint-Denis, freedom of expression is perceived as being "incompatible with their faith". For Erica, who describes herself as Catholic, "there are wrongs on both sides". A fake bomb was planted in the faculty lounge at the school.[301]

France Télévisions reported that a fourth-grade student told her teacher, "We will not be insulted by a drawing of the prophet, it is normal that we take revenge." It also reported that the fake bomb contained the message "I Am Not Charlie".[302]

Public figures

The Head of the Chechen Republic, Ramzan Kadyrov, said "we will not allow anyone to insult the prophet, even if it costs us our lives."[303]

Salman Rushdie, who is on the Al-Qaeda hit list[17][73] and received death threats over his novel The Satanic Verses, said, "I stand with Charlie Hebdo, as we all must, to defend the art of satire, which has always been a force for liberty and against tyranny, dishonesty and stupidity ... religious totalitarianism has caused a deadly mutation in the heart of Islam and we see the tragic consequences in Paris today."[304]

Swedish artist Lars Vilks, also on the Al-Qaeda hit list[73] for publishing his own satirical drawings of Muhammad, condemned the attacks and said that the terrorists "got what they wanted. They've scared people. People were scared before, but with this attack fear will grow even larger"[305] and that the attack "expose[s] the world we live in today".[306]

American journalist David Brooks wrote an article titled "I Am Not Charlie Hebdo" in The New York Times, arguing that the magazine's humor was childish, but necessary as a voice of satire. He also criticised many of those in America who were ostensibly voicing support for free speech, noting that were the cartoons to be published in an American university newspaper, the editors would be accused of "hate speech" and the university would "have cut financing and shut them down." He called on the attacks to be an impetus toward tearing down speech codes.[307]

American linguist and philosopher Noam Chomsky views the popularisation of the Je suis Charlie slogan by politicians and media in the West as hypocritical, comparing the situation to the NATO bombing of the Radio Television of Serbia headquarters in 1999, when 16 employees were killed. "There were no demonstrations or cries of outrage, no chants of 'We are RTV' [...]", he noted. Chomsky also mentioned other incidents where US military forces have caused higher civilian death tolls, without leading to intensive reactions such as those that followed the 2015 Paris attacks.[308]

German politician Sahra Wagenknecht, the deputy leader of the party Die Linke in the German Parliament, has compared the US drone attacks in Afghanistan, Pakistan or Yemen with the terrorist attacks in Paris. ″If a drone controlled by the West extinguishes an innocent Arab or Afghan family, which is just a despicable crime as the attacks in Paris, and it should fill us with the same sadness and the same horror". We should not operate a double standard. Through the drone attacks had been "murdered thousands of innocent people", in the concerned countries, this created helplessness, rage and hatred: "Thereby we prepare the ground for the terror, we officially want to fight." The politician stressed that this war is also waged from German ground. Regarding the Afghanistan war with German participation for years, she said: "Even the Bundeswehr is responsible for the deaths of innocent people in Afghanistan." As the most important consequence of the terrorist attacks in Paris, Wagenknecht demanded the end of all military operations of the West in the Middle East.[309][310]

Bill Donohue, president of the US Catholic League, said Charlie Hebdo had a "long and disgusting record" of mocking religious figures and that Charb "didn't understand the role he played in his tragic death. ... Had he not been so narcissistic, he may still be alive."[311]

Cartoonist-journalist Joe Sacco expressed grief for the victims in a comic strip, and wrote

but ... tweaking the noses of Muslims ... has never struck me as anything other than a vapid way to use the pen ... I affirm our right to "take the piss" ... but we can try to think why the world is the way it is ... and [retaliating with violence against Muslims] is going to be far easier than sorting out how we fit in each other's world.[312]

Japanese famous film director, Hayao Miyazaki expressed his opinion about the attack and gave his opinion about the magazine decision to publish the content cited as the trigger for the incident. He said, "I think it's a mistake to caricaturize the figures venerated by another culture. You shouldn't do it." He assert, "Instead of doing something like that, you should first make caricatures of your own country's politicians."[313][314]

Social media

French Minister of the Interior Bernard Cazeneuve declared that by the morning of 9 January 2015, a total of 3,721 messages "condoning the attacks" had already been documented through the French government system.[315][316]

In an open letter titled "To the Youth in Europe and North America", Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei urged young people in Europe and North America not to judge Islam by the attacks, but to seek their own understanding of the religion.[317] Holly Dagres of Al-Monitor wrote that Khamenei’s followers "actively spammed Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Google+ and even Tumblr with links" to the letter with the aim of garnering the attention of people in the West.[318]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Sources for 'Plots against' Jyllands-Posten
    • spiegel.de 'I Don't fear for My life'[23]
    • spigdel.de (newspaper?)[24]
    • usatoday.com[25]
    • ekstrabladet.dk[26]
  2. ^ For details of various incidents see: 2006 German train bombing plot, 2008 Danish embassy bombing in Islamabad, Hotel Jørgensen explosion, and 2010 Copenhagen terror plot.
  3. ^ Information about Chérif and Saïd Kouachi.
    • Main Suspects:
    • Sources stating they are french nationals:
  4. ^ Attacks on mosques
  5. ^ Sources confirming largest public rally in france since WWII
  6. ^ Sources for worldwide marches and vigils
  7. ^ Attacks on mosques
  8. ^ English-language media outlets that republished cartoons
  9. ^ Sources confirming reward of 510 million

References

  1. ^ "En images: à 11 h 30, des hommes armés ouvrent le feu rue Nicolas-Appert". Le Monde. 7 January 2015.
  2. ^ Woolf, Christopher (15 January 2015). "Where did the Paris attackers get their guns?". PRI The World®. Minneapolis, US: Public Radio International. Retrieved 16 January 2015. The weapons seen in various images of the attackers include Zastava M70 assault rifle; submachine gun; several Russian-designed Tokarev TT pistols and a grenade or rocket launcher – probably the Yugoslav M80 Zolja.
  3. ^ Withnall, Adam; Lichfield, John (7 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo shooting: At least 12 killed as shots fired at satirical magazine's Paris office". The Independent. London. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  4. ^ "Al Qaeda claims French attack, derides Paris rally". Reuters. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  5. ^ Charb (20 November 2013). "Non, "Charlie Hebdo" n'est pas raciste!" [No, Charlie Hebdo is not racist!]. Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 4 March 2014.
  6. ^ Cabu, Jean; Val, Philippe (5 September 2008). "Cabu et Val écrivent à l'Obs". Nouvel Observateur. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  7. ^ Leveque, Thierry (22 March 2007). "French court clears weekly in Mohammad cartoon row". Reuters. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
  8. ^ "Charlie Hebdo: Major manhunt for Paris gunmen". BBC News. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  9. ^ a b c Saul, Heather (9 January 2015). "Google pays tribute to Charlie Hebdo attack victims with black ribbon on homepage". The Independent. London. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  10. ^ "BBC News: Attack on French satirical paper Charlie Hebdo (2 November 2011)". BBC. 2 November 2011. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
  11. ^ Boxel, James (2 November 2011). "Firebomb attack on satirical French magazine". Financial Times. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  12. ^ Charlie Hebdo (3 November 2011). "Les SDF du net". Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  13. ^ "Charlie Hebdo publie des caricatures de Mahomet" [Charlie Hebdo publishes some caricatures of Mohammed]. BFM TV (in French). 18 September 2012. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  14. ^ a b Vinocur, Nicholas (19 September 2012). "Magazine's nude Mohammad cartoons prompt France to shut embassies, schools in 20 countries". National Post. Reuters. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  15. ^ Samuel, Henry (19 September 2012). "France to close schools and embassies fearing Mohammed cartoon reaction". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  16. ^ Khazan, Olga (19 September 2012). "Charlie Hebdo cartoons spark debate over free speech and Islamophobia". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  17. ^ a b c Dashiell Bennet (1 March 2013). "Look Who's on Al Qaeda's Most-Wanted List". The Wire. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  18. ^ Murray, Don (8 January 2015). "France even more fractured after the Charlie Hebdo rampage". CBC News. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  19. ^ Conal Urquhart (7 January 2015). "Paris Police Say 12 Dead After Shooting at Charlie Hebdo". Time. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  20. ^ Ward, Victoria (7 January 2015). "Murdered Charlie Hebdo cartoonist was on al Qaeda wanted list". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  21. ^ Delesalle, Nicolas (16 January 2015). "Antonio Fischetti : "Bien sûr, on s'engueulait, à 'Charlie'"". Telerama.fr (in French). Retrieved 2 September 2015.
  22. ^ https://www.gala.fr/l_actu/news_de_stars/jeannette_bougrab_charb_avait_un_couteau_au-dessus_de_son_lit_342774
  23. ^ Reimann, Anna (12 February 2008). "Interview with Jyllands-Posten Editor: 'I Don't Fear for My Life'". Spiegel Online International. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  24. ^ Gebauer, Matthias; Musharbash, Yassin (5 May 2006). "Selbstmord nach versuchtem Angriff auf Chefredakteur der "Welt"". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  25. ^ Christoffersen, John (8 September 2009). "Yale Criticized for Nixing Muslim Cartoons in Book". USA Today. AP. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  26. ^ Brix, Knud (20 October 2008). "Taleban truer Danmark". Ekstra Bladet (in Danish). Retrieved 25 October 2008.
  27. ^ "Charlie Hebdo Paris shooting: How criticisms, satires of Islam have sparked violence". CBC News. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  28. ^ "Danish police shoot intruder at cartoonist's home". BBC News. 2 January 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
  29. ^ "Denmark cartoon trial: Kurt Westergaard attacker jailed". BBC News. 4 February 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  30. ^ Wienberg, Christian (29 December 2010). "Police Arrest 'Militant Islamists' Planning Attack in Denmark". Bloomberg. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  31. ^ "Mockery and the Prophet: European media's history of satire sparking retribution". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  32. ^ Bye Skille, Øyvind; Døvik, Olav (5 May 2013). "Nederlag for terrorplanleggere i Høyesterett" (in Norwegian). NRK. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
  33. ^ Sweeney, Annie (17 January 2013). "Former Chicago businessman gets 14 years in terror case". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  34. ^ "Charlie Hebdo attack echoes David Headley's Danish plot". Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  35. ^ Peter Bergen (8 January 2015). "Americans have plotted to kill cartoonists who lampooned Islam – CNN". CNN. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  36. ^ "Loi du 9 décembre 1905 concernant la séparation des Eglises et de l'Etat. Version consolidée au 08 avril 2015". Legifrance.gouv.fr. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  37. ^ "Bulletin Officiel du Ministère de l'Education Nationale du 27 mai 2004. RESPECT DE LA LAÏCITÉ Port de signes ou de tenues manifestant une appartenance religieuse dans les écoles, collèges et lycées publics". Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  38. ^ "Laïcité, la France en plein doute". La Croix. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  39. ^ "Secularism in Turkey, France, and the United States". September 2011. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015.
  40. ^ "The Koran Does Not Forbid Images of the Prophet", Newsweek, 9 January 2015
  41. ^ Burke, Daniel (9 January 2015). "Why Islam forbids images of Mohammed". BBC. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  42. ^ "The issue of depicting the Prophet Muhammad". BBC. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  43. ^ "FOCUS – Praying for a pardon: Christian sentenced to death for 'blaspheming against Islam'". France 24. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  44. ^ "Paris attack highlights Europe's struggle with Islamism". BBC News. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  45. ^ Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Barraak, Majallat al-Da’wah, Islam QA Fatwa 14305: It is essential to respond to those who defame the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) retrieved 12 February 2015 | If we leave the kuffaar and atheists to say whatever they want without denouncing it or punishing them, great mischief will result, which is something that these kuffaar love....Whoever hears the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) being insulted and does not feel any protective jealousy or get angry is not a true believer – we seek refuge with Allaah from humility, kufr and obeying the Shaytaan
  46. ^ Jolly, David (2 November 2011). "Charlie Hebdo, French Magazine, Firebombed". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  47. ^ "Attentat à "Charlie Hebdo" : "Vous allez payer car vous avez insulté le Prophète"". Le Monde. 8 January 2015.
  48. ^ "Charlie Hebdo: Le témoignage de la dessinatrice Coco". L'Humanité (in French). 7 January 2015.
  49. ^ "'Vignettes: More about the 17 killed in French terror attacks". CNN. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  50. ^ a b "Charlie Hebdo shootings: 'It's carnage, a bloodbath. Everyone is dead'". The Guardian. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  51. ^ Alexander, Harriet (9 January 2015). "Inside Charlie Hebdo attack: 'We all thought it was a joke'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  52. ^ "Paris shooting: Manhunt after gunmen attack office of Charlie Hebdo, French satirical magazine". CBS News. 7 January 2015.
  53. ^ a b "Gunmen in Charlie Hebdo Attack Identified". ABC News. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  54. ^ "'I hid under a desk': How the Charlie Hebdo attack unfolded". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  55. ^ "Journalist Sigolene Vinson says she was spared by gunmen because of her gender". news.com.au. 10 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  56. ^ Watt, Holly (7 January 2015). "Terrorists shouted they were from Al Qaeda in the Yemen before Charlie Hebdo attack". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  57. ^ "Sole Woman Killed in Charlie Hebdo Massacre Targeted Because 'She Was Jewish', Cousin Says". Algemeiner. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  58. ^ "The Globe in Paris: Police identify three suspects". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  59. ^ "Journalist Sigolene Vinson says she was spared by gunmen because of her gender".
  60. ^ a b "The defenders of freedom" (PDF).
  61. ^ a b "The defenders of freedom".
  62. ^ S.L (7 January 2015). "Attentat à Charlie Hebdo: le scénario de la tuerie". MYTF1NEWS. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
  63. ^ "What Videos Tell Us About Charlie Hebdo Paris Attack Gunmen". YouTube. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  64. ^ "En direct: Des coups de feu au siège de Charlie Hebdo" (in French). see comments at 13h09 and 13h47: "LeMonde.fr: @Antoine Tout ce que nous savons est qu'ils parlent un français sans accent." and "LeMonde.fr: Sur la même vidéo, on peut entendre les agresseurs. D'après ce qu'on peut percevoir, les hommes semblent parler français sans accent."
  65. ^ "Deadly attack on office of French magazine Charlie Hebdo". BBC News. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  66. ^ "12 dead in 'terrorist' attack at Paris paper". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  67. ^ Le Courrier picard. "AISNE Les frères Kouachi localisés près de Villers-Cotterêts". Le Courrier picard.
  68. ^ "Attentat à Charlie Hebdo: Les deux suspects auraient braqué une station-essence à Villers-Cotterêts". 20 Minutes.
  69. ^ ""Charlie Hebdo": minute par minute, les événements de jeudi matin". Le Point.fr. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  70. ^ "Attaque à "Charlie Hebdo": Drapeaux djihadistes et cocktails Molotov dans la voiture abandonnée... Les deux suspects repérés à Villers-Côtterets..." 20 Minutes. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  71. ^ Bilefsky, Dan (7 January 2015). "Terrorists Strike Charlie Hebdo Newspaper in Paris, Leaving 12 Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  72. ^ "Has al-Qaeda Struck Back? Part One". 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  73. ^ a b c d Lucy Cormack (8 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo editor Stephane Charbonnier crossed off chilling al-Qaeda hitlist". The Age. Melbourne.
  74. ^ "Al-Qaeda Group Claims Responsibility for Paris Terror Attack". Time. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  75. ^ "Attentat de Charlie Hebdo, l'un des policiers tués demeurait en Normandie" (in French). tendanceouest.com. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015. Google "translated"
  76. ^ Par Florence Saugues (8 January 2015). "Attentat contre 'Charlie Hebdo' – Elsa Cayat, la psy de "Charlie" assassinée". Paris Match. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  77. ^ "She was definitely killed because she was Jewish". CNN. 9 January 2015.
    Also on MSN
  78. ^ "Charlie Hebdo attack: Victim obituaries". BBC News. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  79. ^ "En Direct. Massacre chez "Charlie Hebdo": 12 morts, dont Charb et Cabu". Le Point (in French).
  80. ^ "Les dessinateurs Charb et Cabu seraient morts". L'Essentiel (in French). 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  81. ^ Polly Mosendz. "Police Officer Ahmed Merabet Shot During Charlie Hebdo Massacre". Newsweek.
  82. ^ Saul, Heather (8 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo attack: All 12 victims are named". The Independent. London. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  83. ^ Manuel Armand. "Michel Renaud, insatiable voyageur". Le Monde.
  84. ^ "Charlie Hebdo victims". BBC. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  85. ^ "Fearless: Murdered French cartoonists welcomed controversy". Fox News Channel. 7 January 2015. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  86. ^ Toner, Eneida. "Philippe Lançon, PLAS Visting [sic] Fellow for AY15, Injured in the Paris Terrorist Attack," Program in Latin American Studies blog (8 January 2015).
  87. ^ "Attentat contre Charlie Hebdo. Témoignage de l'oncle de Riss, directeur de la rédaction Charlie Hebdo". Le Telegramme. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.[dead link]
  88. ^ ""Charlie Hebdo" : la traque des suspects se poursuit". Le Point (in French). Retrieved 11 January 2015. Translated text
  89. ^ "En Direct. Attentat à Charlie Hebdo: 12 morts, les terroristes en fuite". Le Parisien (in French). France. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  90. ^ Charlie Hebdo attacks: 'Have no fear, we don't kill women,' gunman told massacre survivor. The Independent. 14 January 2015.
  91. ^ "The Globe in Paris: Police identify three suspects". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015.
  92. ^ "Exclusive Interview with 'Charlie Hebdo' Cartoonist Luz". Vice News (Youtube). 31 January 2015.
  93. ^ Candea, Stefan (18 March 2016). "Route of weapons used in Paris terror attacks leads to Slovak online gun shop". UN Project Linx. Archived from the original on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  94. ^ a b c d Higgins, Andrew; De La Baume, Maia (8 January 2015). "Two Brothers Suspected in Killings Were Known to French Intelligence Services". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  95. ^ "Ce que l'on sait sur la radicalisation des frères Kouachi". Le Monde (in French). 10 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  96. ^ Sabin, Lamiat (8 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo: What do we know about suspects Said and Cherif Kouachi who allegedly shot 12 people dead". The Independent. London. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  97. ^ "French terror suspect linked to al-Qaeda in Yemen". USA Today. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  98. ^ John Lichfield (19 January 2015). "The trauma that helped create Charlie Hebdo killers". The New Zealand Herald.
  99. ^ "Un commando organisé". Libération. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  100. ^ Callimachi, Rukmini; Yardley, Jim (17 January 2015). "Chérif and Saïd Kouachi's Path to Paris Attack at Charlie Hebdo". nytimes.com. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  101. ^ Witte, Griff (8 January 2015). "Suspect in Paris attack had 'long-term obsession' carrying out terror attack". The Washington Post.
  102. ^ Samuel, Henry (8 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo attack: the Kouachi brothers and the network of French Islamists with links to Islamic State". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  103. ^ a b c "Charlie Hebdo attack: Suspects' profiles". BBC News. 12 January 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  104. ^ Angelique Chrisafis. "Charlie Hebdo attackers: born, raised and radicalised in Paris". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  105. ^ "Religiösa hatpredikanter styr islamistisk terror i Europa". Göteborgs-Posten (in Swedish). Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  106. ^ "Who are suspects in two violent French standoffs?". CNN. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  107. ^ "Paris Magazine Attack". NBC News. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  108. ^ "French Muslims flock to, from Iraq's Battlefields". NBC News. 30 March 2008. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  109. ^ "French Probe Terror Suspect Links; New Attacks May Be Ahead". The New York Times. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  110. ^ "Neighbour says suspects in Paris shooting had 'cache of arms'". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  111. ^ Coker, Margaret; Almasmari, Hakim (11 January 2015). "Paris Attacker Said Kouachi Knew Convicted Nigerian Airline Bomber". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  112. ^ "Said Kouachi, Suspect in Charlie Hebdo Attack, Trained in Yemen: Reports". The Huffington Post. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  113. ^ "Exclusive: Paris attack suspect met prominent al Qaeda preacher in Yemen – intelligence source". Reuters. 9 January 2015.
  114. ^ Akkoc, Raziye (10 January 2015). "Paris Charlie Hebdo attack: live". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  115. ^ Julian E. Barnes; Adam Entous; Devlin Barrett (9 January 2015). "U.S. Shared Intelligence With French About Paris Brothers' Yemen Trip". The Wall Street Journal.
  116. ^ Belgian arms dealer confesses to supplying Paris attackers Haaretz. 14 January 2015
  117. ^ Saliba, Emmanuelle (9 January 2015). "Paris Killer Cherif Kouachi Gave Interview to TV Channel Before He Died". NBC News.
  118. ^ Dearden, Lizzie; Lichfield, John; Milmo, Cahal (7 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo attack: Paris police name three suspects in manhunt as Kouachi brothers and surrendered 18-year-old 'accomplice'". The Independent. London.
  119. ^ "Police Identify Suspects in Paris Shooting That Killed 12". Time. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  120. ^ Le Point, magazine. ""Charlie Hebdo": perquisitions à Reims, Strasbourg, Pantin et Gennevilliers". Le Point.fr.
  121. ^ "Attentat à Charlie Hebdo". Le Parisien. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  122. ^ Willsher, Kim; Topping, Alexandra (8 January 2015). "Police converge on area north-east of Paris in hunt for Charlie Hebdo gunmen". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  123. ^ "Charlie Hebdo attack: Hunt for killers focuses on northern France". CNN. 8 January 2015.
  124. ^ "Attentat à Charlie Hebdo: la traque se concentre près de Villers-Cotterêts". Le Parisien. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  125. ^ John Lichfield; Rose Troup Buchanan; Cahal Milmo (8 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo attack: Hundreds of elite armed police comb woodland in hunt for two suspects". The Independent. London.
  126. ^ a b c "Charlie Hebdo attack: Manhunt – live reporting". BBC News. 9 January 2015.
  127. ^ ""J'ai vécu un moment incroyable" : le récit du gérant de l'imprimerie, otage des frères Kouachi". Figaro.fr.
  128. ^ "Frenchman says he came face to face with Charlie Hebdo attacker: 'I shook his hand'". The Daily Telegraph. London. 9 January 2015.
  129. ^ Charlie Hebdo hunt: Charlie Hebdo shooting: Printing company worker's encounter with suspects Said and Cherif Kouachi, Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  130. ^ Print works hostage Michel Catalano: I was freed after helping wounded gunman, The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  131. ^ a b "Paris hostages survived hidden in fridges and beneath sinks". Agence France-Presse. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  132. ^ "Création Tendance découverte: prise d'otages à Dammartin en Goële". linternaute.com. 9 January 2015.
  133. ^ "De l'attaque contre "Charlie" aux assauts de vendredi, le récit du procureur de Paris". Liberation.fr (in French). 10 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  134. ^ Dearden, Lizzie (9 January 2015). "Paris shootings: How the sieges with Charlie Hebdo killers at Dammartin-en-Goele print works and Jewish grocer ended". The Independent. London. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  135. ^ Cornered French suspects vow to die as martyrs, wusa9.com. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  136. ^ Charlie Hebdo attack: 3 suspects, 4 hostages killed in separate attacks near Paris, CBC News. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  137. ^ Charlie Hebdo attack: Kouachi brothers killed, BBC News. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  138. ^ Stacy Meichtry; Noémie Bisserbe; Benoît Faucon (14 January 2015). "Paris Attacker Amedy Coulibaly's Path to Terror". The Wall Street Journal.
  139. ^ "Paris shooting: Armed man takes hostages in Paris kosher store". The Sydney Morning Herald. 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  140. ^ Paris gunman Amedy Coulibaly declared allegiance to Isis, The Guardian
  141. ^ a b Witte, Griff (7 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo suspect said to surrender; two others at large after Paris terror attack". The Washington Post.
  142. ^ Fatal shooting at Charlie Hebdo HQ in Paris LIVE UPDATES RT. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015
  143. ^ ""Charlie Hebdo": Mourad Hamyd, accusé à tort ?". Le Point.
  144. ^ [1] Charlie Hebdo shooting: Hamyd Mourad 'in shock' after wrongly linked to attack on newspaper Australian Broadcasting Corporation 10 January 2015 – Retrieved 11 January 2015
  145. ^ Willsher, Kim (21 December 2018). "Charlie Hebdo suspect arrested in Djibouti". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  146. ^ "Suspect tied to Charlie Hebdo attack sent to France, charged". Associated Press. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  147. ^ "Charlie hebdo : près de 8 millions d'exemplaires". Le Figaro (in French). Agence France-Presse. 7 February 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  148. ^ "" Charlie Hebdo " tiré à 7 millions d'exemplaires". Le Monde.fr avec AFP et Reuters. 17 January 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  149. ^ Weaver, Matthew (14 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo print run raised to 5m as copies in France sell out". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  150. ^ "Charlie Hebdo 'survivor's issue' to sell outside France". Business Insider. 10 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  151. ^ Russell Brandom (8 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo will publish one million copies next week with help from Google-backed fund". The Verge.
  152. ^ Jon Stone (8 January 2015). "French media raises €500,000 to keep satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo open". The Independent. London.
  153. ^ McPhate, Mike; MacKey, Robert (8 January 2015). "Updates on the 2nd Day of Search for Suspects in Charlie Hebdo Shooting". The New York Times.
  154. ^ "Charlie Hebdo Attack Investigator Commits Suicide: Reports". 11 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  155. ^ a b "EUROPEAN UNION TERRORISM SITUATION AND TREND REPORT (TE-SAT) 2016". Europol. 2016. p. 41.
  156. ^ a b "French magazine attack set to deepen Europe's 'culture war'". Reuters. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  157. ^ a b "Don't let extremists curtail European democracy". Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  158. ^ a b Patrick Donahue (8 January 2015). "Paris Killings Seen Fueling Europe's Anti-Islam Movements". Bloomberg. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  159. ^ a b Oren Dorell, USA TODAY (8 January 2015). "Paris attack heightens European tensions with Muslims". USA Today. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  160. ^ a b "Mosques Attacked in Wake of Charlie Hebdo Shooting". The Huffington Post. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  161. ^ a b "Attacks Reported at French Mosques in Wake of Charlie Hebdo Massacre". NBC News. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  162. ^ Breeden, Aurelein (7 January 2016). "Man With Fake Explosives Killed in Paris on Charlie Hebdo Anniversary". New York Times. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  163. ^ Litchfield, John (10 January 2016). "Paris shooting: Man killed by police had lived in German refugee camp". The Independent. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  164. ^ Pearce, Matt (3 May 2015). "Outside Muhammad cartoon contest in Texas, 2 gunmen are killed and guard is shot". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  165. ^ "Here's How Paris Police Are Responding to the Terrorist Attack on Charlie Hebdo". Time. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  166. ^ a b c Madi, Mohamed; Ryder, Sherie (8 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo attack – latest". BBC News. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  167. ^ Andrew O'Reilly (8 January 2015). "In wake of Paris shooting, Spain worries about terror attacks on its home soil". Fox News Latino. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  168. ^ Paul Wright. "Armed police step up patrols at St Pancras in wake of Charlie Hebdo Paris massacre". Hampstead Highgate Express. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  169. ^ Andrew O'Reilly (8 January 2015). "Politiebescherming voor redactie P-Magazine" (in Dutch). nieuwsblad.be. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  170. ^ Fabian Federl (7 January 2015). ""Je suis Charlie": Hitzige Debatten auf Twitter". Tages Spiegel.
  171. ^ "Charlie Hebdo: 10.000 personnes rassemblées à Toulouse". Le Figaro.
  172. ^ AFP, JIJI, japantimes (13 January 2015). "Muhammad holds 'Je suis Charlie' sign on Charlie Hebdo front page". Japan Times. Japan.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  173. ^ "#JeSuisCharlie: Signs of solidarity after Paris terror attack". CBS News. 7 January 2015.
  174. ^ Attentat à Charlie Hebdo. Près de 15 000 personnes réunies à Lyon, eprogres.fr (in French), 7 January 2015
  175. ^ "Demonstrations Follow Charlie Hebdo Massacre". ABC News. 8 January 2015. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015.
  176. ^ "Charlie Hebdo": plus de 100.000 personnes rassemblées en hommage, nouvelobs.com (in French), 7 January 2015
  177. ^ Ruim 100.000 mensen betogen voor persvrijheid na aanslag Parijs, NU.nl, 8 January 2015 (in Dutch)
  178. ^ 'Je Suis Charlie' in Photos, CityLab.com, 7 January 2015
  179. ^ "24ur". 8 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  180. ^ Charlie Hebdo attack vigils – in pictures, The Guardian, 7 January 2015
  181. ^ "Charlie Hebdo attack – latest". BBC News. 7 January 2015.
  182. ^ "Charlie Hebdo magazine attack: vigils held as gunmen remain at large – live". The Guardian. 7 January 2015.
  183. ^ "Brussels in mourning after Paris killings". euractiv.com. 8 January 2015.
  184. ^ "Grand Duchess Joins Anti-Terror Rally in Luxembourg: Spontaneous anti-terror rally in Luxembourg City". Luxemburger Wort. 11 January 2015.
  185. ^ "New Yorkers and Expats Band Together for Charlie Hebdo Vigil". The New York Observer. 8 January 2015.
  186. ^ "Hundreds Gather in San Francisco Vigil for Terror Attack Victims at French Magazine". NBCBayArea.com. 7 January 2015.
  187. ^ "Seattle's French community holds vigil for those killed in attack in Paris". q13fox. 7 January 2015.
  188. ^ Grupo Octubre. "Diario Z – Noticias de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires". Diario Z.
  189. ^ Toronto's French community gathers for Charlie Hebdo vigil, Toronto Star, 7 January 2015
  190. ^ Calgarians attend vigil for victims of deadly attack at French newspaper, CalgaryHerald.com, 7 January 2015
  191. ^ "Crowds brave frigid temperatures to attend Montreal vigils for victims of Paris shooting". The Gazette. Montreal. 7 January 2015.
  192. ^ "Charlie Hebdo vigils held in Canada after deadly attack in Paris". CBC News. 7 January 2015.
  193. ^ "Charlie Hebdo: Thousands turn out for Melbourne, Sydney vigil". SBS.com.au. 8 January 2015.
  194. ^ "Charlie Hebdo shooting: Crowds gather for vigils in Melbourne, Sydney, Perth". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 8 January 2015.
  195. ^ Live meekijken: de Charlie Hebdo-demonstraties NRC.nl 8 January 2014 (in Dutch)
  196. ^ Nederland staat stil bij aanslag Charlie Hebdo NOS 8 January 2014 (in Dutch)
  197. ^ "Plus de 700 000 personnes défilent contre le terrorisme en France" [More than 700,000 people marched against terrorism in France] (in French). Le Monde.fr. Agence France-Presse. 10 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  198. ^ Hinnant, Lori; Adamson, Thomas (11 January 2015). "Officials: Paris Unity Rally Largest in French History". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  199. ^ "Paris attacks: Millions rally for unity in France". BBC News. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  200. ^ a b "Paris unity rally largest in French history". The Portland Press Herald / Maine Sunday Telegram. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  201. ^ "Charlie Hebdo attacks: Vast Paris rally to take place". BBC News. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  202. ^ "1.5m join 'unprecedented' Paris march against terror". RTÉ News. 11 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  203. ^ "PHOTOS: At least 3.7 million people march around France for unity – Boston News, Weather, Sports – FOX 25 – MyFoxBoston". myfoxboston.com. 11 January 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  204. ^ "Attentats : des peines de prison ferme pour apologie du terrorisme". Le Parisien. 12 January 2015.
  205. ^ "Attentats : 54 interpellations pour apologie du terrorisme". Le Figaro.
  206. ^ "Dieudonné sera jugé en correctionnelle pour apologie du terrorisme". 20 Minutes.
  207. ^ a b Bruno Waterfield (16 January 2015). "Belgian terrorist cell 'linked to targeting of news agents selling Charlie Hebdo'". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  208. ^ "Five killed in second day of Charlie Hebdo protests in Niger". Reuters. 17 January 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  209. ^ "Charlie Hebdo: Niger protesters torched 45 churches - police". BBC. 19 January 2015.
  210. ^ Emma Graham-Harrison. "Niger rioters torch churches and attack French firms in Charlie Hebdo protest". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  211. ^ "'Love to Prophet Mohammed': Crowds protest Charlie Hebdo cartoons in Chechnya". RT. 19 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  212. ^ Christopher Hope (8 February 2015). "Huge crowd of Muslim protesters picket Downing Street to protest at Charlie Hebdo cartoon". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  213. ^ "Live: Manhunt under way after deadly shooting at Charlie Hebdo". France 24. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  214. ^ "1 of 3 Suspects in Paris Shootings Surrenders". Voice of America. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  215. ^ "France – French, world leaders condemn attack at Charlie Hebdo". France 24. Archived from the original on 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  216. ^ "Thousands rally in Paris after Charlie Hebdo shooting: 'No words can express our anger'". Toronto Star. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  217. ^ "We are at war with terrorism not Islam, says French PM". Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  218. ^ "Mosques fire bombed and pelted with pig heads in aftermath of Paris terror attacks". 13 January 2015.
  219. ^ Charlie Hebdo: world leaders' reactions to terror attack, The Daily Telegraph, 7 January 2015
  220. ^ Bloomberg Photos (7 January 2015). "The Bold Charlie Hebdo Covers the Satirical Magazine Was Not Afraid to Run". Bloomberg.
  221. ^ Catherine Taibi (7 January 2015). "These Are The Charlie Hebdo Cartoons That Terrorists Thought Were Worth Killing Over". The Huffington Post.
  222. ^ "The 16 most 'shocking' Charlie Hebdo covers". Daily Beast. 2 November 2011.
  223. ^ Max Read (7 January 2015). "What Is Charlie Hebdo? The Cartoons that Made the French Paper Infamous". Gawker. Archived from the original on 8 January 2015.
  224. ^ Amanda Taub (7 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo and its biting satire, explained in 9 of its most iconic covers". Vox.
  225. ^ Lachlan Markey (7 January 2015). "A Tribute to Charlie Hebdo". Washington Free Beacon.
  226. ^ a b c Ben Mathis-Lilley. "News Outlets Are Censoring Images of Cartoons That May Have Incited Charlie Hebdo Attack". Slate.
  227. ^ a b Hadas Gold (7 January 2015) News orgs censor Charlie Hebdo cartoons after attack Politico.
  228. ^ Plunkett, John (9 January 2015). "BBC revises Muhammad ban as BBC1 news bulletin features Charlie Hebdo cover". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  229. ^ Colchester, Max (8 January 2015). "European Newspapers Show Support for Charlie Hebdo". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  230. ^ Grieshaber, Kirsten (11 January 2015). "Arsonists attack German paper that published French cartoons". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015.
  231. ^ "Arson attack on Hamburg newspaper that printed Charlie Hebdo cartoons". Reuters. 11 January 2015.
  232. ^ Fisher, Max (8 January 2015). "Major Russian TV network says US intelligence carried out the Charlie Hebdo attack". Vox.
  233. ^ a b Oliphant, Roland (12 January 2015). "'Did the Americans plan the Paris terror attacks?' asks leading Russian tabloid". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  234. ^ "Media Watchdog Warns Charlie Hebdo-Style Cartoons Constitute Crime in Russia". The Moscow Times. 16 January 2015.
  235. ^ "Putin Points Muslim Rage at Cold War Foes". 17 February 2015 – via www.bloomberg.com.
  236. ^ "Chechnya declares public holiday to support huge anti-Charlie Hebdo rally". 20 January 2015.
  237. ^ "Charlie Hebdo Attack Shows Need for Press Limits, Xinhua Says". The Wall Street Journal. 12 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  238. ^ "Beijing jumps onto Paris attack to feed state propaganda machine". Japan Times. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  239. ^ "17:59 French papers carry black banners". BBC. 7 January 2015.
  240. ^ Matthew Champion (7 January 2015). "This is what Ian Hislop has to say about the Charlie Hebdo attack". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015.
  241. ^ "'Satire is a human right,' says Titanic editor after Charlie Hebdo attack". Deutsche Welle. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  242. ^ Meghan Keneally (7 January 2015). "Cartoonists React to Charlie Hebdo Shooting". ABC News. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  243. ^ Eleftheriou-Smith, Loulla-Mae (9 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo: Asterix creator Albert Uderzo comes out of retirement to draw 'Je suis Charlie' cartoon". The Independent. London. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  244. ^ Charlie Hebdo shootings: Cartoonists determined to stand their ground in the wake of Paris attacks, ABC News Online, updated Sunday 11 January 2015
  245. ^ He drew first Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, David Pope, The Canberra Times, 8 January 2015
  246. ^ "Terrorist attack on Paris magazine 'Charlie Hebdo' kills 12; France on alert". Live Mint. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  247. ^ "Apology". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 19 January 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  248. ^ "No one took my side of the story: Shireen Dalvi". The Times of India. 3 February 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  249. ^ "Case over Paris cartoon forces Mumbai editor to go behind a veil". The Indian Express. 3 February 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  250. ^ Gehad, Reem (8 January 2015). "Egypt's cartoonists pen their condemnation against Charlie Hebdo attack". Al-Ahram. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  251. ^ "Cartoonists speak out after slayings of colleagues in Paris". PRI. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  252. ^ "Nous Sommes Charlie: This week we are Jewish Hebdo".
  253. ^ a b Black, Ian (7 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo killings condemned by Arab states – but hailed online by extremists". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  254. ^ Bar'el, Zvi (9 January 2015). "How Arab world media responded to Charlie Hebdo attack". Haaretz. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  255. ^ "'I AM NOT CHARLIE': Leaked Newsroom Emails Reveal Al Jazeera Fury over Global Support for Charlie Hebdo". National Review. Archived from the original on 11 January 2015.
  256. ^ "انصار حزب‌الله ایران از کشتار شارلی‌ابدو استقبال کرد". BBC Persian. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  257. ^ "Tehran condemns new Prophet cartoons as Shiite group hails Paris". Rudaw. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  258. ^ "Ya lasarat Al-Hussein Iranian Weekly Praised the Latest Terror in France". خبرگزاری صدای مسیحیان ایران. Archived from the original on 22 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  259. ^ "Ya lasarat Al-Hussein Weekly Praised the Latest Terror in France". iranian.com. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  260. ^ "یالثارات الحسین: حمله به دفتر "شارلی ابدو" پدیده مبارکی است". رادیو فردا. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  261. ^ "پشتیبانی انصار حزب‌الله از حمله به دفتر "شارلی ابدو"". radiozamaneh.com. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  262. ^ "RWB condemns presence of "predators" in Paris march, calls for solidarity with "all Charlies"". Reporters Without Borders. 11 January 2015.
  263. ^ Lockhart, Keely (9 January 2015). "'Hacktivist' group Anonymous says it will avenge Charlie Hebdo attacks by shutting down jihadist websites". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  264. ^ Frazer Nelson (7 January 2015). "Not in our name – Muslims respond in revulsion to Charlie Hebdo massacre". The Spectator.
  265. ^ Kuruvilla, Carol; Blumberg, Antonia (7 January 2015). "Muslims Around The World Condemn Charlie Hebdo Attack". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  266. ^ "U.S. Muslims Condemn Paris Terror Attack, Defend Free Speech". Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  267. ^ "Paris attack live updates: Charlie Hebdo victims named as police search for 3 gunmen". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  268. ^ Matthew Coutts. "Canadian Muslim leaders condemn attack on France's Charlie Hebdo".
  269. ^ "Arab League and top Muslim body condemn Paris attack". Agence France-Presse. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  270. ^ "Charlie Hebdo Paris shooting: Man linked to attacks turns himself in". CBC News. 7 January 2015.
  271. ^ "Hamas condemns Charlie Hebdo attack", Ma'an News Agency 10 January 2015.
  272. ^ "Charlie Hebdo, Hezbollah: 'Terroristi offendono l'Islam più delle vignette'", il Fatto Quotidiano 9 January 2015. "How can these infidels claim to represent Islam if they behead, disembowel and massacre people and, in Yemen murder people while they commemorate the birth of the Prophet."
  273. ^ "Hezbollah chief Nasrallah says terrorists damage Islam more than cartoons". The Jerusalem Post.
  274. ^ "Paris policeman's brother: 'Islam is a religion of love. My brother was killed by terrorists, by false Muslims'". The Guardian. 15 January 2015.
  275. ^ Gander, Kashmira (13 January 2015). "Muslim mayor of Rotterdam Ahmed Aboutaleb tells extremists who 'don't like freedom' to 'f*** off'". The Independent. London.
  276. ^ "Paris terror at Charlie Hebdo newspaper: Aussies justify attack". Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  277. ^ Choudary, Anjem (7 January 2015). "People know the consequences: Opposing view". USA Today. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  278. ^ Chambers, Geoff (10 October 2014). "Sheikh Ismail al-Wahwah: A sinister player in a world of radicals". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  279. ^ Auerbach, Taylor (11 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo terrorist attacks a 'cure', says leader of Hizb ut-Tahrir Australia Ismail Alwahwah". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  280. ^ Sobieski, Jan (9 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo tragedy: Former India UP State Minister offers Rs 51 crores ($8MM) to attackers". News Nation Bureau. News Nation Bureau. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  281. ^ "Charlie Hebdo attack:Ready to pay Rs. 51cr reward to attackers, says BSP leader Yakub Qureshi". 8 January 2015. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  282. ^ Raju, S (8 January 2015). "Ready to pay Rs. 51cr reward to Charlie Hebdo attackers: Yakoob Qureshi". Hindustan Times. Meerut. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  283. ^ VERMA, AMITA (9 January 2015). "BSP leader Haji Yakub Qureshi offers Rs 51 Crore to Charlie Hebdo attackers". Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  284. ^ "Muslims in Philippines march against Charlie Hebdo". The Malaysian Insider. Agence France-Presse. 14 January 2015. Archived from the original on 15 January 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  285. ^ Stephanie March (15 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo: Afghan Taliban condemns cartoons depicting prophet, hails Paris gunmen". Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
  286. ^ Mangala Dilip (15 January 2015). "Afghan Taliban Calls Paris Gunmen 'Heroes', Charlie Hebdo Cartoons 'Inhumane'". International Business Times.
  287. ^ Le Point, magazine. "Charlie Hebdo": les islamistes somaliens shebab saluent une attaque "héroïque". Le Point.fr. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  288. ^ "Boko Haram 'very happy' after Charlie Hebdo attack". ITV News. 15 January 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  289. ^ "'More will follow': ISIS fighter praises Paris massacre". New York Post. 7 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  290. ^ "L'Etat islamique qualifie de "héros" les auteurs de la tuerie contre Charlie Hebdo". Le Figaro.
  291. ^ "Islamist Turkish dailies draw ire after Charlie Hebdo attack". Hürriyet Daily News.
  292. ^ "Afghanistan rally hails Charlie Hebdo attackers as 'heroes'". Reuters. 11 January 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  293. ^ "Pakistan rally celebrates Charlie Hebdo attackers". The Economic Times. 13 January 2015. Archived from the original on 29 June 2015.
  294. ^ Mushtaq Yusufzai (13 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo Attack: Pakistan Cleric Holds Funerals for Kouachi Brothers". NBC News.
  295. ^ "Pakistan cleric offers prayers for Charlie Hebdo attackers". The Washington Post. 13 January 2015. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015.
  296. ^ a b "Charlie Hebdo : ces minutes de silence qui ont dérapé dans les écoles". Le Figaro. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  297. ^ "Charlie Hebdo : La minute de silence dans les écoles embarrasse des parents". Linfo.re. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  298. ^ Wiegel, Michaela (16 January 2015). "Charlie Hebdo: Hass in Frankreichs Klassenzimmern" ["Charlie Hebdo: Hate in France's Schools"]. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  299. ^ La Provence. "Un lycéen condamné pour apologie des attentats". LaProvence.com. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  300. ^ Laureline Dupont. "Le désarroi d'une prof qui parle de "Charlie" à ses élèves". Le Point.fr. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  301. ^ Mattea Battaglia et Benoit Floc'h. "A Saint-Denis, collégiens et lycéens ne sont pas tous " Charlie "". Le Monde.fr. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  302. ^ Francetv info. "On ne va pas se laisser insulter par un dessin du prophète, c'est normal qu'on se venge". francetv info. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  303. ^ Quinn, Allison (12 January 2015). "There's No Line Kadyrov Can't Cross, Analysts Say". The Moscow Times.
  304. ^ Time. 7 January 2015. salman rushdie response
  305. ^ Sveriges Radio. "Säpo: Även Sverige kan drabbas av något allvarligt". Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  306. ^ "Lars Vilks skakad av terrorattentatet". Dagens Nyheter. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  307. ^ Brooks, David (8 January 2015). "I Am Not Charlie Hebdo". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  308. ^ Chomsky, Noam (19 January 2015). "Chomsky: Paris attacks show hypocrisy of West's outrage". CNN. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  309. ^ "Drohnenangriffe wie Pariser Anschläge", Tagesschau, 17 January 2015
  310. ^ Blumio – Rap da News! – Episode 110 Archived 31 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Yahoo!!, 19 January 2015
  311. ^ Dolan, Eric W. (7 January 2015). "Catholic League chief: Charlie Hebdo editor got himself murdered by being a narcissist". Rawstory. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  312. ^ On Satire – a response to the Charlie Hebdo attacks (9 January 2015), cartoon by Joe Sacco, The Guardian. "Graphic artist and journalist Joe Sacco on the limits of satire – and what it means if Muslims don't find it funny."
  313. ^ Hawkes, Rebecca (17 February 2015). "Hayao Miyazaki: Charlie Hebdo Mohammed cartoons were 'a mistake'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  314. ^ Casey Baseel (17 February 2015). "Hayao Miyazaki on Charlie Hebdo attacks: Drawings of Muhammad were "a mistake"". RocketNews24. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  315. ^ Lebleu, Mikael (9 January 2015). "Les gens qui appuient le terrorisme sur les réseaux sociaux pourraient faire face à des peines de 7 ans de prison". Le Journal de Montréal (in French). Canada. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  316. ^ Quinault Maupoil, Tristan (10 January 2015). "Il sera jugé pour avoir fait l'apologie de l'attentat contre Charlie Hebdo". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  317. ^ Adamczyk, Ed (22 January 2015). "Khamenei urges young in West to discover Islam for themselves". UPI. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  318. ^ Dagres, Holly (3 February 2015). "Khamenei's fans take to Instagram". Retrieved 17 May 2015.

Bibliography

External links

  • , Are the French still "Charlie"? Reflections after the terrorist attacks in Paris, CIFE Policy Paper No 10, 2015. [2]

12 December 2015

The Paris Agreement relating to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is adopted.

Paris Agreement

Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
ParisAgreement.svg
  State parties
  Signatories
  Parties covered by EU ratification
Drafted30 November – 12 December 2015 in Le Bourget, France
Signed22 April 2016
LocationNew York City, United States
Sealed12 December 2015
Effective4 November 2016[1][2]
ConditionRatification and accession by 55 UNFCCC parties, accounting for 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions
Signatories195[1]
Parties187[1] (list)
DepositarySecretary-General of the United Nations
LanguagesArabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish and Afrikaans
Paris Agreement at Wikisource

The Paris Agreement (French: Accord de Paris)[3] is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), dealing with greenhouse-gas-emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance, signed in 2016. The agreement's language was negotiated by representatives of 196 state parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015.[4][5] As of November 2019, 195 UNFCCC members have signed the agreement, and 187 have become party to it.[1]

The Paris Agreement's long-term temperature goal is to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels; and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 °C, recognizing that this would substantially reduce the risks and impacts of climate change. This should be done by peaking emissions as soon as possible, in order to "achieve a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases" in the second half of the 21st century. It also aims to increase the ability of parties to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change, and make "finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development."

Under the Paris Agreement, each country must determine, plan, and regularly report on the contribution that it undertakes to mitigate global warming.[6] No mechanism forces[7] a country to set a specific emissions target by a specific date,[8] but each target should go beyond previously set targets. In June 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the agreement. Under the agreement, the earliest effective date of withdrawal for the U.S. is November 2020, shortly before the end of President Trump's 2016 term. In practice, changes in United States policy that are contrary to the Paris Agreement have already been put in place.[9][10]

Content

Aims

The aim of the agreement is to decrease global warming described in its Article 2, "enhancing the implementation" of the UNFCCC through:[11]

(a) Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change;

(b) Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food production;

(c) Making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development.

This strategy involved energy and climate policy including the so-called 20/20/20 targets, namely the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 20%, the increase of renewable energy's market share to 20%, and a 20% increase in energy efficiency.[12]

Countries furthermore aim to reach "global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible". The agreement has been described as an incentive for and driver of fossil fuel divestment.[13][14]

The Paris deal is the world's first comprehensive climate agreement.[15]

Nationally determined contributions

Global carbon dioxide emissions by jurisdiction.

  China (29.4%)
  United States (14.3%)
  European Economic Area (9.8%)
  India (6.8%)
  Russia (4.9%)
  Japan (3.5%)
  Other (31.3%)

Contributions each individual country should make to achieve the worldwide goal are determined by all countries individually and are called nationally determined contributions (NDCs).[6] Article 3 requires them to be "ambitious", "represent a progression over time" and set "with the view to achieving the purpose of this Agreement". The contributions should be reported every five years and are to be registered by the UNFCCC Secretariat.[16] Each further ambition should be more ambitious than the previous one, known as the principle of 'progression'.[17] Countries can cooperate and pool their nationally determined contributions. The Intended Nationally Determined Contributions pledged during the 2015 Climate Change Conference serve—unless provided otherwise—as the initial Nationally determined contribution.

The level of NDCs set by each country[8] will set that country's targets. However the 'contributions' themselves are not binding as a matter of international law, as they lack the specificity, normative character, or obligatory language necessary to create binding norms.[18] Furthermore, there will be no mechanism to force[7] a country to set a target in their NDC by a specific date and no enforcement if a set target in an NDC is not met.[8][19] There will be only a "name and shame" system[20] or as János Pásztor, the U.N. assistant secretary-general on climate change, told CBS News (US), a "name and encourage" plan.[21] As the agreement provides no consequences if countries do not meet their commitments, consensus of this kind is fragile. A trickle of nations exiting the agreement could trigger the withdrawal of more governments, bringing about a total collapse of the agreement.[22]

The NDC Partnership was launched at COP22 in Marrakesh to enhance cooperation so that countries have access to the technical knowledge and financial support they need to achieve large-scale climate and sustainable development targets. The NDC Partnership is guided by a Steering Committee composed of developed and developing nations and international institutions, and facilitated by a Support Unit hosted by World Resources Institute and based in Washington, DC and Bonn, Germany. The NDC Partnership is co-chaired by the governments of Costa Rica and the Netherlands and includes 93 member countries,21 institutional partners and ten associate members.

Effects on global temperature

The negotiators of the agreement, however, stated that the NDCs and the target of no more than 2 °C increase were insufficient; instead, a target of 1.5 °C maximum increase is required, noting "with concern that the estimated aggregate greenhouse gas emission levels in 2025 and 2030 resulting from the intended nationally determined contributions do not fall within least-cost 2 °C scenarios but rather lead to a projected level of 55 gigatonnes in 2030", and recognizing furthermore "that much greater emission reduction efforts will be required in order to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 °C by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or to 1.5 °C."[23]

Though not the sustained temperatures over the long term that the Agreement addresses, in the first half of 2016 average temperatures were about 1.3 °C (2.3 degrees Fahrenheit) above the average in 1880, when global record-keeping began.[24]

When the agreement achieved enough signatures to cross the threshold on 5 October 2016, US President Barack Obama claimed that "Even if we meet every target ... we will only get to part of where we need to go." He also said that "this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change. It will help other nations ratchet down their emissions over time, and set bolder targets as technology advances, all under a strong system of transparency that allows each nation to evaluate the progress of all other nations."[25][26]

Global stocktake

Map of cumulative per capita anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 emissions by country. Cumulative emissions include land use change, and are measured between the years 1950 and 2000.

The global stocktake will kick off with a "facilitative dialogue" in 2018. At this convening, parties will evaluate how their NDCs stack up to the nearer-term goal of peaking global emissions and the long-term goal of achieving net zero emissions by the second half of this century.[27]

The implementation of the agreement by all member countries together will be evaluated every 5 years, with the first evaluation in 2023. The outcome is to be used as input for new nationally determined contributions of member states.[28] The stocktake will not be of contributions/achievements of individual countries but a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what more needs to be done.

The stocktake works as part of the Paris Agreement's effort to create a "ratcheting up" of ambition in emissions cuts. Because analysts agreed in 2014 that the NDCs would not limit rising temperatures below 2 degrees Celsius, the global stocktake reconvenes parties to assess how their new NDCs must evolve so that they continually reflect a country's "highest possible ambition".[27]

While ratcheting up the ambition of NDCs is a major aim of the global stocktake, it assesses efforts beyond mitigation. The 5-year reviews will also evaluate adaptation, climate finance provisions, and technology development and transfer.[27]

Structure

The Paris Agreement has a 'bottom up' structure in contrast to most international environmental law treaties, which are 'top down', characterised by standards and targets set internationally, for states to implement.[29] Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets commitment targets that have legal force, the Paris Agreement, with its emphasis on consensus-building, allows for voluntary and nationally determined targets.[30] The specific climate goals are thus politically encouraged, rather than legally bound. Only the processes governing the reporting and review of these goals are mandated under international law. This structure is especially notable for the United States—because there are no legal mitigation or finance targets, the agreement is considered an "executive agreement rather than a treaty". Because the UNFCCC treaty of 1992 received the consent of the Senate, this new agreement does not require further legislation from Congress for it to take effect.[30]

Another key difference between the Paris Agreement and the Kyoto Protocol is their scopes. While the Kyoto Protocol differentiated between Annex-1 and non-Annex-1 countries, this bifurcation is blurred in the Paris Agreement, as all parties will be required to submit emissions reductions plans.[31] While the Paris Agreement still emphasizes the principle of "Common but Differentiated Responsibility and Respective Capabilities"—the acknowledgement that different nations have different capacities and duties to climate action—it does not provide a specific division between developed and developing nations.[31] It therefore appears that negotiators will have to continue to deal with this issue in future negotiation rounds, even though the discussion on differentiation may take on a new dynamic.[32]

Mitigation provisions and carbon markets

Article 6 has been flagged as containing some of the key provisions of the Paris Agreement.[33] Broadly, it outlines the cooperative approaches that parties can take in achieving their nationally determined carbon emissions reductions. In doing so, it helps establish the Paris Agreement as a framework for a global carbon market.[34]

Linkage of trading systems and international transfer of mitigation outcomes (ITMOs)

Paragraphs 6.2 and 6.3 establish a framework to govern the international transfer of mitigation outcomes (ITMOs). The Agreement recognizes the rights of Parties to use emissions reductions outside of their own jurisdiction toward their NDC, in a system of carbon accounting and trading.[34]

This provision requires the "linkage" of various carbon emissions trading systems—because measured emissions reductions must avoid "double counting", transferred mitigation outcomes must be recorded as a gain of emission units for one party and a reduction of emission units for the other.[33] Because the NDCs, and domestic carbon trading schemes, are heterogeneous, the ITMOs will provide a format for global linkage under the auspices of the UNFCCC.[35] The provision thus also creates a pressure for countries to adopt emissions management systems—if a country wants to use more cost-effective cooperative approaches to achieve their NDCs, they will need to monitor carbon units for their economies.[36]

Sustainable Development Mechanism

Paragraphs 6.4-6.7 establish a mechanism "to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gases and support sustainable development".[37] Though there is no specific name for the mechanism as yet, many Parties and observers have informally coalesced around the name "Sustainable Development Mechanism" or "SDM".[38][39] The SDM is considered to be the successor to the Clean Development Mechanism, a flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, by which parties could collaboratively pursue emissions reductions for their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions. The Sustainable Development Mechanism lays the framework for the future of the Clean Development Mechanism post-Kyoto (in 2020).

In its basic aim, the SDM will largely resemble the Clean Development Mechanism, with the dual mission to 1. contribute to global GHG emissions reductions and 2. support sustainable development.[40] Though the structure and processes governing the SDM are not yet determined, certain similarities and differences from the Clean Development Mechanism can already be seen. Notably, the SDM, unlike the Clean Development Mechanism, will be available to all parties as opposed to only Annex-1 parties, making it much wider in scope.[41]

Since the Kyoto Protocol went into force, the Clean Development Mechanism has been criticized for failing to produce either meaningful emissions reductions or sustainable development benefits in most instances.[42] It has also suffered from the low price of Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs), creating less demand for projects. These criticisms have motivated the recommendations of various stakeholders, who have provided through working groups and reports, new elements they hope to see in SDM that will bolster its success.[35] The specifics of the governance structure, project proposal modalities, and overall design were expected to come during the 2016 Conference of the Parties in Marrakesh.

Adaptation provisions

Adaptation issues garnered more focus in the formation of the Paris Agreement. Collective, long-term adaptation goals are included in the Agreement, and countries must report on their adaptation actions, making adaptation a parallel component of the agreement with mitigation.[43] The adaptation goals focus on enhancing adaptive capacity, increasing resilience, and limiting vulnerability.[44]

Ensuring finance

At the Paris Conference in 2015 where the Agreement was negotiated, the developed countries reaffirmed the commitment to mobilize $100 billion a year in climate finance by 2020, and agreed to continue mobilizing finance at the level of $100 billion a year until 2025.[45] The commitment refers to the pre-existing plan to provide US$100 billion a year in aid to developing countries for actions on climate change adaptation and mitigation.[46]

Though both mitigation and adaptation require increased climate financing, adaptation has typically received lower levels of support and has mobilised less action from the private sector.[43] A 2014 report by the OECD found that just 16 percent of global finance was directed toward climate adaptation in 2014.[47] The Paris Agreement called for a balance of climate finance between adaptation and mitigation, and specifically underscoring the need to increase adaptation support for parties most vulnerable to the effects of climate change, including Least Developed Countries and Small Island Developing States. The agreement also reminds parties of the importance of public grants, because adaptation measures receive less investment from the public sector.[43] John Kerry, as Secretary of State, announced that the U.S. would double its grant-based adaptation finance by 2020.[30]

Some specific outcomes of the elevated attention to adaptation financing in Paris include the G7 countries' announcement to provide US$420 million for Climate Risk Insurance, and the launching of a Climate Risk and Early Warning Systems (CREWS) Initiative.[48] In early March 2016, the Obama administration gave a $500 million grant to the "Green Climate Fund" as "the first chunk of a $3 billion commitment made at the Paris climate talks."[49][50][51] So far, the Green Climate Fund has now received over $10 billion in pledges. Notably, the pledges come from developed nations like France, the US, and Japan, but also from developing countries such as Mexico, Indonesia, and Vietnam.[30]

Loss and damage

A new issue that emerged[citation needed] as a focal point in the Paris negotiations rose from the fact that many of the worst effects of climate change will be too severe or come too quickly to be avoided by adaptation measures. The Paris Agreement specifically acknowledges the need to address loss and damage of this kind, and aims to find appropriate responses.[52] It specifies that loss and damage can take various forms—both as immediate impacts from extreme weather events, and slow onset impacts, such as the loss of land to sea-level rise for low-lying islands.[30]

The push to address loss and damage as a distinct issue in the Paris Agreement came from the Alliance of Small Island States and the Least Developed Countries, whose economies and livelihoods are most vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change.[30] Developed countries, however, worried that classifying the issue as one separate and beyond adaptation measures would create yet another climate finance provision, or might imply legal liability for catastrophic climate events.

In the end, all parties acknowledged the need for "averting, minimizing, and addressing loss and damage" but notably, any mention of compensation or liability is excluded.[11] The agreement also adopts the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, an institution that will attempt to address questions about how to classify, address, and share responsibility for loss.[52]

Enhanced transparency framework

While each Party's NDC is not legally binding, the Parties are legally bound to have their progress tracked by technical expert review to assess achievement toward the NDC, and to determine ways to strengthen ambition.[53] Article 13 of the Paris Agreement articulates an "enhanced transparency framework for action and support" that establishes harmonized monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) requirements. Thus, both developed and developing nations must report every two years on their mitigation efforts, and all parties will be subject to both technical and peer review.[53]

Flexibility mechanisms

While the enhanced transparency framework is universal, along with the global stocktaking to occur every 5 years, the framework is meant to provide "built-in flexibility" to distinguish between developed and developing countries' capacities. In conjunction with this, the Paris Agreement has provisions for an enhanced framework for capacity building.[54] The agreement recognizes the varying circumstances of some countries, and specifically notes that the technical expert review for each country consider that country's specific capacity for reporting.[54] The agreement also develops a Capacity-Building Initiative for Transparency to assist developing countries in building the necessary institutions and processes for complying with the transparency framework.[54]

There are several ways that flexibility mechanisms can be incorporated into the enhanced transparency framework. The scope, level of detail, or frequency of reporting may all be adjusted and tiered based on a country's capacity. The requirement for in-country technical reviews could be lifted for some less developed or small island developing countries. Ways to assess capacity include financial and human resources in a country necessary for NDC review.[54]

Adoption

Paris Agreement negotiations

The Paris Agreement was opened for signature on 22 April 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.[55] After several European Union states ratified the agreement in October 2016, there were enough countries that had ratified the agreement that produce enough of the world's greenhouse gases for the agreement to enter into force.[56] The agreement went into effect on 4 November 2016.[2]

Negotiations

Within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, legal instruments may be adopted to reach the goals of the convention. For the period from 2008 to 2012, greenhouse gas reduction measures were agreed in the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. The scope of the protocol was extended until 2020 with the Doha Amendment to that protocol in 2012.[57]

During the 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) was established with the aim to negotiate a legal instrument governing climate change mitigation measures from 2020. The resulting agreement was to be adopted in 2015.[58]

Adoption

Heads of delegations at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris.

At the conclusion of COP 21 (the 21st meeting of the Conference of the Parties, which guides the Conference), on 12 December 2015, the final wording of the Paris Agreement was adopted by consensus by all of the 195 UNFCCC participating member states and the European Union[4] to reduce emissions as part of the method for reducing greenhouse gas. In the 12-page Agreement,[51] the members promised to reduce their carbon output "as soon as possible" and to do their best to keep global warming "to well below 2 °C" [3.6 °F].[59]

Signature and entry into force

Signing by John Kerry in United Nations General Assembly Hall for the United States

The Paris Agreement was open for signature by states and regional economic integration organizations that are parties to the UNFCCC (the Convention) from 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017 at the UN Headquarters in New York.[60]

The agreement stated that it would enter into force (and thus become fully effective) only if 55 countries that produce at least 55% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list produced in 2015)[61] ratify, accept, approve or accede to the agreement.[62][63] On 1 April 2016, the United States and China, which together represent almost 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that both countries would sign the Paris Climate Agreement.[64][65] 175 Parties (174 states and the European Union) signed the agreement on the first date it was open for signature.[55][66] On the same day, more than 20 countries issued a statement of their intent to join as soon as possible with a view to joining in 2016. With ratification by the European Union, the Agreement obtained enough parties to enter into effect as of 4 November 2016.

European Union and its member states

Both the EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. A strong preference was reported that the EU and its 28 member states deposit their instruments of ratification at the same time to ensure that neither the EU nor its member states engage themselves to fulfilling obligations that strictly belong to the other,[67] and there were fears that disagreement over each individual member state's share of the EU-wide reduction target, as well as Britain's vote to leave the EU might delay the Paris pact.[68] However, the European Parliament approved ratification of the Paris Agreement on 4 October 2016,[56] and the EU deposited its instruments of ratification on 5 October 2016, along with several individual EU member states.[68]

Implementation

The process of translating the Paris Agreement into national agendas and implementation has started. One example is the commitment of the least developed countries (LDCs). The LDC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Initiative for Sustainable Development, known as LDC REEEI, is set to bring sustainable, clean energy to millions of energy-starved people in LDCs, facilitating improved energy access, the creation of jobs and contributing to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals.[69]

Per analysis from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) a carbon "budget" based upon total carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere (versus the rate of annual emission) to limit global warming to 1.5 °C was estimated to be 2.25 trillion tonnes of overall emitted carbon dioxide from the period since 1870. This number is a notable increase from the number estimated by the original Paris Climate accord estimates (of around 2 trillion tonnes total) total carbon emission limit to meet the 1.5 °C global warming target, a target that would be met in the year 2020 at 2017 rates of emission. Additionally, the annual emission of carbon is estimated in 2017 to be at 40 billion tonnes emitted per year. The revised IPCC budget for this was based upon CMIP5 climate model. Estimate models using different base-years also provide other slightly adjusted estimates of a carbon "budget".[70]

Parties and signatories

As of February 2019, 194 states and the European Union have signed the Agreement. 186 states and the EU, representing more than 87% of global greenhouse gas emissions, have ratified or acceded to the Agreement, including China, the United States and India, the countries with three of the four largest greenhouse gas emissions of the UNFCCC members total (about 42% together).[1][71][72]

Withdrawal from Agreement

Article 28 of the agreement enables parties to withdraw from the agreement after sending a withdrawal notification to the depositary, but notice can be given no earlier than three years after the agreement goes into force for the country. Withdrawal is effective one year after the depositary is notified. Alternatively, the Agreement stipulates that withdrawal from the UNFCCC, under which the Paris Agreement was adopted, would also withdraw the state from the Paris Agreement. The conditions for withdrawal from the UNFCCC are the same as for the Paris Agreement. The agreement does not specify provisions for non-compliance.

On 4 August 2017, the Trump administration delivered an official notice to the United Nations that the U.S. intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it is legally eligible to do so.[73] The formal notice of withdrawal could not be submitted until the agreement was in force for 3 years for the US, on 4 November 2019.[74][75] On 4 November the US government deposited the withdrawal notification with the Secretary General of the United Nations, the depositary of the agreement.[76]

National communication

A "National Communication" is a type of report submitted by the countries that have ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).[77] Countries listed in Annex I of the Convention (mostly industrialized countries) are obliged to submit regular National Communications.[78] Non-Annex I countries do so less frequently.[79] Some Least Developed Countries have not submitted National Communications in the past 5–15 years,[80] largle due to capacity constraints.

National Communication reports are often several hundred pages long and cover a country's measures to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions as well as a description of its vulnerabilities and impacts from climate change.[81] National Communications are prepared according to guidelines that have been agreed by the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. The (Intended) Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) that form the basis of the Paris Agreement are shorter and less detailed but also follow a standardized structure and are subject to technical review by experts.

Although President Donald Trump has declared that the United States will withdraw from the Paris Agreement, this cannot be effectuated until the day after the 2020 presidential election in the United States. Since the United States has not declared an intention to also withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, the United States will continue to be obliged to prepare National Communications.

Criticism

Effectiveness

Global CO2 emissions and probabilistic temperature outcomes of Paris
Paris climate accord emission reduction targets and real-life reductions offered

A pair of studies in Nature have said that, as of 2017, none of the major industrialized nations were implementing the policies they had envisioned and have not met their pledged emission reduction targets,[82] and even if they had, the sum of all member pledges (as of 2016) would not keep global temperature rise "well below 2 °C".[83][84] According to UNEP the emission cut targets in November 2016 will result in temperature rise by 3 °C above pre-industrial levels, far above the 2 °C of the Paris climate agreement.[85]

In addition, an MIT News article written on 22 April 2016 discussed recent MIT studies on the true impact that the Paris Agreement had on global temperature increase. Using their Integrated Global System Modeling (IGSM) to predict temperature increase results in 2100, they used a wide range of scenarios that included no effort towards climate change past 2030, and full extension of the Paris Agreement past 2030. They concluded that the Paris Agreement would cause temperature decrease by about 0.6 to 1.1 degrees Celsius compared to a no-effort-scenario, with only a 0.1 °C change in 2050 for all scenarios. They concluded that, although beneficial, there was strong evidence that the goal provided by the Paris Agreement could not be met in the future; under all scenarios, warming would be at least 3.0 °C by 2100.[86]

How well each individual country is on track to achieving its Paris agreement commitments can be continuously followed on-line.[87]

A 2018 published study points at a threshold at which temperatures could rise to 4 or 5 degrees compared to the pre-industrial levels, through self-reinforcing feedbacks in the climate system, suggesting this threshold is below the 2-degree temperature target, agreed upon by the Paris climate deal. Study author Katherine Richardson stresses, "We note that the Earth has never in its history had a quasi-stable state that is around 2 °C warmer than the pre-industrial and suggest that there is substantial risk that the system, itself, will 'want' to continue warming because of all of these other processes – even if we stop emissions. This implies not only reducing emissions but much more."[88]

At the same time, another 2018 published study notes that even at a 1.5 °C level of warming, important increases in the occurrence of high river flows would be expected in India, South and Southeast Asia.[89] Yet, the same study points out that under a 2.0 °C of warming various areas in South America, central Africa, western Europe, and the Mississippi area in the United States would see more high flows; thus increasing flood risks.

Lack of binding enforcement mechanism

Although the agreement was lauded by many, including French President François Hollande and UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon,[63] criticism has also surfaced. For example, James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and a climate change expert, voiced anger that most of the agreement consists of "promises" or aims and not firm commitments.[90] He called the Paris talks a fraud with 'no action, just promises' and feels that only an across the board tax on CO
2
emissions, something not part of the Paris Agreement, would force CO
2
emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.[90]

Institutional asset owners associations and think-tanks have also observed that the stated objectives of the Paris Agreement are implicitly "predicated upon an assumption – that member states of the United Nations, including high polluters such as China, the US, India, Russia, Japan, Germany, South Korea, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Canada, Indonesia and Mexico, which generate more than half the world's greenhouse gas emissions, will somehow drive down their carbon pollution voluntarily and assiduously without any binding enforcement mechanism to measure and control CO
2
emissions at any level from factory to state, and without any specific penalty gradation or fiscal pressure (for example a carbon tax) to discourage bad behaviour."[91] Emissions taxes (such as a carbon tax) can be integrated into the country's NDC however.

UNEP

According to United Nations Environment Programme UNEP if we rely only on the current climate commitments of the Paris Agreement, temperatures will likely rise to 3.2°C this century. To limit global temperature rise to 1.5°C, emissions must be below 25 gigatons (Gt) by 2030. With current Nov 2019 commitments, emissions will be 56 Gt CO2e by 2030, twice the environmental target. To limit global temperature rise to 1.5°C, the global annual emission reduction needed is 7.6% emissions reduction every year between 2020 and 2030. The top four emitters (China, USA, EU28 and India) contribute to over 55% of the total emissions over the last decade, excluding emissions from land-use change such as deforestation. China’s emissions grew 1.6% in 2018 to reach a high of 13.7 Gt of CO2 equivalent. The US emits 13% of global emissions and emissions rose 2.5% in 2018. The EU emits 8.5% of global emissions has declined 1% per year across the last decade. Emissions declined 1.3% in 2018. India’s 7% of global emissions grew 5.5% in 2018. Emissions per capita is one of the lowest within the G20.[92]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Paris Agreement". United Nations Treaty Collection. 8 July 2016. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  2. ^ a b "Paris Climate Agreement Becomes International Law". ABC News. Archived from the original on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  3. ^ Also known as Paris climate accord or Paris climate agreement.
  4. ^ a b Sutter, John D.; Berlinger, Joshua (12 December 2015). "Final draft of climate deal formally accepted in Paris". CNN. Cable News Network, Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Archived from the original on 12 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  5. ^ "Paris climate talks: France releases 'ambitious, balanced' draft agreement at COP21". ABC Australia. 12 December 2015.
  6. ^ a b Article 3, Paris Agreement (2015)
  7. ^ a b "Paris climate accord marks shift toward low-carbon economy". Globe and Mail. Toronto, Canada. 14 December 2015. Archived from the original on 13 December 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  8. ^ a b c Mark, Kinver (14 December 2015). "COP21: What does the Paris climate agreement mean for me?". BBC News. BBC. Archived from the original on 14 December 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  9. ^ Lipton, Eric. "As Trump Dismantles Clean Air Rules, an Industry Lawyer Delivers for Ex-Clients". New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 August 2018. Retrieved 20 August 2018.
  10. ^ 1973-, Turner, James Morton; Isenberg, Andrew C. (2018). The Republican reversal : conservatives and the environment from Nixon to Trump. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. Epilogue. ISBN 9780674979970. OCLC 1023100262.
  11. ^ a b "Paris Agreement, FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1" (PDF). UNFCCC secretariat. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  12. ^ "European 20-20-20 Targets". RECS International. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
  13. ^ Vidal, John; Vaughan, Adam (13 December 2015). "Paris climate agreement 'may signal end of fossil fuel era'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  14. ^ "New Paris climate agreement ratifications reaffirm necessity to divest and break free from fossil fuels". 350.org. 21 September 2016. Archived from the original on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  15. ^ "U.S. and China announce steps to join the Paris accord that set nation-by-nation targets for cutting carbon emissions". Cbs news. 3 September 2016. Archived from the original on 3 September 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
  16. ^ Article 4(9), Paris Agreement (2015)
  17. ^ Articles 3, 9(3), Paris Agreement (2015)
  18. ^ Brunnee J, 'International Legislation', Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford University Press 2008)
  19. ^ Davenport, Coral (12 December 2015). "Nations Approve Landmark Climate Accord in Paris". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 December 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  20. ^ "Paris climate deal: What the agreement means for India and the world". Hindustan Times. 14 December 2015. Archived from the original on 14 December 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  21. ^ "Climate negotiators strike deal to slow global warming". CBS News. CBS Interactive Inc. 12 December 2015. Archived from the original on 13 December 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  22. ^ Druzin, Bryan (3 March 2016). "A Plan to strengthen the Paris Agreement". Fordham Law Review. Archived from the original on 4 August 2016.
  23. ^ "Paris Agreement, Decision 1/CP.21, Article 17" (PDF). UNFCCC secretariat. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2016.
  24. ^ Fountain, Henry (19 July 2016). "Global Temperatures Are on Course for Another Record This Year". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 July 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  25. ^ "A sweeping global climate change agreement was ratified on Wednesday". Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  26. ^ "Remarks by the President on the Paris Agreement". White House. 5 October 2016. Archived from the original on 14 May 2017. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  27. ^ a b c "The Paris Agreement "Ratchet Mechanism"". 19 January 2016. Archived from the original on 19 November 2016.
  28. ^ article 14 "Framework Convention on Climate Change" (PDF). United Nations FCCC Int. United Nations. 12 December 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  29. ^ Birnie P, Boyle A and Redgwell C (2009). "Chapter 3". International Law and the Environment. Oxford: OUP.
  30. ^ a b c d e f Taraska, Gwynne (15 December 2015). "The Paris Climate Agreement" (PDF). Center for American Progress. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 November 2016.
  31. ^ a b Sinha, Amitabh (14 December 2015). "Paris climate talks: Differentiation of developed and developing stays, India happy". Archived from the original on 20 September 2016.
  32. ^ Tørstad, Vegard; Sælen, Håkon (2018). "Fairness in the climate negotiations: what explains variation in parties' conceptions?". Climate Policy. 18 (5): 642–654. doi:10.1080/14693062.2017.1341372. hdl:11250/2479894.
  33. ^ a b "Article 6 Implementation Paper" (PDF). International Emissions Trading Association. 20 May 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 October 2016.
  34. ^ a b Stavins, Robert (2016). "Market Mechanisms in the Paris Climate Agreement: International Linkage under Article 6.2" (PDF). Harvard Project on Climate Agreements. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  35. ^ a b Marcu, Andrei (2016). "Governance of Carbon Markets under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement" (PDF). Harvard Project on Climate Agreements. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  36. ^ Hone, David (16 May 2016). "A Vision for Article 6 of the Paris Agreement". The Energy Collective. Archived from the original on 20 November 2016.
  37. ^ United Nations/ Framework Convention on Climate Change (2015) Adoption of the Paris Agreement, 21st Conference of the Parties, Paris: United Nations
  38. ^ "The Carbon Markets of Tomorrow: Taking Shape Today". Ecosystem Market Place. Retrieved 24 October 2016
  39. ^ Motta, Gabriele (18 May 2016) "Market Mechanisms: SDM is the new black!". CliM' Blog. Retrieved 23 October 2016
  40. ^ Marcu, Andrei. "Carbon Market Provisions in the Paris Agreement (Article 6)." Center for European Policy Studies (2016): n.p. Web. 9 October 2016.
  41. ^ Recommendations for Article 6 of the Paris Agreement." Carbon Market Watch. Carbon Market Watch, 19 May 2016. Web. 10 October 2016.
  42. ^ Böhm, Steffen. Upsetting the offset: the political economy of carbon markets. London: MayFlyBooks, 2009.
  43. ^ a b c Mogelgaard, Kathleen (23 December 2015). "What Does the Paris Agreement Mean for Climate Resilience and Adaptation". World Resources Institute. Archived from the original on 19 November 2016.
  44. ^ Morgan, Jennifer (12 December 2015). "The Paris Agreement: Turning Point for a Climate Solution". World Resources Institute. Archived from the original on 19 November 2016.
  45. ^ Thwaites, Joe (18 December 2015). "What Does the Paris Agreement do for Finance?". WRI. WRI. Archived from the original on 10 April 2017. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  46. ^ "COP21 climate change summit reaches deal in Paris". BBC News. BBC News Services. 13 December 2015. Archived from the original on 13 December 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  47. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 May 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  48. ^ "Roadmap to US$100 Billion" (PDF). OECD. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 November 2016.
  49. ^ Suzanne Goldenberg (8 March 2016). "Obama administration pays out $500m to climate change project | Environment". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  50. ^ Volcovici, Valerie (7 March 2016). "United States delivers first payment to global climate fund". Reuters. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  51. ^ a b "Framework Convention on Climate Change" (PDF). United Nations FCCC Int. United Nations. 12 December 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  52. ^ a b Mogelgaard, Kathleen (24 December 2015). "When Adaptation is Not Enough". World Resources Institute. Archived from the original on 8 October 2016.
  53. ^ a b "The Paris Agreement Summary" (PDF). Climate Focus. 28 December 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 May 2016.
  54. ^ a b c d "Putting the 'enhanced transparency framework' into action: Priorities for a key pillar of the Paris Agreement" (PDF). Stockholm Environment Institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 November 2016.
  55. ^ a b "'Today is an historic day,' says Ban, as 175 countries sign Paris climate accord". United Nations. 22 April 2016. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  56. ^ a b "Paris Agreement to enter into force as EU agrees ratification". European Commission. 4 October 2016. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  57. ^ "UN climate talks extend Kyoto Protocol, promise compensation". BBC News. 8 December 2012. Archived from the original on 16 July 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  58. ^ "UNFCCC:Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP)". Archived from the original on 2 August 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
  59. ^ "'Historic' Paris climate deal adopted". CBC News. CBC/Radio Canada. 12 December 2015. Archived from the original on 12 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  60. ^ "Article 20(1)" (PDF). UNFCCC.int. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  61. ^ "Information provided in accordance with paragraph 104 of decision 1 CP21 related to entry into force of the Paris Agreement (Article 21)" (PDF). UNFCCC. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 February 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  62. ^ Article 21(1)
  63. ^ a b "Historic Paris Agreement on Climate Change - 195 Nations Set Path to Keep Temperature Rise Well Below 2 Degrees Celsius". UN Climate Change Newsroom. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 12 December 2015. Archived from the original on 17 January 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  64. ^ McGrath, Matt (31 March 2016). "Paris Climate Treaty: 'Significant step' as US and China agree to sign". Bbc.com. Archived from the original on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  65. ^ Obama and President Xi of China Vow to Sign Paris Climate Agreement Promptly Archived 21 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine 1 April 2016
  66. ^ "PARIS AGREEMENT Signature Ceremony" (PDF). UNFCCC. 22 April 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  67. ^ Yeo, Sophie (23 June 2016). "Explainer: When will the European Union ratify the Paris Agreement?". Archived from the original on 5 September 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
  68. ^ a b Schiermeier, Quirin (4 October 2016). "Paris climate deal to take effect as EU ratifies accord". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2016.20735. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  69. ^ Gebru Jember Endalew (27 August 2017). "Addressing our climate reality". D+C, development and cooperation. Archived from the original on 5 October 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  70. ^ "There is still no room for complacency in matters climatic". The Economist. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  71. ^ "Paris climate deal: US and China formally join pact" Archived 2 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 3 September 2016 (page visited on 4 September 2016).
  72. ^ "India Ratifies Landmark Paris Climate Deal, Says, 'Kept Our Promise'". Archived from the original on 3 October 2016. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  73. ^ "Reference: C.N.464.2017.TREATIES-XXVII.7.d (Depositary Notification)" (PDF). United Nations. 8 August 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 August 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  74. ^ "Trump administration delivers notice U.S. intends to withdraw from Paris climate deal". POLITICO. Archived from the original on 4 August 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  75. ^ Producer, Kevin Liptak, CNN White House. "WH: US staying out of climate accord". CNN. Archived from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  76. ^ Dennis, Brady. "Trump makes it official: U.S. will withdraw from the Paris climate accord". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  77. ^ "What is transparency and reporting? | UNFCCC". unfccc.int. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  78. ^ "Seventh National Communications - Annex I | UNFCCC". unfccc.int. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  79. ^ "National Communication submissions from Non-Annex I Parties | UNFCCC". unfccc.int. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  80. ^ "National Communication submissions from Non-Annex I Parties | UNFCCC". unfccc.int. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  81. ^ Lesnikowski, Alexandra C.; Ford, James D.; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Barrera, Magda; Heymann, Jody (1 February 2015). "How are we adapting to climate change? A global assessment". Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 20 (2): 277–293. doi:10.1007/s11027-013-9491-x. ISSN 1573-1596.
  82. ^ Victor, David G.; Akimoto, Keigo; Kaya, Yoichi; Yamaguchi, Mitsutsune; Cullenward, Danny; Hepburn, Cameron (3 August 2017). "Prove Paris was more than paper promises". Nature. 548 (7665): 25–27. doi:10.1038/548025a. PMID 28770856.
  83. ^ Rogelj, Joeri; den Elzen, Michel; Höhne, Niklas; Fransen, Taryn; Fekete, Hanna; Winkler, Harald; Schaeffer, Roberto; Sha, Fu; Riahi, Keywan; Meinshausen, Malte (30 June 2016). "Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C" (PDF). Nature. 534 (7609): 631–639. doi:10.1038/nature18307. PMID 27357792.
  84. ^ Mooney, Chris (29 June 2016). "The world has the right climate goals – but the wrong ambition levels to achieve them". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 29 June 2016. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  85. ^ Harvey, Fiona (3 November 2016). "World on track for 3 °C of warming under current global climate pledges, warns UN". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  86. ^ Mark Dwortzan (22 April 2016). "How much of a difference will the Paris Agreement make?". Archived from the original on 21 November 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  87. ^ Climate Action Tracker
  88. ^ "Domino-effect of climate events could push Earth into a 'hothouse' state". The Guardian. 2018. Archived from the original on 7 August 2018. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  89. ^ Paltan, Homero; Allen, Myles; Haustein, Karsten; Fuldauer, Lena; Dadson, Simon (2018). "Global implications of 1.5 °C and 2 °C warmer worlds on extreme river flows". Environmental Research Letters. 13 (9): 094003. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aad985. ISSN 1748-9326.
  90. ^ a b Milman, Oliver (12 December 2015). "James Hansen, father of climate change awareness, calls Paris talks 'a fraud'". The Guardian. London, England. Archived from the original on 14 December 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  91. ^ M. Nicolas J. Firzli (25 January 2016). "Investment Governance: The Real Fight against Emissions is Being Waged by Markets" (PDF). Dow Jones Financial News. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  92. ^ https://www.unenvironment.org/interactive/emissions-gap-report/2019/ Emissions Gap Report 2019 Global progress report on climate action] UNEP Nov 2019

Further reading

External links

Media related to Paris Agreement at Wikimedia Commons

29 October 2015

China announces the end of One child policy after 35 years.

One-child policy

One-child policy
Chinese family with one child at Beihai Park, Beijing.jpg
A Chinese family with one child in a park
Chinese一孩政策
Alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese独生子女政策
Traditional Chinese獨生子女政策

China's one-child policy was part of a birth planning program designed to control the size of its rapidly growing population.[1] Distinct from the family planning policies of most other countries (which focus on providing contraceptive options to help women have the number of children they want), it set a limit on the number of births parents could have, the world's most extreme example of population planning. It was introduced in 1979 (after a decade-long two-child policy),[2] modified beginning in the mid 1980s to allow rural parents a second child if the first was a daughter, and then lasted three more decades before being eliminated at the end of 2015. The policy also allowed exceptions for some other groups, including ethnic minorities. Thus, the term "one-child policy" has been called a "misnomer", because for nearly 30 of the 36 years that it existed (1979–2015), about half of all parents in China were allowed to have a second child.[3][4][5]

To enforce existing birth limits (of one or two children), provincial governments could, and did, require the use of contraception, sterilizations and abortions to ensure compliance, and imposed enormous fines for violations. Local and national governments created commissions to promote the program and monitor compliance. China also rewarded families with only one child. From 1982 onwards, in accordance with the instructions on further family planning issued by the CPC central committee and the state council in that year, regulations awarded 5 yuan per month for families with one child. Parents who had only one child would also get a "one-child glory certificate".[6]

According to China's government, 400 million births were prevented. Originally, this estimate referred to the full birth program starting from 1970, although more recently the numbers have been attributed to one-child restrictions since 1980. Several scholars have disputed the official claim, contending that the one-child program had little effect on birth rates or the size of the total population when one considers the large drop in fertility in the two-child decade preceding it.[7][8][9] China has been compared to countries such as Thailand, along with the Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, which experienced similar declines of fertility without a one-child policy.[10] Another study takes such arguments even further based on a model which implies that the one-child program, contrary to popular belief and its government's intentions, had a pronatal effect that raised birth rates above what they otherwise would have been.[11] Yet this latter study has itself been disputed as an implausible "erasure of the impact of this program from history.[12] Moreover, the comparative models proposed by those dismissing official estimates as exaggerations [11][8] imply that China's birth planning since 1970 has already averted between 600 and 700 million births, a number projected to grow to one billion or more by 2060 given the averted descendants of the births originally averted by policy.[13][14][15][12] The real dispute concerns what portion of these total averted births (and population) are due to China's tightened one-child program as opposed to the two-child program that preceded it.

Although 76% of Chinese people said that they supported the policy in a 2008 survey, it was controversial outside of China.[16]. Effective from January 2016, the national birth planning policy became a universal two-child policy that allowed each couple to have two children.[17][18]

China's population since 1950

Background

Birth rate in China

During the period of Mao Zedong's leadership in China, the birth rate fell from 37 per thousand to 20 per thousand.[19] Infant mortality declined from 227 per thousand births in 1949 to 53 per thousand in 1981, and life expectancy dramatically increased from around 35 years in 1948 to 66 years in 1976.[19][20] Until the 1960s, the government encouraged families to have as many children as possible[21] because of Mao's belief that population growth empowered the country, preventing the emergence of family planning programs earlier in China's development.[22] The population grew from around 540 million in 1949 to 940 million in 1976.[23] Beginning in 1970, citizens were required to marry at later ages and many were limited to have only two children.[2]

Although China's fertility rate plummeted faster than anywhere else in the world during the 1970s under these restrictions, the Chinese government thought that fertility was still too high, influenced by the global debate over a possible overpopulation catastrophe suggested by organizations such as Club of Rome and Sierra Club. It thus began to encourage one-child families in 1978, and then announced in 1979 its intention to advocate for one-child families. In 1980, the central government organized a meeting in Chengdu to discuss the speed and scope of one-child restrictions.[2]

One participant at the Chengdu meeting had read two influential books about population concerns, The Limits to Growth and A Blueprint for Survival while visiting Europe in 1979. That official, Song Jian, along with several associates, determined that the ideal population of China was 700 million, and that a universal one-child policy for all would be required to meet that goal.[24] Moreover, Song and his group showed that if fertility rates remained constant at 3 births per woman, China's population would surpass 3 billion by 2060 and 4 billion by 2080.[2] In spite of some criticism inside the party, the plan (also referred to as the Family Planning Policy[25]) was formally implemented as a temporary measure on 18 September 1980.[26][27][28][29] The plan called for families to have one child each in order to curb a then-surging population and alleviate social, economic, and environmental problems in China.[30][31]

Although a recent and often-repeated interpretation by Greenhalgh claims that Song Jian was the central architect of the one-child policy and that he "hijacked" the population policymaking process,[32] that claim has been refuted by several leading scholars, including Liang Zhongtang, a leading internal critic of one-child restrictions and an eye-witness at the discussions in Chengdu.[33] In the words of Wang et al., "the idea of the one-child policy came from leaders within the Party, not from scientists who offered evidence to support it”[7] Central officials had already decided in 1979 to advocate for one-child restrictions before knowing of Song's work and, upon learning of his work in 1980, already seemed sympathetic to his position.[34] Moreover, even if Song's work convinced them to proceed with universal one-child restrictions in 1980, the policy was loosened to a "1.5"-child policy just five years later, and it is that policy which has been misrepresented since as the "one-child policy." Thus, it is misleading to suggest that Song Jian was either the inventor or architect of the policy.

History

The one-child policy was originally designed to be a "One-Generation Policy".[35] It was enforced at the provincial level and enforcement varied; some provinces had more relaxed restrictions. The one-child limit was most strictly enforced in densely populated urban areas.[36]. When this policy was first introduced, 6.1 million families that had already given birth to a child were given the "One Child Honorary Certificates." This was a pledge they had to make to ensure they would not have more children.[37]

Beginning in 1980, the official policy granted local officials the flexibility to make exceptions and allow second children in the case of "practical difficulties" (such as cases in which the father was a disabled serviceman) or when both parents were single children,[38] and some provinces had other exemptions worked into their policies as well. In most areas, families were allowed to apply to have a second child if their first-born was a daughter.[39][40] Furthermore, families with children with disabilities have different policies and families whose first child suffers from physical disability, mental illness, or intellectual disability were allowed to have more children.[41] However, second children were sometimes subject to birth spacing (usually 3 or 4 years). Children born in overseas countries were not counted under the policy if they did not obtain Chinese citizenship. Chinese citizens returning from abroad were allowed to have a second child.[42] Sichuan province allowed exemptions for couples of certain backgrounds.[43] By one estimate there were at least 22 ways in which parents could qualify for exceptions to the law towards the end of the one-child policy's existence.[44] As of 2007, only 36% of the population were subjected to a strict one-child limit. 53% were permitted to have a second child if their first was a daughter; 9.6% of Chinese couples were permitted two children regardless of their gender; and 1.6% – mainly Tibetans – had no limit at all.[45]

The Danshan, Sichuan Province Nongchang Village people Public Affairs Bulletin Board in September 2005 noted that RMB 25,000 in social compensation fees were owed in 2005. Thus far 11,500 RMB had been collected, so another 13,500 RMB had to be collected.

Following the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, a new exception to the regulations was announced in Sichuan for parents who had lost children in the earthquake.[46][47] Similar exceptions had previously been made for parents of severely disabled or deceased children.[48] People have also tried to evade the policy by giving birth to a second child in Hong Kong, but at least for Guangdong residents, the one-child policy was also enforced if the birth was given in Hong Kong or abroad.[49]

In accordance with China's affirmative action policies towards ethnic minorities, all non-Han ethnic groups are subjected to different laws and were usually allowed to have two children in urban areas, and three or four in rural areas. Han Chinese living in rural towns were also permitted to have two children.[50] Because of couples such as these, as well as who simply pay a fine (or "social maintenance fee") to have more children,[51] the overall fertility rate of mainland China was close to 1.4 children per woman as of 2011.[52]

On 6 January 2010, the former national population and family planning commission issued the "national population development" 12th five-year plan.[53]

Enforcement

Chinese One-Child Policy propaganda from 1982

Financial

The Family Planning Policy was enforced through a financial penalty in the form of the "social child-raising fee", sometimes called a "family planning fine" in the West, which was collected as a fraction of either the annual disposable income of city dwellers or of the annual cash income of peasants, in the year of the child's birth.[54] For instance, in Guangdong, the fee was between 3 and 6 annual incomes for incomes below the per capita income of the district, plus 1 to 2 times the annual income exceeding the average. The family was required to pay the fine.[55]

Mandatory contraception and sterilization

As part of the policy, women were required to have a contraceptive intrauterine device (IUD) surgically installed after having a first child, and to be sterilized by tubal ligation after having a second child. From 1980 to 2014, 324 million Chinese women were fitted with IUDs in this way and 108 million were sterilized. Women who refused these procedures – which many resented – could lose their government employment and their children could lose access to education or health services. The IUDs installed in this way were modified such that they could not be removed manually, but only through surgery.

In 2016, following the abolition of the one-child policy, the Chinese government announced that IUD removals would now be paid for by the government.[56]

Relaxation

In 2013, Deputy Director Wang Peian of the National Health and Family Planning Commission said that "China's population will not grow substantially in the short term".[57] A survey by the commission found that only about half of eligible couples wish to have two children, mostly because of the cost of living impact of a second child.[58]

In November 2013, following the Third Plenum of the 18th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, China announced the decision to relax the one-child policy. Under the new policy, families could have two children if one parent, rather than both parents, was an only child.[59][60] This mainly applied to urban couples, since there were very few rural only children due to long-standing exceptions to the policy for rural couples.[61] Zhejiang, one of the most affluent provinces, became the first area to implement this "relaxed policy" in January 2014,[62] and 29 out of the 31 provinces had implemented it by July 2014,[63] with the exceptions of Xinjiang and Tibet. Under this policy, approximately 11 million couples in China are allowed to have a second child; however, only "nearly one million" couples applied to have a second child in 2014,[64] less than half the expected number of 2 million per year.[63] By May 2014, 241,000 out of 271,000 applications had been approved. Officials of China's National Health and Family Planning Commission claimed that this outcome was expected, and that "second-child policy" would continue progressing with a good start.[65]

Abolition

In October 2015, the Chinese news agency Xinhua announced plans of the government to abolish the one-child policy, now allowing all families to have two children, citing from a communiqué issued by the Communist Party "to improve the balanced development of population" – an apparent reference to the country's female-to-male sex ratio – and to deal with an aging population according to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.[30][66][67][68][69][70][71][72] The new law took effect on 1 January 2016 after it was passed in the standing committee of the National People's Congress on 27 December 2015.[73][74]

The rationale for the abolition was summarized by former Wall Street Journal reporter Mei Fong: "The reason China is doing this right now is because they have too many men, too many old people, and too few young people. They have this huge crushing demographic crisis as a result of the one-child policy. And if people don't start having more children, they're going to have a vastly diminished workforce to support a huge aging population."[75] China's ratio is about five working adults to one retiree; the huge retiree community must be supported, and that will dampen future growth, according to Fong.

Since the citizens of China are living longer and having fewer children, the growth of the population imbalance is expected to continue, as reported by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation which referred to a United Nations projections forecast that "China will lose 67 million working-age people by 2030, while simultaneously doubling the number of elderly. That could put immense pressure on the economy and government resources."[30] The longer term outlook is also pessimistic, based on an estimate by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, revealed by Cai Fang, deputy director. "By 2050, one-third of the country will be aged 60 years or older, and there will be fewer workers supporting each retired person."[76]

Although many critics of China's reproductive restrictions approve of the policy's abolition, Amnesty International said that the move to the two-child policy would not end forced sterilizations, forced abortions, or government control over birth permits.[77][78] Others also stated that the abolition is not a sign of the relaxation of authoritarian control in China. A reporter for CNN said, "It was not a sign that the party will suddenly start respecting personal freedoms more than it has in the past. No, this is a case of the party adjusting policy to conditions. ... The new policy, raising the limit to two children per couple, preserves the state's role."[79][80]

The abolition may not achieve a significant benefit, as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation analysis indicated: "Repealing the one-child policy may not spur a huge baby boom, however, in part because fertility rates are believed to be declining even without the policy's enforcement. Previous easings of the one-child policy have spurred fewer births than expected, and many people among China's younger generations see smaller family sizes as ideal."[30] The CNN reporter adds that China's new prosperity is also a factor in the declining[76] birth rate, saying, "Couples naturally decide to have fewer children as they move from the fields into the cities, become more educated, and when women establish careers outside the home."[79]

The Chinese government had expected the abolishing of the one-child rule would lead to an increase in births to about 21.9 million births in 2018. The actual number of births was 15.2 million - the lowest birth rate since 1961.[81]

Administration

The one-child policy was managed by the National Population and Family Planning Commission under the central government since 1981. The Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China and the National Health and Family Planning Commission were made defunct and a new single agency National Health and Family Planning Commission took over national health and family planning policies in 2013. The agency reports to the State Council.

The policy was enforced at the provincial level through fines that were imposed based on the income of the family and other factors. "Population and Family Planning Commissions" existed at every level of government to raise awareness and carry out registration and inspection work.[82]

Effects

Fertility reduction: Debates over the roles of policy vs. socio-economic change

The progression of China's population pyramid, International Futures.

The fertility rate in China continued its fall from 2.8 births per woman in 1979 (already a sharp reduction from more than five births per woman in the early 1970s) to 1.5 by the mid 1990s. Some scholars claim that this decline is similar to that observed in other places that had no one-child restrictions, such as Thailand as well as Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, a claim designed to support the argument that China's fertility might have fallen to such levels anyway without draconian fertility restrictions.[7][83][10][84]

According to a 2017 study in the Journal of Economic Perspectives, "the one-child policy accelerated the already-occurring drop in fertility for a few years, but in the longer term, economic development played a more fundamental role in leading to and maintaining China's low fertility level.".[85] However, a more recent study found that China's fertility decline to very low levels by the mid 1990s was far more impressive given its lower level of socio-economic development at that time;[15] even after taking rapid economic development into account, China's fertility restrictions likely averted over 500 million births between 1970 and 2015, with the portion caused by one-child restrictions possibly totaling 400 million.[13] Fertility restrictions also had other unintended consequences, such as a deficit of 40 million female babies. Most of this deficit was due to sex-selective abortion as well as the 1.5 child stopping rule, which required rural parents to stop childbearing if their first born was a son.[86] Another consequence was the acceleration of the aging of China's population.[87][88]

Disparity in sex ratio at birth

The sex ratio at birth in People's Republic of China, males per 100 females, 1980–2010.

The sex ratio of a newborn infant (between male and female births) in mainland China reached 117:100, and stabilized between 2000 and 2013, about 10% higher than the baseline, which ranges between 103:100 and 107:100. It had risen from 108:100 in 1981—at the boundary of the natural baseline—to 111:100 in 1990.[89] According to a report by the National Population and Family Planning Commission, there will be 30 million more men than women in 2020, potentially leading to social instability, and courtship-motivated emigration.[90] The number of 30 million cited for the sex disparity is, however, likely very exaggerated, as birth statistics is skewed by late registrations and unreported births: for instance, researchers found that census statistics of women in later stages of their life do not match with the birth statistics.[91]

The disparity in the gender ratio at birth increases dramatically after the first birth, for which the ratios remained steadily within the natural baseline over the 20 year interval between 1980 and 1999. Thus, a large majority of couples appear to accept the outcome of the first pregnancy, whether it is a boy or a girl. If the first child is a girl, and they are able to have a second child, then a couple may take extraordinary steps to assure that the second child is a boy. If a couple already has two or more boys, the sex ratio of higher parity births swings decidedly in a feminine direction. This demographic evidence indicates that while families highly value having male offspring, a secondary norm of having a girl or having some balance in the sexes of children often comes into play. Zeng 1993 reported a study based on the 1990 census in which they found sex ratios of just 65 or 70 boys per 100 girls for births in families that already had two or more boys.[92] A study by Anderson & Silver (1995) found a similar pattern among both Han and non-Han nationalities in Xinjiang Province: a strong preference for girls in high parity births in families that had already borne two or more boys.[93] This tendency to favour girls in high parity births to couples who had already borne sons was later also noted by Coale and Banister, who suggested as well that once a couple had achieved its goal for the number of males, it was also much more likely to engage in "stopping behavior", i.e., to stop having more children.[94]

The long-term disparity has led to a significant gender imbalance or skewing of the sex ratio. As reported by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, China has between 32 million and 36 million more males than would be expected naturally, and this has led to social problems. "Because of a traditional preference for baby boys over girls, the one-child policy is often cited as the cause of China's skewed sex ratio ... Even the government acknowledges the problem and has expressed concern about the tens of millions of young men who won't be able to find brides and may turn to kidnapping women, sex trafficking, other forms of crime or social unrest."[30] The situation will not improve in the near future. According to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, there will be 24 million more men than women of marriageable age by 2020.[95]

Education

According to a 2017 study in the Journal of Economic Perspectives, "existing studies indicate either a modest or minimal effect of the fertility change induced by the one-child policy on children education".[85]

Adoption and abandonment

A roadside sign in rural Sichuan: "It is forbidden to discriminate against, mistreat or abandon baby girls."

For parents who had "unauthorized" births or who wanted a son but had a daughter, giving up the child for adoption was a kind of strategy to avoid penalties under one-child restrictions. Many families also kept their illegal children hidden so they would not be punished by the government.[96] In fact, "out adoption" was not uncommon in China even before birth planning. In the 1980s, adoptions of daughters accounted for slightly above half of the so-called "missing girls", as out-adopted daughters often went unreported in censuses and survey and adoptive parents were not penalized for violating birth quota.[97] However, in 1991, a central decree attempted to close off this loophole by raising penalties and levying those penalties on any household that had an "unauthorized" child, including those that had adopted children.[98] This closing of the adoption loophole resulted in the abandonment of some two million Chinese children (mostly daughters),[15] many of whom ended up in orphanages, some 120,000 of whom would be adopted by international parents.

The peak wave of abandonment occurred in the 1990s, with a smaller wave after 2000.[98] Around the same time, poor care and high mortality rates in some state orphanages generated intense international pressure for reform.[99][100]

After 2005, the number of international adoptions declined, due both to falling birth rates and the related increase in demand for adoptions by Chinese parents themselves. In an interview with National Public Radio on 30 October 2015, Adam Pertman,[101] president and CEO of the National Center on Adoption and Permanency, indicated that "the infant girls of yesteryear have not been available, if you will, for five, seven years. China has been ... trying to keep the girls within the country ... And the consequence is that, today, rather than those young girls who used to be available – primarily girls – today, it's older children, children with special needs, children in sibling groups. It's very, very different."[102]

Twins

Since there are no penalties for multiple births, it is believed that an increasing number of couples are turning to fertility medicines to induce the conception of twins. According to a 2006 China Daily report, the number of twins born per year was estimated to have doubled.[timeframe?][103]

Quality of life for women

The one-child policy's limit on the number of children resulted in new mothers having more resources to start investing money in their own well-being. As a result of being an only child, women have increased opportunity to receive an education, and support to get better jobs. One of the side effects of the one-child policy is to have liberated women from heavy duties in terms of taking care of many children and the family in the past; instead women had a lot of spare time for themselves to pursue their career or hobbies. The other major "side effect" of the one child policy is that the traditional concepts of gender roles between men and women have weakened. Being one and the only "chance" the parents have, women are expected to compete with peer men for better educational resources or career opportunities. Especially in cities where one-child policy was much more regulated and enforced, expectations on women to succeed in life are no less than on men. Recent data has shown that the proportion of women attending college is higher than that of men. The policy also has a positive effect of the policy fines at 10 to 19 years of age on the likelihood of completing senior high school in women of Han ethnicity. At the same time, the one-child policy reduces the economic burden for each family. The condition for each family has become better. As a result, women also have much more freedom within the family. They are supported by their family to pursue their life achievements.[104]

Healthcare improvements

It is reported that the focus of China on population planning helps provide a better health service for women and a reduction in the risks of death and injury associated with pregnancy. At family planning offices, women receive free contraception and pre-natal classes that contributed to the policy's success in two respects. First, the average Chinese household expends fewer resources, both in terms of time and money, on children, which gives many Chinese people more money with which to invest. Second, since Chinese adults can no longer rely on children to care for them in their old age, there is an impetus to save money for the future.[105]

"Four-two-one" problem

A white sign with two lines of red Chinese characters and a smaller one beneath them on a background of white tile
A government sign in Tangshan Township: "For a prosperous, powerful nation and a happy family, please practice family planning."

As the first generation of law-enforced only-children came of age for becoming parents themselves, one adult child was left with having to provide support for his or her two parents and four grandparents.[106][107] Called the "4-2-1 Problem", this leaves the older generations with increased chances of dependency on retirement funds or charity in order to receive support. If not for personal savings, pensions, or state welfare, most senior citizens would be left entirely dependent upon their very small family or neighbours for assistance. If for any reason, the single child is unable to care for their older adult relatives, the oldest generations would face a lack of resources and necessities. In response to such an issue, by 2007, all provinces in the nation except Henan had adopted a new policy allowing couples to have two children if both parents were only children themselves;[108][failed verification][109] Henan followed in 2011.[110]

Unregistered children

Heihaizi (Chinese: 黑孩子; pinyin: hēiháizi) or "black child" is a term denoting children born outside the one-child policy, or generally children who are not registered in the Chinese national household registration system.

Being excluded from the family register means they do not possess a Hukou, which is "an identifying document, similar in some ways to the American social security card."[111] In this respect they do not legally exist and as a result cannot access most public services, such as education and health care, and do not receive protection under the law.[112][113][114]

Potential social problems

Some parents may over-indulge their only child. The media referred to the indulged children in one-child families as "little emperors".[115] Since the 1990s, some people have worried that this will result in a higher tendency toward poor social communication and cooperation skills amongst the new generation, as they have no siblings at home. No social studies have investigated the ratio of these so-called "over-indulged" children and to what extent they are indulged. With the first generation of children born under the policy (which initially became a requirement for most couples with first children born starting in 1979 and extending into the 1980s) reaching adulthood, such worries were reduced.[116]

However, the "little emperor syndrome" and additional expressions, describing the generation of Chinese singletons are very abundant in the Chinese media, Chinese academia and popular discussions. Being over-indulged, lacking self-discipline and having no adaptive capabilities are traits that are highly associated with Chinese singletons.[117]

Some 30 delegates called on the government in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in March 2007 to abolish the one-child rule, citing "social problems and personality disorders in young people". One statement read, "It is not healthy for children to play only with their parents and be spoiled by them: it is not right to limit the number to two children per family, either."[118] The proposal was prepared by Ye Tingfang, a professor at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, who suggested that the government at least restore the previous rule that allowed couples to have up to two children. According to a scholar, "The one-child limit is too extreme. It violates nature's law. And in the long run, this will lead to mother nature's revenge."[118][119]

Birth tourism

Reports surfaced of Chinese women giving birth to their second child overseas, a practice known as birth tourism. Many went to Hong Kong, which is exempt from the one-child policy. Likewise, a Hong Kong passport differs from China's mainland passport by providing additional advantages. Recently though, the Hong Kong government has drastically reduced the quota of births set for non-local women in public hospitals. As a result, fees for delivering babies there have surged. As further admission cuts or a total ban on non-local births in Hong Kong are being considered, mainland agencies that arrange for expectant mothers to give birth overseas are predicting a surge in those going to North America.[120][unreliable source?]

As the United States practises birthright citizenship, all children born in the US will automatically have US citizenship. The closest US location from China is Saipan in the Northern Mariana Islands, a US dependency in the western Pacific Ocean that allows Chinese visitors without visa restrictions. As of 2012, the island was experiencing an upswing in Chinese births, since birth tourism there had become cheaper than to Hong Kong. This option is used by relatively affluent Chinese who often have secondary motives as well, wishing their children to be able to leave mainland China when they grow older or bring their parents to the US. Canada, compared to the US, is less achievable as their government denies many visa requests.[121][122]

Sex-selective abortion

Due to the preference in Rural Chinese society to give birth to a son,[123] pre-natal sex determination and sex-selective abortions are illegal in China.[124] Often argued as one of the key factors in the imbalanced sex-ratio in China, as excess female infant mortality and underreporting of female births cannot solely explain this gender disparity.[125] Researchers have found that the gender of the firstborn child in rural parts of China impact whether or not the mother will seek an ultrasound for the second child. 40% of women with a firstborn son seek an ultrasound for their second pregnancy, versus 70% of women with firstborn daughters. This clearly depicts a desire for women to birth a son if one has not yet been birthed.[126] In response to this, the Chinese government made sex-selective abortions illegal in 2005.[126]

Criticism

The policy is controversial outside China for many reasons, including accusations of human rights abuses in the implementation of the policy, as well as concerns about negative social consequences.[127]

Statement of the effect of the policy on birth reduction

The Chinese government, quoting Zhai Zhenwu, director of Renmin University's School of Sociology and Population in Beijing, estimates that 400 million births were prevented by the one-child policy as of 2011, while some demographers challenge that number, putting the figure at perhaps half that level, according to CNN.[128] Zhai clarified that the 400 million estimate referred not just to the one-child policy, but includes births prevented by predecessor policies implemented one decade before, stating that "there are many different numbers out there but it doesn't change the basic fact that the policy prevented a really large number of births".[129]

This claim is disputed by Wang Feng, director of the Brookings-Tsinghua Center for Public Policy, and Cai Yong from the Carolina Population Center at University of North Carolina Chapel Hill[129] Wang claims that "Thailand and China have had almost identical fertility trajectories since the mid 1980s", and "Thailand does not have a one-child policy."[129] China's Health Ministry has also disclosed that at least 336 million abortions were performed on account of the policy.[130]

According to a report by the US Embassy, scholarship published by Chinese scholars and their presentations at the October 1997 Beijing conference of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population seemed to suggest that market-based incentives or increasing voluntariness is not morally better but that it is, in the end, more effective.[131] In 1988, Zeng Yi and Professor T. Paul Schultz of Yale University discussed the effect of the transformation to the market on Chinese fertility, arguing that the introduction of the contract responsibility system in agriculture during the early 1980s weakened family planning controls during that period.[132] Zeng contended that the "big cooking pot" system of the People's Communes had insulated people from the costs of having many children. By the late 1980s, economic costs and incentives created by the contract system were already reducing the number of children farmers wanted.

A long-term experiment in a county in Shanxi, in which the family planning law was suspended, suggested that families would not have many more children even if the law were abolished.[44] A 2003 review of the policy-making process behind the adoption of the one-child policy shows that less intrusive options, including those that emphasized delay and spacing of births, were known but not fully considered by China's political leaders.[133]

Unequal enforcement

Corrupted government officials and especially wealthy individuals have often been able to violate the policy in spite of fines.[134] Filmmaker Zhang Yimou had three children and was subsequently fined 7.48 million yuan ($1.2 million).[135] For example, between 2000 and 2005, as many as 1,968 officials in Hunan province were found to be violating the policy, according to the provincial family planning commission; also exposed by the commission were 21 national and local lawmakers, 24 political advisors, 112 entrepreneurs and 6 senior intellectuals.[134]

Some of the offending officials did not face penalties,[134] although the government did respond by raising fines and calling on local officials to "expose the celebrities and high-income people who violate the family planning policy and have more than one child".[134] Also, people who lived in the rural areas of China were allowed to have two children without punishment, although the family is required to wait a couple of years before having another child.[136]

Human rights violations

The one-child policy has been challenged for violating a human right to determine the size of one's own proper family. According to a 1968 proclamation of the International Conference on Human Rights, "Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children."[137][138]

According to the UK newspaper The Daily Telegraph, a quota of 20,000 abortions and sterilizations was set for Huaiji County, Guangdong in one year due to reported disregard of the one-child policy. According to the article local officials were being pressured into purchasing portable ultrasound devices to identify abortion candidates in remote villages. The article also reported that women as far along as 8.5 months pregnant were forced to abort, usually by an injection of saline solution.[139] A 1993 book by social scientist and conservative political activist Steven W. Mosher reported that women in their ninth month of pregnancy, or already in labour, were having their children killed whilst in the birth canal or immediately after birth.[140]

According to a 2005 news report by Australian Broadcasting Corporation correspondent John Taylor, China outlawed the use of physical force to make a woman submit to an abortion or sterilization in 2002 but ineffectively enforces the measure.[141] In 2012, Feng Jianmei, a villager from Shaanxi province was forced into an abortion by local officials after her family refused to pay the fine for having a second child. Chinese authorities have since apologized and two officials were fired, while five others were sanctioned.[142]

In the past, China promoted eugenics as part of its population planning policies, but the government has backed away from such policies, as evidenced by China's ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which compels the nation to significantly reform its genetic testing laws.[143] Recent[when?] research has also emphasized the necessity of understanding a myriad of complex social relations that affect the meaning of informed consent in China.[144] Furthermore, in 2003, China revised its marriage registration regulations and couples no longer have to submit to a pre-marital physical or genetic examination before being granted a marriage license.[145]

The United Nations Population Fund's (UNFPA) support for family planning in China, which has been associated with the One-Child policy in the United States, led the United States Congress to pull out of the UNFPA during the Reagan administration,[146] and again under George W. Bush's presidency, citing human rights abuses[147] and stating that the right to "found a family" was protected under the Preamble in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[148] President Obama resumed U.S. government financial support for the UNFPA shortly after taking office in 2009, intending to "work collaboratively to reduce poverty, improve the health of women and children, prevent HIV/AIDS and provide family planning assistance to women in 154 countries".[149][150]

Effect on infanticide rates

Sex-selected abortion, abandonment, and infanticide are illegal in China. Nevertheless, the United States Department of State,[151] the Parliament of the United Kingdom,[152] and the human rights organization Amnesty International[153] have all declared that infanticide still exists.[154][155][156] A writer for the Georgetown Journal of International Affairs wrote, "The 'one-child' policy has also led to what Amartya Sen first called 'Missing Women', or the 100 million girls 'missing' from the populations of China (and other developing countries) as a result of female infanticide, abandonment, and neglect".[157]

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation offered the following summary as to the long term effects of sex-selective abortion and abandonment of female infants:

Multiple research studies have also found that sex-selective abortion – where a woman undergoes an ultrasound to determine the sex of her baby, and then aborts it if it's a girl – was widespread for years, particularly for second or subsequent children. Millions of female fetuses have been aborted since the 1970s. China outlawed sex selective abortions in 2005, but the law is tough to enforce because of the difficulty of proving why a couple decided to have an abortion. The abandonment, and killing, of baby girls has also been reported, though recent research studies say it has become rare, in part due to strict criminal prohibitions.[30]

Anthropologist G. William Skinner at the University of California, Davis and Chinese researcher Yuan Jianhua have claimed that infanticide was fairly common in China before the 1990s.[158]

In popular culture

  • Ball, David (2002). China Run. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-74322743-8. A novel about an American woman who travels to China to adopt an orphan of the one-child policy, only to find herself a fugitive when the Chinese government informs her that she has been given "the wrong baby".
  • The prevention of a state-imposed abortion during labor to conform with the one child policy is a key plot point in Tom Clancy's novel The Bear and the Dragon.
  • The difficulties of implementing the one-child policy are dramatized in Mo Yan's novel Frog (2009; English translation by Howard Goldblatt, 2015).
  • Avoiding the family-planning enforcers is at the heart of Ma Jian's novel The Dark Road (translated by Flora Drew, 2013).
  • Novelist Lu Min writes about her own family's experience with the One Child Policy in her essay "A Second Pregnancy, 1980" (translated by Helen Wang, 2015).[159]
  • Xue, Xinran (2015). Buy Me the Sky. Rider (imprint). ISBN 978-1-8460-4471-7. Tells the stories of the children brought up under China's one-child policy and the effect that has had on their lives, families and ability to deal with life's challenges, the fact was that China's population was spiralling out of control.
  • Fong, Mei (2016). One Child: The Story of China's Most Radical Experiment. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 9780544275393.

See also

General:

References

  1. ^ "One Child Nation". Amazon Studios. 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d Scharping, Thomas (2003). Birth control in China 1949–2000: Population policy and demographic development. London: Routledge.
  3. ^ Hesketh, T; Zhu, SX (1997). "The one-child family policy: the good, the bad, and the ugly". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 314 (7095): 1685–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7095.1685. PMC 2126838. PMID 9193296.
  4. ^ Greenhalgh, Susan (2001). "Fresh Winds in Beijing: Chinese Feminists Speak Out on the One-child Policy and Women's Lives". Signs. 26 (3): 847–886. doi:10.1086/495630. JSTOR 3175541. PMID 17607875.
  5. ^ Lauster, Nathaneal; Allen, Graham (2011). The End of Children? Changing Trends in Childbearing and Childhood. UBC Press. p. 1980.
  6. ^ "China’s One-Child Policy: Urban and Rural Pressures, Anxieties, and Problems". World Report News. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  7. ^ a b c Feng, Wang; Yong, Cai; Gu, Baochang (2012). "Population, Policy, and Politics: How Will History Judge China's One-Child Policy?" (PDF). Population and Development Review. 38: 115–29. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2013.00555.x.
  8. ^ a b Whyte, Martin K.; Wang, Feng; Cai, Yong (2015). "Challenging Myths about China's One-Child Policy" (PDF). The China Journal.
  9. ^ Li, Hongbin; Zhang, Junsen (2006). "How effective is the one-child policy in China?" (PDF). Working Paper Series. doi:10.1920/wp.cem.2006.1606.
  10. ^ a b Sen, Amartya (June 2012). "Population: Delusion and Reality" (PDF). Richard R Guzmán.
  11. ^ a b Gietel-Basten, Stuart; Han, Xuehui; Cheng, Yuan (6 November 2019). "Assessing the impact of the "one-child policy" in China: A synthetic control approach". PLOS ONE. 14 (11): e0220170. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0220170. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 6834373. PMID 31693666.
  12. ^ a b Goodkind, Daniel (6 November 2019). "Formal comment on "Assessing the impact of the 'one-child policy' in China: A synthetic control approach"". PLOS ONE. 14 (11): e0222705. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222705. ISSN 1932-6203. PMID 31693668.
  13. ^ a b Daniel Goodkind. 2017. The Astonishing Population Averted by China's Birth Restrictions: Estimates, Nightmares, and Reprogrammed Ambitions. Demography 54: 1375-1399 doi: 10.1007/s13524-017-0595-x
  14. ^ "Analysis of China's one-child policy sparks uproar". 18 October 2017.
  15. ^ a b c Goodkind, Daniel (2018). "If Science Had Come First: A Billion Person Fable for the Ages". Demography. 55 (2): 743–768. doi:10.1007/s13524-018-0661-z. PMID 29623609.
  16. ^ "The Chinese Celebrate Their Roaring Economy, As They Struggle With Its Costs". 22 July 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  17. ^ "Top legislature amends law to allow all couples to have two children". Xinhua News Agency. 27 December 2015.
  18. ^ "China officially ends one-child policy, signing into law bill allowing married couples to have two children". ABC Online. 27 December 2015.
  19. ^ a b Bergaglio, Maristella. "Population Growth in China: The Basic Characteristics of China's Demographic Transition" (PDF). Global Geografia. IT.
  20. ^ "World Development Indicators". Google Public Data Explorer. World Bank. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
  21. ^ Mann, Jim (7 June 1992). "The Physics of Revenge: When Dr. Lu Gang's American Dream Died, Six People Died With It". The Los Angeles Times Magazine. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  22. ^ Potts, M. (19 August 2006). "China's one child policy". BMJ. 333 (7564): 361–62. doi:10.1136/bmj.38938.412593.80. PMC 1550444. PMID 16916810.
  23. ^ "Total population, CBR, CDR, NIR and TFR of China (1949–2000)". China Daily. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
  24. ^ Zubrin, Robert (2012). Radical Environmentalists, Criminal Pseudo-Scientists, and the Fatal Cult of Antihumanism. The New Atlantis. 2646. ISBN 978-1-59403476-3.
  25. ^ Family Planning in China, Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Lithuania; Information Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, August 1995, Section III paragraph 2, retrieved 27 October 2014
  26. ^ Olesen, Alexa (27 October 2011). "Experts challenge China's 1-child population claim". Boston.com.
  27. ^ Zhu, W X (1 June 2003). "The One Child Family Policy". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 88 (6): 463–64. doi:10.1136/adc.88.6.463. PMC 1763112. PMID 12765905.
  28. ^ "East and Southeast Asia: China". CIA World Factbook.
  29. ^ Coale, Ansley J. (March 1981). "Population Trends, Population Policy, and Population Studies in China" (PDF). Population and Development Review. 7 (1): 85–97. doi:10.2307/1972766. JSTOR 1972766. Coale shows detailed birth and death data up to 1979, and gives a cultural environment to the famine in 1959–61.
  30. ^ a b c d e f Five things to know about China's one-child policy, CA: CBC.
  31. ^ da Silva, Pascal Rocha (2006). La politique de l'enfant unique en République populaire de Chine [The politics of one child in the People's Republic of China] (PDF) (Report) (in French). University of Geneva. pp. 22–28.
  32. ^ Greenhalgh, Susan (2008). Just One Child: Science and Policy in Deng's China. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. Dust Jacket.
  33. ^ Mara, Hvistendahl (2010). "Has China outgrown the one-child policy?" (329). Science.
  34. ^ Tien, H.Y. (1991). China's Strategic Demographic Initiative. New York: Praeger.
  35. ^ Fong, Vanessa L. (2004). Only Hope: Coming of Age Under China's One-Child Policy. Stanford University Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-80475330-2.
  36. ^ "Status of Population and Family Planning Program in China by Province". Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Archived from the original on 30 March 2012.
  37. ^ Zang, Xiaowei; Zhao, Lucy (2017). Handbook on the Family and Marriage in China. Edward Elgar Publishing. doi:10.4337/9781785368196.00016. ISBN 978-1-78536-819-6.
  38. ^ Scheuer, James (4 January 1987). "America, the U.N. and China's Family Planning (Opinion)". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 October 2008.
  39. ^ "Most people free to have more child". China Daily. 11 July 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
  40. ^ Hu, Huiting (18 October 2002). "Family Planning Law and China's Birth Control Situation". China Daily. Retrieved 2 March 2009.
  41. ^ "China's Only Child". NOVA. 14 February 1984. PBS. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
  42. ^ Qiang, Guo (28 December 2006). "Are the rich challenging family planning policy?". China Daily.
  43. ^ 29th session of the standing committee of the 8th People's Congress of Sichuan Province (rev ed.), United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 17 October 1997, Articles 11–13, archived from the original on 6 July 2008, retrieved 31 October 2008
  44. ^ a b Wong, Edward (22 July 2012). "Reports of Forced Abortions Fuel Push to End Chinese Law". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
  45. ^ Callick, Rowan (24 January 2007). "China relaxes its one-child policy". The Australian.
  46. ^ Jacobs, Andrew Jacobs (27 May 2008). "One-Child Policy Lifted for Quake Victims' Parents". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
  47. ^ "Baby offer for earthquake parents". BBC. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
  48. ^ "China Amends Child Policy for Some Quake Victims". Morning Edition. NPR.
  49. ^ Tan, Kenneth (9 February 2012). "Hong Kong to issue blanket ban on mothers from the mainland?". Shanghaiist. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
  50. ^ Yardley, Jim (11 May 2008). "China Sticking With One-Child Policy". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 November 2008.
  51. ^ "New rich challenge family planning policy". Xinhua. 14 December 2015. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007.
  52. ^ "The most surprising demographic crisis". The Economist. 5 May 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  53. ^ "从"一胎化"到"全面二孩" ——40年我国人口政策变化与政协声音".
  54. ^ Summary of Family Planning notice on how FP fines are collected
  55. ^ "Heavy Fine for Violators of One-Child Policy". CN. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
  56. ^ Wee, Sui-lee (7 January 2017). "After One-Child Policy, Outrage at China's Offer to Remove IUDs". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  57. ^ Burkitt, Laurie (17 November 2013), "China to Move Slowly on One-Child Law Reform", The Wall Street Journal (online ed.), retrieved 5 December 2013.
  58. ^ Levin, Dan (25 February 2014). "Many in China Can Now Have a Second Child, but Say No". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  59. ^ China reforms: One-child policy to be relaxed, UK: BBC, 15 November 2013, retrieved 5 December 2013.
  60. ^ "Why is China relaxing its one-child policy?". The Economist. 27 January 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
  61. ^ "Xinhua Insight: Heated discussion over loosening of one-child policy". Xinhua net. Archived from the original on 21 January 2015.
  62. ^ "Eastern Chinese province first to ease one-child policy". Reuters. 17 January 2014.
  63. ^ a b China daily, February 2014.
  64. ^ "1 mln Chinese couples apply to have second child". China daily.
  65. ^ Wang, Yamei (2014). "11 million couples qualify for a second child". Xinhua News. Archived from the original on 14 September 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  66. ^ "China to abolish decades-old one-child policy". Al Jazeera English. 29 October 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
  67. ^ Jiang, Steven; Hanna, Jason (29 October 2015). "China says it will end one-child policy". CNN. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  68. ^ "Beschluss der Kommunistischen Partei: China beendet Ein-Kind-Politik" (in German). DE: Tagesschau. 29 October 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  69. ^ "China to end one-child policy and allow two". BBC News. 29 October 2015.
  70. ^ "China to allow two children for all couples". Xinhua. 29 October 2015.
  71. ^ Phillips, Tom (29 October 2015). "China ends one-child policy after 35 years". The Guardian.
  72. ^