10 February 1984

Kenyan soldiers kill an estimated 5000 ethnic Somali Kenyans in the Wagalla massacre.

The Wagalla massacre was a massacre of ethnic Somalis by Kenyan security forces on 10 February 1984 in Wajir County, Kenya.

Massacre

Overview

The Wagalla massacre took place on 10 February 1984 at the Wagalla Airstrip. The facility is situated approximately 15 km (9 mi) west of the county capital of Wajir in the North Eastern Province, a region primarily inhabited by ethnic Somalis. Kenyan troops had descended on the area to reportedly help defuse clan-related conflict. However, according to eye-witness testimony, about 5,000 Somali men were then taken to an airstrip and prevented from accessing water and food for five days before being executed by Kenyan soldiers.[1]

According to a commissioner with The Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission of Kenya, a government oversight body that had been formed in response to the 2008 Kenyan post-election violence, the Wagalla massacre represents the worst human rights violation in Kenya's history.[1]

Death toll

The exact number of people killed in the massacre is unknown.[2] However, eyewitnesses place the figure at around 10,000 deaths.[1][3]

Aftermath

For years the Kenyan government denied that a massacre had taken place and insisted that "only 57 people were killed in a security operation to disarm the [area's] residents".[4] It was not until October 2000 that the government publicly acknowledged wrongdoing on the part of its security forces.[5]

In 2010, Bethuel Kiplagat stepped aside as chairman of the Truth, Justice, and Reconciliation Commission because of his alleged involvement in authorising the action that led to the massacre.[6][7] Reports of the number of men from the Somali Degodia sub-clan, in particular, that were detained by security forces and brought to the airstrip range from 381[8] to upward of ten thousand.[9][10]

In April 2012, Kiplagat was reinstated as TJRC chairman after the Justice Minister Eugene Wamalwa brokered a truce between him and the other commissioners.[11]

The same year, the former Kenyan Prime Minister Raila Odinga ordered an official probe into the atrocities and indicated that the national attorney general should bring to justice those responsible for the killings. Odinga also ordered a museum to be constructed in honour of the victims.[1]

In February 2015, the Wajir County governor Ahmed Abdullahi said his government would partner with local and international human rights organisations in seeking justice for the victims of the massacre, saying that the Truth Commission report offered such an opportunity which remained squandered. "Those mentioned by the TJRC report and witnesses must be prosecuted. The people who afflicted the pain to our people remain unpunished and are still with us," Abdullahi said.[12]

Film

The film/documentary Scarred: The Anatomy of a Massacre, directed by Judy Kibinge, is the first independent visual attempt to chronicle the history of the massacre as experienced by both the victims and survivors – some of whom were government officials themselves. The documentary was launched at the National Museum in Nairobi in February 2015.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Wagalla massacre: Raila Odinga orders Kenya probe
  2. ^ Odalo, Bob (26 March 2000). "How Mulinge Saved Kenyatta From Coup". .
  3. ^ Ongeri, Boniface & Victor Obure (9 December 2004). "Fading images: How province is fighting one-eyed bandit's legacy". The Standard. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2007.
  4. ^ Ngunjiri, Philip (4 November 1998). "Muslim leaders oppose plan to exhume bodies". Inter Press Service. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2007.
  5. ^ "Kenya admits mistakes over 'massacre'". BBC. 18 October 2000. Retrieved 8 August 2007.
  6. ^ US professor quits Kenyan truth commission, citing lack of confidence CS Monitor
  7. ^ "Leaders demand probe into 1994 killings in northeast". . 16 June 2002.
  8. ^ Opondo, Owino (19 October 2000). "Wagalla issue causes uproar in the House". .
  9. ^ "Two-Week Ultimatum to Land Grabbers". East African Standard. 28 February 2003. Retrieved 9 August 2007.
  10. ^ Maliti, Tom (14 September 2003). "Kenyans seek commission to discover truth of '84 mass killing". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. A18. Retrieved 9 August 2007.(alternate link)
  11. ^ Kiplagat, TJRC foes call a truce
  12. ^ See: Kenya: Wajir Governor to Sue State Over Wagalla Massacre, AllAfrica/The Star, 15 February 2015. Accessed on 25 June 2015.
  13. ^ See: In new documentary, Wagalla Massacre victims recount horror of dark days, Sahan Journal, 16 February 2015. Accessed on 26 June 2015.

Further reading

22 January 1984

The Apple Macintosh, the first consumer computer to popularize the computer mouse and the graphical user interface, is introduced during a Super Bowl XVIII television commercial.

Clockwise from top: MacBook Air (2015), iMac G5 20" (2004), Macintosh II (1987), Power Mac G4 Cube (2000), iBook G3 Blueberry (1999) and original Macintosh 128K (1984)

The Macintosh (commonly shortened to Mac since 1998)[1] is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.

The original Macintosh is the first successful mass-market personal computer to have featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen, and mouse.[2] Apple sold the Macintosh alongside its popular Apple II family of computers for almost ten years until the latter was discontinued in 1993.

Early Macintosh models were expensive,[3] hindering competitiveness in a market dominated by the much cheaper Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses,[4] although they were less expensive than the Xerox Alto and other computers with graphical user interfaces that predated the Mac. Macintosh systems were successful in education and desktop publishing, making Apple the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. In the early 1990s, Apple introduced the Macintosh LC II and Color Classic which were price-competitive with Wintel machines at the time.

However, the introduction of Windows 3.1 and Intel's Pentium processor, which beat the Motorola 68040 used in then-current Macintoshes in most benchmarks, gradually took market share from Apple, and by the end of 1994 Apple was relegated to third place as Compaq became the top PC manufacturer. Even after the transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh line in the mid-1990s, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh Performa, and the release of Windows 95 contributed to continued decline of the Macintosh user base.

Upon his return to the company, Steve Jobs led Apple to consolidate the complex line of nearly twenty Macintosh models in mid-1997 (including models made for specific regions) down to four in mid-1999: the Power Macintosh G3, iMac, 14.1" PowerBook G3, and 12" iBook. All four products were critically and commercially successful due to their high performance, competitive prices, and aesthetic designs, and helped return Apple to profitability.

Around this time, Apple phased out the Macintosh name in favor of "Mac", a nickname that had been in common use since the development of the first model. Since their transition to Intel processors in 2006, the complete lineup is Intel-based.

Its current lineup includes four desktops (the all-in-one iMac and iMac Pro, and the desktop Mac Mini and Mac Pro), and two laptops (the MacBook Air and MacBook Pro). Its Xserve server was discontinued in 2011 in favor of the Mac Mini and Mac Pro.

Apple has developed a series of Macintosh operating systems. The first versions initially had no name but came to be known as the "Macintosh System Software" in 1988, "Mac OS" in 1997 with the release of Mac OS 7.6, and retrospectively called "Classic Mac OS". Apple produced a Unix-based operating system for the Macintosh called A/UX from 1988 to 1995, which closely resembled contemporary versions of the Macintosh system software. Apple does not license macOS for use on non-Apple computers, however, System 7 was licensed to various companies through Apple's Macintosh clone program from 1995 to 1997. Only one company, UMAX Technologies was legally licensed to ship clones running Mac OS 8.[5]

In 2001, Apple released Mac OS X, a modern Unix-based operating system which was later rebranded to simply OS X in 2012, and then macOS in 2016. The current version is macOS Catalina, released on October 7, 2019.[6] Intel-based Macs are capable of running native third party operating systems such as Linux, FreeBSD, and Microsoft Windows with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software. Volunteer communities have customized Intel-based macOS to run illicitly on non-Apple computers.

The Macintosh family of computers have operated using a variety of different CPU architectures since its introduction. Originally they used the Motorola 68000 series of microprocessors. In the mid 1990s they transitioned to PowerPC processors, and again in the mid 2000s they began to use 32- and 64-bit Intel x86 processors. Apple has confirmed that it will be transitioning CPU architectures again, this time to its own ARM-based processors for use in the Macintosh beginning in 2020.[7]

Naming

The Macintosh project began in 1979 when Jef Raskin, an Apple employee, envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer. He wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh,[8] but the spelling was changed to "Macintosh" for legal reasons as the original was the same spelling as that used by McIntosh Laboratory, Inc., the audio equipment manufacturer.[9] Steve Jobs requested that McIntosh Laboratory give Apple a release for the newly spelled name, thus allowing Apple to use it. The request was denied, forcing Apple to eventually buy the rights to use this name.[10][page needed] A 1984 Byte Magazine article suggested Apple changed the spelling only after "early users" misspelled "McIntosh".[11] However, Jef Raskin had adopted the "Macintosh" spelling by 1981,[12] when the Macintosh computer was still a single prototype machine in the lab.

History

The original Macintosh 128k

1978–84: Development and introduction

A prototype of the Macintosh from 1981 (at the Computer History Museum)
A screenshot of the original Macintosh desktop.
The original Macintosh featured a radically new graphical user interface. Users interacted with the computer using a metaphorical desktop that included icons of real life items, instead of abstract textual commands.

In 1978 Apple began to organize the Apple Lisa project, aiming to build a next-generation machine similar to an advanced Apple II or the yet-to-be-introduced IBM PC. In 1979 Steve Jobs learned of the advanced work on graphical user interfaces (GUI) taking place at Xerox PARC. He arranged for Apple engineers to be allowed to visit PARC to see the systems in action.[13] The Apple Lisa project was immediately redirected to utilize a GUI, which at that time was well beyond the state of the art for microprocessor capabilities; the Xerox Alto required a custom processor that spanned several circuit boards in a case which was the size of a small refrigerator. Things had changed dramatically with the introduction of the 16/32-bit Motorola 68000 in 1979, which offered at least an order of magnitude better performance than existing designs and made a software GUI machine a practical possibility. The basic layout of the Lisa was largely complete by 1982, at which point Jobs's continual suggestions for improvements led to him being kicked off the project.[14]

At the same time that the Lisa was becoming a GUI machine in 1979, Jef Raskin started the Macintosh project. The design at that time was for a low-cost, easy-to-use machine for the average consumer. Instead of a GUI, it intended to use a text-based user interface that allowed several programs to be running and easily switched between, and special command keys on the keyboard that accessed standardized commands in the programs. Raskin was authorized to start hiring for the project in September 1979,[15] and he immediately asked his long-time colleague, Brian Howard, to join him.[16] His initial team would eventually consist of himself, Howard, Joanna Hoffman, Burrell Smith, and Bud Tribble.[17] The rest of the original Mac team would include Bill Atkinson, Bob Belleville, Steve Capps, George Crow, Donn Denman, Chris Espinosa, Andy Hertzfeld, Bruce Horn, Susan Kare, Larry Kenyon, and Caroline Rose with Steve Jobs leading the project.[18] In a 2013 interview, Steve Wozniak insinuated that he had been leading the initial design and development phase of the Macintosh project until 1981 when he experienced a traumatic airplane crash and temporarily left the company, at which point Jobs took over. In that same interview, Wozniak said that the original Macintosh "failed" under Jobs and that it was not until Jobs left that it became a success. He attributed the eventual success of the Macintosh to people like John Sculley "who worked to build a Macintosh market when the Apple II went away".[19]

Smith's first Macintosh board was built to Raskin's design specifications: it had 64 kilobytes (kB) of RAM, used the 8-bit Motorola 6809E microprocessor, and was capable of supporting a 256×256-pixel black-and-white bitmap display. Bud Tribble, a member of the Mac team, was interested in running the Apple Lisa's graphical programs on the Macintosh and asked Smith whether he could incorporate Lisa's 68000 microprocessor into the Mac while still keeping the production cost down. By December 1980, Smith had succeeded in designing a board that not only used the 68000 but increased its speed from Lisa's 5 MHz to 8 MHz; this board also had the capacity to support a 384×256-pixel display. Smith's design used fewer RAM chips than the Lisa, which made the production of the board significantly more cost-efficient. The final Mac design was self-contained and had the complete QuickDraw picture language and interpreter in 64 KB of ROM – far more than most other computers which typically had around 4 to 8 KB of ROM; it had 128 kB of RAM, in the form of sixteen 64-kilobit (kb) RAM chips soldered to the logicboard. Although there were no memory slots, its RAM was expandable to 512 kB by means of soldering sixteen IC sockets to accept 256 kb RAM chips in place of the factory-installed chips. The final product's screen was a 9-inch (230 mm), 512x342 pixel monochrome display, exceeding the size of the planned screen.[20]

Burrell's innovative design, combining the low production cost of an Apple II with the computing power of Lisa's Motorola 68000 CPU, began to receive Jobs's attentions.[21] InfoWorld in September 1981 reported on the existence of the secret Lisa and "McIntosh" projects at Apple. Stating that they and another computer "are all scheduled to be ready for release within a year", it described McIntosh as a portable computer with the 68000 and 128KB memory, and possibly battery-powered.[22] Realizing that the Macintosh was more marketable than the Lisa, Jobs began to focus his attention on the project. Raskin left the team in 1981 over a personality conflict with Jobs. After development had completed, team member Andy Hertzfeld said that the final Macintosh design is closer to Jobs's ideas than Raskin's.[15] When Jobs was forced out of the Lisa team in 1982, he devoted his entire attention to the Macintosh.

Jobs commissioned industrial designer Hartmut Esslinger to work on the Macintosh line, resulting in the "Snow White" design language; although it came too late for the earliest Macs, it was implemented in most other mid- to late-1980s Apple computers.[23]

1984: Debut

In 1982 Regis McKenna was brought in to shape the marketing and launch of the Macintosh.[24] Later the Regis McKenna team grew to include Jane Anderson, Katie Cadigan and Andy Cunningham,[25] who eventually led the Apple account for the agency.[26] Cunningham and Anderson were the primary authors of the Macintosh launch plan.[27][28][29] The launch of the Macintosh pioneered many different tactics that are used today in launching technology products, including the "multiple exclusive," event marketing (credited to John Sculley, who brought the concept over from Pepsi), creating a mystique about a product and giving an inside look into a product's creation.[30]

After the Lisa's announcement, John Dvorak discussed rumors of a mysterious "MacIntosh" project at Apple in February 1983.[31] The company announced the Macintosh 128K—manufactured at an Apple factory in Fremont, California—in October 1983, followed by an 18-page brochure included with various magazines in December.[32][33] The Macintosh was introduced by a US$1.5 million Ridley Scott television commercial, "1984".[10]:113 It aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on January 22, 1984, and is now considered a "watershed event"[34] and a "masterpiece".[35] McKenna called the ad "more successful than the Mac itself."[36] "1984" used an unnamed heroine to represent the coming of the Macintosh (indicated by a Picasso-style picture of the computer on her white tank top) as a means of saving humanity from the "conformity" of IBM's attempts to dominate the computer industry. The ad alludes to George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four which described a dystopian future ruled by a televised "Big Brother."[37][38]

Two days after "1984" aired, the Macintosh went on sale, and came bundled with two applications designed to show off its interface: MacWrite and MacPaint. It was first demonstrated by Steve Jobs in the first of his famous Mac keynote speeches, and though the Mac garnered an immediate, enthusiastic following, some labeled it a mere "toy."[39] Because the operating system was designed largely for the GUI, existing text-mode and command-driven applications had to be redesigned and the programming code rewritten. This was a time-consuming task that many software developers chose not to undertake, and could be regarded as a reason for an initial lack of software for the new system. In April 1984, Microsoft's MultiPlan migrated over from MS-DOS, with Microsoft Word following in January 1985.[40] In 1985 Lotus Software introduced Lotus Jazz for the Macintosh platform after the success of Lotus 1-2-3 for the IBM PC, although it was largely a flop.[41] Apple introduced the Macintosh Office suite the same year with the "Lemmings" ad. Infamous for insulting its own potential customers, the ad was not successful.[42]

Apple spent $2.5 million purchasing all 39 advertising pages in a special, post-election issue of Newsweek,[43] and ran a "Test Drive a Macintosh" promotion, in which potential buyers with a credit card could take home a Macintosh for 24 hours and return it to a dealer afterwards. While 200,000 people participated, dealers disliked the promotion, the supply of computers was insufficient for demand, and many were returned in such a bad condition that they could no longer be sold. This marketing campaign caused CEO John Sculley to raise the price from $1,995 to $2,495 (equivalent to $5,900 in 2019).[3][42] The computer sold well, nonetheless, reportedly outselling the IBM PCjr which also began shipping early that year; one dealer reported a backlog of more than 600 orders.[44][45] By April 1984 the company sold 50,000 Macintoshes, and hoped for 70,000 by early May and almost 250,000 by the end of the year.[46]

1984–90: Desktop publishing

Most Apple II sales had once been to companies, but the IBM PC caused small businesses, schools, and some homes to become Apple's main customers.[47] Jobs stated during the Macintosh's introduction "we expect Macintosh to become the third industry standard", after the Apple II and IBM PC. Although outselling every other computer, and so compelling that one dealer described it as "the first $2,500 impulse item", Macintosh did not meet expectations during the first year, especially among business customers. Only about ten applications including MacWrite and MacPaint were widely available,[44][48] although many non-Apple software developers participated in the introduction and Apple promised that 79 companies including Lotus, Digital Research, and Ashton-Tate were creating products for the new computer. After one year for each computer, the Macintosh had less than one-quarter of the PC's software selection—including one word processor, two databases, and one spreadsheet—although Apple had sold 280,000 Macintoshes compared to IBM's first-year sales of fewer than 100,000 PCs.[49] MacWrite's inclusion with the Macintosh discouraged developers from creating other word processing software.[50]

Although Macintosh excited software developers,[44] they were required to learn how to write software that used the graphic user interface,[49] and early in the computer's history needed a Lisa 2 or Unix system to write Macintosh software.[51] Infocom had developed the only third-party games for the Mac's launch by replacing the buggy early operating system with the company's own minimal bootable game platform.[52] Despite standardizing on Pascal for software development Apple did not release a native-code Pascal compiler. Until third-party Pascal compilers appeared, developers had to write software in other languages while still learning enough Pascal to understand Inside Macintosh.[53]

The Macintosh 128K, originally released as the Apple Macintosh, is the original Apple Macintosh personal computer. Its beige case consisted of a 9 in (23 cm) CRT monitor and came with a keyboard and mouse. A handle built into the top of the case made it easier for the computer to be lifted and carried. This was synonymous with the release of the iconic 1984 TV Advertisement by Apple. This model and the 512k released in September of the same year had signatures of the core team embossed inside the hard plastic cover and soon became collector pieces.

In 1985 the combination of the Mac, Apple's LaserWriter printer, and Mac-specific software like Boston Software's MacPublisher and Aldus PageMaker enabled users to design, preview, and print page layouts complete with text and graphics—an activity to become known as desktop publishing. Initially, desktop publishing was unique to the Macintosh, but eventually became available for other platforms.[54] Later, applications such as Macromedia FreeHand, QuarkXPress, and Adobe's Photoshop and Illustrator strengthened the Mac's position as a graphics computer and helped to expand the emerging desktop publishing market.

A Macintosh sits in a museum exhibit about postmodernism.
The Apple Macintosh Plus at the Design Museum in Gothenburg, Sweden

The Macintosh's minimal memory became apparent, even compared with other personal computers in 1984, and could not be expanded easily. It also lacked a hard disk drive or the means to easily attach one. Many small companies sprang up to address the memory issue. Suggestions revolved around either upgrading the memory to 512 KB or removing the computer's 16 memory chips and replacing them with larger-capacity chips, a tedious and difficult operation. In October 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh 512K, with quadruple the memory of the original, at a price of US$3,195.[55] It also offered an upgrade for 128k Macs that involved replacing the logic board.

Apple released the Macintosh Plus on January 10, 1986, for a price of US$2,600. It offered one megabyte of RAM, easily expandable to four megabytes by the use of socketed RAM boards. It also featured a SCSI parallel interface, allowing up to seven peripherals—such as hard drives and scanners—to be attached to the machine. Its floppy drive was increased to an 800 kB capacity. The Mac Plus was an immediate success and remained in production, unchanged, until October 15, 1990; on sale for just over four years and ten months, it was the longest-lived Macintosh in Apple's history[56] until the 2nd generation Mac Pro that was introduced on December 19, 2013 surpassed this record on September 18, 2018. In September 1986 Apple introduced the Macintosh Programmer's Workshop, or MPW, an application that allowed software developers to create software for Macintosh on Macintosh, rather than cross compiling from a Lisa. In August 1987, Apple unveiled HyperCard and MultiFinder, which added cooperative multitasking to the operating system. Apple began bundling both with every Macintosh.

A Macintosh II with a separate monitor and CPU
The Macintosh II, the first Macintosh model with color graphics

Updated Motorola CPUs made a faster machine possible, and in 1987 Apple took advantage of the new Motorola technology and introduced the Macintosh II at $5500, powered by a 16 MHz Motorola 68020 processor.[57] The primary improvement in the Macintosh II was Color QuickDraw in ROM, a color version of the graphics language which was the heart of the machine. Among the many innovations in Color QuickDraw were the ability to handle any display size, any color depth, and multiple monitors. The Macintosh II marked the start of a new direction for the Macintosh, as now for the first time it had an open architecture with several NuBus expansion slots, support for color graphics and external monitors, and a modular design similar to that of the IBM PC. It had an internal hard drive and a power supply with a fan, which was initially fairly loud.[58] One third-party developer sold a device to regulate fan speed based on a heat sensor, but it voided the warranty.[59] Later Macintosh computers had quieter power supplies and hard drives.

The Macintosh SE was released at the same time as the Macintosh II for $2900 (or $3900 with hard drive), as the first compact Mac with a 20 MB internal hard drive and an expansion slot.[60] The SE's expansion slot was located inside the case along with the CRT, potentially exposing an upgrader to high voltage. For this reason, Apple recommended users bring their SE to an authorized Apple dealer to have upgrades performed.[61] The SE also updated Jerry Manock and Terry Oyama's original design and shared the Macintosh II's Snow White design language, as well as the new Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) mouse and keyboard that had first appeared on the Apple IIGS some months earlier.

In 1987 Apple spun off its software business as Claris. It was given the code and rights to several applications, most notably MacWrite, MacPaint, and MacProject. In the late 1980s, Claris released a number of revamped software titles; the result was the "Pro" series, including MacDraw Pro, MacWrite Pro, and FileMaker Pro. To provide a complete office suite, Claris purchased the rights to the Informix Wingz spreadsheet program on the Mac, renaming it Claris Resolve, and added the new presentation software Claris Impact. By the early 1990s, Claris applications were shipping with the majority of consumer-level Macintoshes and were extremely popular. In 1991 Claris released ClarisWorks, which soon became their second best-selling application. When Claris was reincorporated back into Apple in 1998, ClarisWorks was renamed AppleWorks beginning with version 5.0.[62]

The Macintosh Portable, Apple's first battery-powered Macintosh

In 1988 Apple sued Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard on the grounds that they infringed Apple's copyrighted GUI, citing (among other things) the use of rectangular, overlapping, and resizable windows. After four years, the case was decided against Apple, as were later appeals. Apple's actions were criticized by some in the software community, including the Free Software Foundation (FSF), who felt Apple was trying to monopolize on GUIs in general, and boycotted GNU software for the Macintosh platform for seven years.[63][64]

With the new Motorola 68030 processor came the Macintosh IIx in 1988, which had benefited from internal improvements, including an on-board MMU.[65] It was followed in 1989 by the Macintosh IIcx, a more compact version with fewer slots [66] and a version of the Mac SE powered by the 16 MHz 68030, the Macintosh SE/30.[67] Later that year, the Macintosh IIci, running at 25 MHz, was the first Mac to be "32-bit clean." This allowed it to natively support more than 8 MB of RAM,[68] unlike its predecessors, which had "32-bit dirty" ROMs (8 of the 32 bits available for addressing were used for OS-level flags). System 7 was the first Macintosh operating system to support 32-bit addressing.[69] The following year, the Macintosh IIfx, starting at US$9,900, was unveiled. Apart from its fast 40 MHz 68030 processor, it had significant internal architectural improvements, including faster memory and two Apple II CPUs (6502s) dedicated to I/O processing.[70]

1990–98: Decline and transition to PowerPC

Microsoft Windows 3.0 was released in May 1990, and according to a common saying at the time "Windows was not as good as Macintosh, but it was good enough for the average user". Although still a graphical wrapper that relied upon MS-DOS, 3.0 was the first iteration of Windows which had a feature set and performance comparable to the much more expensive Macintosh platform. It also did not help matters that during the previous year Jean-Louis Gassée had steadfastly refused to lower the profit margins on Mac computers. Finally, there was a component shortage that rocked the exponentially-expanding PC industry in 1989, forcing Apple USA head Allan Loren to cut prices, which dropped Apple's margins.[71]

The Macintosh LC II with a Macintosh 12" RGB Display.

In response, Apple introduced a range of relatively inexpensive Macs in October 1990. The Macintosh Classic, essentially a less expensive version of the Macintosh SE, was the least expensive Mac offered until early 2001.[72] The 68020-powered Macintosh LC, in its distinctive "pizza box" case, offered color graphics and was accompanied by a new, low-cost 512×384 pixel monitor.[73] The Macintosh IIsi was essentially a 20 MHz IIci with only one expansion slot.[74] All three machines sold well,[75] although Apple's profit margin on them was considerably lower than that on earlier models.[72]

Apple improved Macintosh computers by introducing models equipped with newly available processors from the 68k lineup. The Macintosh Classic II[76] and Macintosh LC II, which used a 16 MHz 68030 CPU,[77] were joined in 1991 by the Macintosh Quadra 700[78] and 900,[79] the first Macs to employ the faster Motorola 68040 processor.

Apple released their first portable computer, the Macintosh Portable in 1989. Although due to considerable design issues, it was soon replaced in 1991 with the first of the PowerBook line: the PowerBook 100, a miniaturized portable; the 16 MHz 68030 PowerBook 140; and the 25 MHz 68030 PowerBook 170.[80] They were the first portable computers with the keyboard behind a palm rest and a built-in pointing device (a trackball) in front of the keyboard.[81] The 1993 PowerBook 165c was Apple's first portable computer to feature a color screen, displaying 256 colors with 640 × 400-pixel resolution.[82] The second generation of PowerBooks, the 68040-equipped 500 series, introduced trackpads, integrated stereo speakers, and built-in Ethernet to the laptop form factor in 1994.[83]

As for Mac OS, System 7 introduced a form of virtual memory, improved the performance of color graphics, and gained standard co-operative multitasking. Also during this time, the Macintosh began to shed the "Snow White" design language, along with the expensive consulting fees they were paying to Frogdesign. Apple instead brought the design work in-house by establishing the Apple Industrial Design Group, becoming responsible for crafting a new look for all Apple products.[84]

Intel had tried unsuccessfully to push Apple to migrate the Macintosh platform to Intel chips. Apple concluded that Intel's CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) architecture ultimately would not be able to compete against RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) processors.[85] While the Motorola 68040 offered the same features as the Intel 80486 and could on a clock-for-clock basis significantly outperform the Intel chip, the 486 had the ability to be clocked significantly faster without suffering from overheating problems, especially the clock-doubled i486DX2 which ran the CPU logic at twice the external bus speed, giving such equipped IBM compatible systems a significant performance lead over their Macintosh equivalents.[86][87] Apple's product design and engineering did not help matters as they restricted the use of the '040 to their expensive Quadras for a time while the 486 was readily available to OEMs as well as enthusiasts who put together their own machines. In late 1991, as the higher-end Macintosh desktop lineup transitioned to the '040, Apple was unable to offer the '040 in their top-of-the-line PowerBooks until early 1994 with the PowerBook 500 series, several years after the first 486-powered IBM compatible laptops hit the market which cost Apple considerable sales. In 1993 Intel rolled out the Pentium processors as the successor to the 486, while the Motorola 68050 was never released, leaving the Macintosh platform a generation behind IBM compatibles in the latest CPU technology. In 1994 Apple abandoned Motorola CPUs for the RISC PowerPC architecture developed by the AIM alliance of Apple Computer, IBM, and Motorola.[88] The Power Macintosh line, the first to use the new chips, proved to be highly successful, with over a million PowerPC units sold in nine months.[89] However, in the long run, spurning Intel for the PowerPC was a mistake as the commoditization of Intel-architecture chips meant Apple could not compete on price against "the Dells of the world".[85]

Notwithstanding these technical and commercial successes on the Macintosh, the falling costs of components made IBM PC compatibles cheaper and accelerated their adoption, over Macintosh systems that remained fairly expensive. A successful price war initiated by Compaq vaulted them from third place to first among PC manufacturers in 1994, overtaking a struggling IBM and relegating Apple to third place.[90][91][92]

Furthermore, Apple had created too many similar models that confused potential buyers. At one point, its product lineup was subdivided into Classic, LC, II, Quadra, Performa, and Centris models, with essentially the same computer being sold under a number of different names.[93] These models competed against Macintosh clones, hardware manufactured by third parties to whom Apple had licensed System 7. This succeeded in increasing the Macintosh's market share somewhat and provided cheaper hardware for consumers, but hurt Apple financially as existing Apple customers began to buy cheaper clones which cannibalized the sales of Apple's higher-margin Macintosh systems, while Apple continued to bear the burden of developing Mac OS.

Apple's market share further struggled due to the release of the Windows 95 operating system, which unified Microsoft's formerly separate MS-DOS and Windows products. Windows 95 significantly enhanced the multimedia capability and performance of IBM PC compatible computers and brought the capabilities of Windows substantially nearer to parity with Mac OS.

When Steve Jobs returned to Apple in 1997 following the company's purchase of NeXT, he ordered that the OS that had been previewed as System 7.7 be branded Mac OS 8, a name Apple had previously wished to preserve for the never-to-appear next generation Copland OS. This maneuver effectively ended the clone lines, as Apple had only licensed System 7 to clone manufacturers, not Mac OS 8. The decision caused significant financial losses for companies like Motorola, who produced the StarMax; Umax, who produced the SuperMac;[94] and Power Computing, who offered several lines of Mac clones, including the PowerWave, PowerTower, and PowerTower Pro.[95] These companies had invested substantial resources in creating their own Mac-compatible hardware.[96] Apple bought out Power Computing's license but allowed Umax to continue selling Mac clones until their license expired, as they had a sizeable presence in the lower-end segment that Apple did not. In September 1997 Apple extended Umax's license allowing them to sell clones with Mac OS 8, the only clone maker to do so, but with the restriction that they only sell low-end systems. Without the higher profit margins of high-end systems, however, Umax judged this would not be profitable and exited the Mac clone market in May 1998, having lost US$36 million on the program.[10]:256[97][98]

1998–2005: Revival

The iMac G3, introduced in 1998. While it led Apple's return to profitability, its associated mouse was one of consumers' least favorite products.[99]

In 1998 Apple introduced its new iMac which, like the original 128K Mac, was an all-in-one computer. Its translucent plastic case, originally Bondi blue and later various additional colors, is considered an industrial design landmark of the late 1990s. The iMac did away with most of Apple's standard (and usually proprietary) connections, such as SCSI and ADB, in favor of two USB ports.[100] It replaced a floppy disk drive with a CD-ROM drive for installing software,[101][102] but was incapable of writing to CDs or other media without external third-party hardware. The iMac proved to be phenomenally successful, with 800,000 units sold in 139 days.[103] It made the company an annual profit of US$309 million, Apple's first profitable year since Michael Spindler took over as CEO in 1995.[104] This aesthetic was applied to the Power Macintosh and later the iBook, Apple's first consumer-level laptop computer, filling the missing quadrant of Apple's "four-square product matrix" (desktop and portable products for both consumers and professionals).[105] More than 140,000 pre-orders were placed before it started shipping in September,[106] and by October proved to be a large success.[107]

The iMac also marked Apple's transition from the "Macintosh" name to the more simplistic "Mac". Apple completed the elimination of the Macintosh product name in 1999 when "Power Macintosh" was retired with the introduction of the Power Mac G4.

In early 2001 Apple began shipping computers with CD-RW drives and emphasized the Mac's ability to play DVDs by including DVD-ROM and DVD-RAM drives as standard.[108] Steve Jobs admitted that Apple had been "late to the party" on writable CD technology, but felt that Macs could become a "digital hub" that linked and enabled an "emerging digital lifestyle".[109] Apple would later introduce an update to its iTunes music player software that enabled it to burn CDs, along with a controversial "Rip, Mix, Burn" advertising campaign that some[110] felt encouraged media piracy.[111] This accompanied the release of the iPod, Apple's first successful handheld device. Apple continued to launch products, such as the unsuccessful Power Mac G4 Cube,[112] the education-oriented eMac, and the titanium (and later aluminum) PowerBook G4 laptop for professionals.

The original iMac used a PowerPC G3 processor, but G4 and G5 chips were soon added, both accompanied by complete case redesigns that dropped the array of colors in favor of white plastic. As of 2007, all iMacs use aluminum cases. On January 11, 2005, Apple announced the Mac Mini, priced at US$499, making it the cheapest Mac.[113][114]

Mac OS continued to evolve up to version 9.2.2, including retrofits such as the addition of a nanokernel and support for Multiprocessing Services 2.0 in Mac OS 8.6, though its dated architecture made replacement necessary.[115] From its beginnings on an 8 MHz machine with 128 KB of RAM, it had grown to support Apple's latest 1 GHz G4-equipped Macs. Since its architecture was first established, the lack of base features that were already common on Apple's competition, like preemptive multitasking and protected memory, reached a critical mass. As such, Apple introduced Mac OS X, a fully overhauled Unix-based successor to Mac OS 9. OS X uses Darwin, XNU, and Mach as foundations, and is based on NeXTSTEP. It was released to the public in September 2000 as the Mac OS X Public Beta, featuring a revamped user interface called "Aqua". At US$29.99, it allowed adventurous Mac users to sample Apple's new operating system and provide feedback for the actual release.[116] The initial version of Mac OS X, 10.0 "Cheetah", was released on March 24, 2001. Older Mac OS applications could still run under early Mac OS X versions, using an environment called "Classic". Subsequent releases of Mac OS X included 10.1 "Puma" (2001), 10.2 "Jaguar" (2002), 10.3 "Panther" (2003) and 10.4 "Tiger" (2005).

2005–2020: Switch to Intel processors

Apple discontinued the use of PowerPC processors in 2006. At WWDC 2005, Steve Jobs announced this transition, revealing that Mac OS X was always developed to run on both the Intel and PowerPC architectures.[117] This was done in order to make the company's computer more modern, keeping pace with Intel's low power Pentium M chips, especially for heat-sensitive laptops.[118] The PowerPC G5 chip's heavy power consumption and heat output (the Power Mac G5 had to be liquid-cooled) also prevented its use in Mac notebook computers (as well as the original Mac mini), which were forced to use the older and slower PowerPC G4 chip. These shortcomings of the PowerPC chips were the main reasons behind the Mac's transition to Intel processors, and the brand was revitalized by the subsequent boost in processing power available due to greater efficiency and the ability to implement multiple cores in Mac CPUs.

All new Macs now use x86-64 processors made by Intel, and some were renamed as a result.[119] Intel-based Macs running OS X 10.6 and below (support has been discontinued since 10.7) can run pre-existing software developed for PowerPC using an emulator named Rosetta,[120] although at noticeably slower speeds than native programs. However, the Classic environment is now unavailable on the Intel architecture. Intel chips introduced the potential to run the Microsoft Windows operating system natively on Apple hardware, without emulation software such as Virtual PC. In March 2006 a group of hackers announced that they were able to run Windows XP on an Intel-based Mac. The group released their software as open source and has posted it for download on their website.[121] On April 5, 2006, Apple announced the availability of the public beta of Boot Camp, software that allows owners of Intel-based Macs to install Windows XP on their machines; later versions added support for Windows Vista and Windows 7. Classic was discontinued in Mac OS X 10.5, and Boot Camp became a standard feature on Intel-based Macs.[122][123]

Starting in 2006, Apple's industrial design shifted to favor aluminum, which was used in the construction of the first MacBook Pro. Glass was added in 2008 with the introduction of the unibody MacBook Pro. These materials are billed as environmentally friendly.[124] The iMac, MacBook Pro, MacBook Air, and Mac Mini lines currently all use aluminum enclosures, and are now made of a single unibody.[125][126][127] Chief designer Sir Jonathan Ive continues to guide products towards a minimalist and simple feel,[128][129] including eliminating of replaceable batteries in notebooks.[130] Multi-touch gestures from the iPhone's interface have been applied to the Mac line in the form of touch pads on notebooks and the Magic Mouse and Magic Trackpad for desktops.

On February 24, 2011, Apple became the first company to bring to market a computer that utilized Intel's new Thunderbolt (codename Light Peak) I/O interface. Using the same physical interface as a Mini DisplayPort, and backwards compatible with that standard, Thunderbolt boasts two-way transfer speeds of 10 Gbit/s.[131]

In April 2018 Bloomberg reported that Apple intends to drop Intel chips and replace them with an "In-house" version, which caused Intel's shares to fall 6%. According to the report, the switch might happen as early as the year 2020.[132]

Also in April 2018, The Verge made an article[133] about how Intel is stagnating and not making any significant improvements to its lineup and could not compete for battery life with ARM chips, commonly found in smartphones.

2020–present: Switch to Apple silicon (ARM-based)

At WWDC 2020, Tim Cook announced the transition to in-house SoCs, built upon an ARM architecture, over a two-year timeline.[7]

Timeline of Macintosh models

iPadApple WatchiPhoneiPodApple NewtonApple IIMacBook (2015–2019)MacBook (2006–2012)MacBook AirMacBook ProPowerBook G4Aluminum PowerBook G4PowerBook G4PowerBook G3PowerBook G3PowerBookiBookPowerBook 500PowerBook 2400cPowerBookApple IIe CardPowerBook DuoMacintosh PortableXserveMac ProXserve G5Power Mac G5XservePower Mac G4Power Macintosh G3 (Blue %26 White)Power Mac G4 CubePower Macintosh G3Twentieth Anniversary MacintoshPower MacintoshMacintosh QuadraMacintosh LC familyMacintosh II seriesMacintosh XLApple LisaMac Mini#2nd generation (Intel-based)iMac ProiMac (Intel-based)Mac minieMaciMac G5Macintosh TViMac G4Macintosh Color ClassicMacintosh Classic IIiMacMacintosh ClassicMacintosh SE/30Macintosh PerformaMacintosh SE FDHDMacintosh 512KeMacintosh PlusMacintosh SEMacintosh 512KMacintosh 128KExtensible Firmware InterfaceNew World ROMOld World ROM

Source: Glen Sanford, Apple History, apple-history.com

Product line

Consumer Professional
Portables MacBook Air

13.3" (retina) model; uses Intel Core i3, i5, or i7 processors
MacBook Pro
Late 2016 MacBook Pro.jpg
13.3" (retina P3) and 16" (retina P3) models;
use Intel Core i5, i7, or i9 processors
Desktops Mac Mini
Mac Mini (2018).jpg
Entry-level desktop; uses Intel Core i3, i5, or i7 processors
iMac
Imac 16-9.png
21.5" (non-retina and 4K P3) and 27" (5K P3) models; use Intel Core i3, i5, i7 or i9 processors
iMac Pro
IMac Pro.svg
27" (5K P3) model; uses Intel Xeon W processors
Mac Pro
Mac Pro 2019 on wheels.jpg
Customizable workstation desktop; uses Intel Xeon W processors

Hardware

An iMac G5 with its back panel removed

Apple contracts hardware production to Asian original equipment manufacturers such as Foxconn and Pegatron, maintaining a high degree of control over the end product. By contrast, most other companies (including Microsoft) create software that can be run on hardware produced by a variety of third parties such as Dell, HP Inc./Hewlett-Packard/Compaq, and Lenovo. Consequently, the Macintosh buyer has comparably fewer options but has superior integration compared to a Microsoft buyer.

The current Mac product family uses Intel x86-64 processors. Apple introduced an emulator during the transition from PowerPC chips (called Rosetta), much as it did during the transition from Motorola 68000 architecture a decade earlier. The Macintosh is the only mainstream computer platform to have successfully transitioned to a new CPU architecture,[134] and has done so twice. All current Mac models ship with at least 8 GB of RAM as standard. Current Mac computers use ATI/AMD Radeon or Nvidia GeForce graphics cards as well as Intel graphics built into the main CPU. All current Macs do not ship with an optical media drive that includes a dual-function DVD/CD burner. Apple refers to this as a SuperDrive. Current Macs include two standard data transfer ports: USB and Thunderbolt (except for the Retina MacBook, which only has a USB-C port and headphone port). MacBook Pro, iMac, MacBook Air, and Mac Mini computers now also feature the "Thunderbolt" port, which Apple says can transfer data at speeds up to 10 gigabits per second.[135] USB was introduced in the 1998 iMac G3 and is ubiquitous today,[101] while FireWire was mainly reserved for high-performance devices such as hard drives or video cameras. Starting with the then-new iMac G5, released in October 2005, Apple started to include built-in iSight cameras on appropriate models, and a media center interface called Front Row that can be operated by an Apple Remote or keyboard for accessing media stored on the computer. Front Row has been discontinued as of 2011, however, and the Apple Remote is no longer bundled with new Macs.[136][137]

Apple was initially reluctant to embrace mice with multiple buttons and scroll wheels. Macs did not natively support pointing devices that featured multiple buttons, even from third parties, until Mac OS X arrived in 2001.[138] Apple continued to offer only single button mice, in both wired and Bluetooth wireless versions, until August 2005, when it introduced the Mighty Mouse. While it looked like a traditional one-button mouse, it actually had four buttons and a scroll ball, capable of independent x- and y-axis movement.[139] A Bluetooth version followed in July 2006.[140] In October 2009, Apple introduced the Magic Mouse, which uses multi-touch gesture recognition (similar to that of the iPhone) instead of a physical scroll wheel or ball.[141] It is available only in a wireless configuration, but the wired Mighty Mouse (re-branded as "Apple Mouse") was still available as an alternative until its discontinuation in 2017. Since 2010, Apple has also offered the Magic Trackpad as a means to control Macintosh desktop computers in a way similar to laptops.

Software

The original Macintosh was the first successful personal computer to use a graphical user interface devoid of a command line. It uses a desktop metaphor, depicting real-world objects like documents and a trash can as icons on-screen. Now known as the classic Mac OS, the System software was introduced in 1984 with the first Macintosh, renamed Mac OS in 1997, and continued to evolve until version 9.2.2.

Originally, the hardware architecture was so closely tied to the classic Mac OS system that it was impossible to boot an alternative operating system. The most common workaround, is to boot into Mac OS and then to hand over control to a Mac OS-based bootloader application. Used even by Apple for A/UX and MkLinux, this technique is no longer necessary since the introduction of Open Firmware-based PCI Macs, though it was formerly used for convenience on many Old World ROM systems due to bugs in the firmware implementation. Since then, Mac hardware boots directly from Open Firmware in most PowerPC-based Macs or EFI in all Intel-based Macs.[citation needed]

In 2001, Apple introduced Mac OS X (renamed OS X in 2012 and macOS in 2016), based on Darwin and NeXTSTEP; its new features included the Dock and the Aqua user interface. During the transition, Apple included a virtual machine subsystem known as Classic, allowing users to run Mac OS 9 applications under Mac OS X 10.4 and earlier on PowerPC machines. Because macOS is a Unix operating system that borrows heavily from FreeBSD, many applications written for Linux or BSD run on it, often using X11. There are many popular Macintosh software applications; many of those from large developers, such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop are actively developed for both macOS and Windows. A large amount of open-source software applications, such as the Firefox web browser and the LibreOffice office suite, are cross-platform, and thereby also run natively on macOS.

Following the release of Intel-based Macs, third-party platform virtualization software such as Parallels Desktop, VMware Fusion, and VirtualBox began to emerge. These programs allow users to run Microsoft Windows or previously Windows-only software on Macs at near native speed. Apple also released Boot Camp and Mac-specific Windows drivers that help users to install Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, 8.1 or 10 and natively dual boot between Mac OS X and Windows. Although not condoned by Apple, it is possible to run the Linux operating system using Boot camp or other virtualization workarounds.[142][143] Unlike most PCs, however, Macs are unable to run many legacy PC operating systems. In particular, Intel-based Macs lack the A20 gate.[citation needed]

Market share and user demographics

1984–97: Success and decline

Since the introduction of the Macintosh, Apple has struggled to gain a significant share of the personal computer market. At first, the Macintosh 128K suffered from a dearth of available software compared to IBM's PC, resulting in disappointing sales in 1984 and 1985. It took 74 days for 50,000 units to sell.[144] Although Apple was not able to overcome the tidal wave of IBM PCs and its clones,[4][145][146][147][148][148] Macintosh systems found success in education and desktop publishing.

Notwithstanding these technical and commercial successes on the Macintosh platform, their systems remained fairly expensive, making them less competitive in light of the falling costs of components that made IBM PC compatibles cheaper and accelerated their adoption. In 1989, Jean-Louis Gassée had steadfastly refused to lower the profit margins on Mac computers, then there was a component shortage that rocked the exponentially-expanding PC industry that year, forcing Apple USA head Allan Loren to cut prices which dropped Apple's margins. Microsoft Windows 3.0 was released in May 1990, the first iteration of Windows which had a feature set and performance comparable to the significantly costlier Macintosh.[71] Furthermore, Apple had created too many similar models that confused potential buyers; at one point the product lineup was subdivided into Classic, LC, II, Quadra, Performa, and Centris models, with essentially the same computer being sold under a number of different names.[93]

Compaq, who had previously held the third-place spot among PC manufacturers during the 1980s and early/mid-1990s, initiated a successful price war in 1994 that vaulted them to the biggest by the year-end, overtaking a struggling IBM and relegating Apple to third place.[90][91][92] Apple's market share further struggled due to the release of the Windows 95 operating system, which unified Microsoft's formerly separate MS-DOS and Windows products. Windows 95 significantly enhanced the multimedia capability and performance of IBM PC compatible computers, and brought the capabilities of Windows to parity with the Mac OS GUI.

1997–2007: Comeback

In 1997, upon return to Apple as interim CEO, Steve Jobs terminated the Macintosh clone program while simplifying the computer product lines. If measuring market share by installed base, there were more than 20 million Mac users by 1997, compared to an installed base of around 340 million Windows PCs.[149][150]

In 1998, the release of the iMac G3 all-in-one was a great success, selling 800,000 units in 139 days, providing a much needed boost to the ailing Macintosh platform.[103][104] The introduction of the Power Macintosh and iBook laptop completed "four-square product matrix" (desktop and portable products for both consumers and professionals), with the iBook ranking as the most popular laptop in the U.S. market for 1999.[105][106][107]

In 2000, Apple released the Power Mac G4 Cube, their first desktop since the discontinued Power Macintosh G3, to slot between the iMac G3 and the Power Mac G4. Even with its innovative design, it was initially priced US$200 higher than the comparably-equipped and more-expandable base Power Mac G4, while also not including a monitor, making it too expensive and resulting in slow sales.[151] Apple sold just 29,000 Cubes in Q4 of 2000 which was one third of expectations, compared to 308,000 Macs during that same quarter, and Cube sales dropped to 12,000 units in Q1 of 2001.[152] A price drop and hardware upgrades could not offset the earlier perception of the Cube's reduced value compared to the iMac and Power Mac G4 lineup, and it was discontinued in July 2001.[153]

Starting in 2002, Apple moved to eliminate CRT displays from its product line as part of aesthetic design and space-saving measures with the iMac G4. However, the new iMac with its flexible LCD flat-panel monitor was considerably more expensive on its debut than the preceding iMac G3, largely due to the higher cost of the LCD technology at the time. In order to keep the Macintosh affordable for the education market and due to obsolescence of the iMac G3, Apple created the eMac in April 2002 as the intended successor; however, the eMac's CRT made it relatively bulky and somewhat outdated, while its all-in-one construction meant it could not be expanded to meet consumer demand for larger monitors. The iMac G4's relatively high prices were approaching that of laptops which were portable and had higher resolution LCD screens. Meanwhile, Windows PC manufacturers could offer desktop configurations with LCD flat-panel monitors at prices comparable to the eMac and at a much lower cost than the iMac G4.[154] The flop of the Power Mac G4 Cube, along with the more expensive iMac G4 and heavy eMac, meant that Macintosh desktop sales never reached the market share attained by the previous iMac G3. For the next half-decade while Macintosh sales held steady, it would instead be the iPod portable music player and iTunes music download service that would drive Apple's sales growth.

Statistics from late 2003 indicate that Apple had 2.06 percent of the desktop share in the United States that had increased to 2.88 percent by Q4 2004.[155] As of October 2006, research firms IDC and Gartner reported that Apple's market share in the U.S. had increased to about 6 percent.[156] Figures from December 2006, showing a market share around 6 percent (IDC) and 6.1 percent (Gartner) are based on a more than 30 percent increase in unit sale from 2005 to 2006. The installed base of Mac computers is hard to determine, with numbers ranging from 5% (estimated in 2009)[157] to 16% (estimated in 2005).[158]

2007–present: "Post-PC" era

In recent years, market share of the personal computer market is measured by browser hits, sales and installed base. If using the browser metric, Mac market share increased substantially in 2007.[159] Mac OS X's share of the OS market increased from 7.31% in December 2007 to 9.63% in December 2008, which is a 32% increase in market share during 2008, compared with a 22% increase during 2007.

From 2001 to 2008, Mac sales increased continuously on an annual basis. Apple reported worldwide sales of 3.36 million Macs during the 2009 holiday season.[160] As of Mid-2011, the Macintosh continues to enjoy rapid market share increase in the US, growing from 7.3% of all computer shipments in 2010 to 9.3% in 2011.[161] According to IDC's quarterly PC tracker, globally, in 3rd quarter of 2014, Apple's PC market share increased 5.7 percent year over year, with record sales of 5.5 million units. Apple now sits in the number five spot, with a global market share of about 6% during 2014, behind Lenovo, HP, Dell and Acer.[162]

By March 2011, the market share of OS X in North America had increased to slightly over 14%.[163] Whether the size of the Mac's market share and installed base is relevant, and to whom, is a hotly debated issue. Industry pundits have often called attention to the Mac's relatively small market share to predict Apple's impending doom, particularly in the early and mid-1990s when the company's future seemed bleakest. Others argue that market share is the wrong way to judge the Mac's success. Apple has positioned the Mac as a higher-end personal computer, and so it may be misleading to compare it to a budget PC.[164] Because the overall market for personal computers has grown rapidly, the Mac's increasing sales numbers are effectively swamped by the industry's expanding sales volume as a whole. Apple's small market share, then, gives the impression that fewer people are using Macs than did ten years ago, when exactly the opposite is true.[165] Soaring sales of the iPhone and iPad mean that the portion of Apple's profits represented by the Macintosh has declined in 2010, dropping to 24% from 46% two years earlier.[166] Others try to de-emphasize market share, citing that it is rarely brought up in other industries.[167] Regardless of the Mac's market share, Apple has remained profitable since Steve Jobs's return and the company's subsequent reorganization.[168] Notably, a report published in the first quarter of 2008 found that Apple had a 14% market share in the personal computer market in the US, with 66% of all computers over $1,000.[169] Market research indicates that Apple draws its customer base from a higher-income demographic than the mainstream personal computer market.[170]

The sales breakdown of the Macintosh have seen sales of desktop Macs stayed mostly constant while being surpassed by that of Mac notebooks whose sales rate has grown considerably; seven out of ten Macs sold were laptops in 2009, a ratio projected to rise to three out of four by 2010.[171] The change in sales of form factors is due to the desktop iMac moving from affordable (iMac G3) to upscale (iMac G4) and subsequent releases are considered premium all-in-ones. By contrast, the MSRP of the MacBook laptop lines have dropped through successive generations such that the MacBook Air and MacBook Pro constitute the lowest price of entry to a Mac, with the exception of the even more inexpensive Mac Mini (the only sub-$1000 offering from Apple, albeit without a monitor and keyboard), not surprisingly the MacBooks are the top-selling form factors of the Macintosh platform today.[172] The use of Intel microprocessors has helped Macs more directly compete with their Windows counterparts on price and performance, and by the 2010s Apple was receiving Intel's latest CPUs first before other PC manufacturers.[173][174][175]

In recent years, Apple has seen a significant boost in sales of Macs.[176] This has been attributed, in part, to the success of the iPod and the iPhone, a halo effect whereby satisfied iPod or iPhone owners purchase more Apple products, and Apple has since capitalized on that with the iCloud cloud service that allows users to seamlessly sync data between these devices and Macs.[177] Nonetheless, like other personal computer manufacturers, the Macintosh lines have been hurt by consumer trend towards smartphones and tablet computers (particularly Apple's own iPhone and iPad, respectively) as the computing devices of choice among consumers.[178]

Although the PC market declined, Apple still managed to ship 2.8 million MacBooks in Q2 2012 (the majority of which are the MacBook Air) compared to 500,000 total Ultrabooks,[179][180] although there were dozens of Ultrabooks from various manufacturers on the market while Apple only offered 11-inch and 13-inch models of the MacBook Air.[181] The Air has been the best-selling ultra-portable in certain countries over Windows Ultrabooks, particularly the United States.[182] While several Ultrabooks were able to claim individual distinctions such as being the lightest or thinnest, the Air was regarded by reviewers as the best all-around subnotebook/ultraportable in regard to "OS X experience, full keyboard, superior trackpad, Thunderbolt connector and the higher-quality, all-aluminum unibody construction".[183] The Air was among the first to receive Intel's latest CPUs before other PC manufacturers, and OS X has gained market share on Windows in recent years.[173][174] Through July 1, 2013, the MacBook Air took in 56 percent of all Ultrabook sales in the United States, although being one of the higher-priced competitors,[184] though several Ultrabooks with better features were often more expensive than the MacBook Air.[182] The competitive pricing of MacBooks was particularly effective when rivals charged more for seemingly equivalent Ultrabooks, as this contradicted the established "elitist aura" perception that Apple products cost more but were higher quality, which made these most expensive Ultrabooks seem exorbitant no matter how valid their higher prices were.[185]

Apple has generally dominated the premium PC market, having a 91 percent market share for PCs priced at more than $1,000 in 2009, according to NPD.[186] The Macintosh took 45 percent of operating profits in the PC industry during Q4 2012, compared to 13 percent for Dell, seven percent for Hewlett Packard, six percent for Lenovo and Asus, and one percent for Acer.[171][187] While sales of the Macintosh have largely held steady, in comparison to Apple's sales of the iPhone and iPad which increased significantly during the 2010s, Macintosh computers still enjoy high margins on a per unit basis, with the majority being their MacBooks that are focused on the ultraportable niche that is the most profitable and only growing segment of PCs.[171] It also helped that the Macintosh lineup is simple, updated on a yearly schedule, and consistent across both Apple retail stores, and authorized resellers where they have a special "store within a store" section to distinguish them from Windows PCs. In contrast, Windows PC manufacturers generally have a wide range of offerings, selling only a portion through retail with a full selection on the web, and often with limited-time or region-specific models. The Macintosh ranked third on the "list of intended brands for desktop purchases" for the 2011 holiday season, then moved up to second in 2012 by displacing Hewlett Packard, and in 2013 took the top spot ahead of Dell.[188]

See also

References

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Further reading

External links

16 October 1984

Desmond Tutu is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.


Archbishop
Desmond Tutu

Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town
Chairman of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission
Archbishop-Tutu-medium.jpg
ChurchAnglican Church of Southern Africa
SeeCape Town (retired)
Installed7 September 1986
Term ended1996
PredecessorPhilip Russell
SuccessorNjongonkulu Ndungane
Other postsBishop of Lesotho
Bishop of Johannesburg
Archbishop of Cape Town
Orders
OrdinationDeacon 1960
Priest 1961
Consecration1976
Personal details
Birth nameDesmond Mpilo Tutu
Born (1931-10-07) 7 October 1931 (age 89)
Klerksdorp, Western Transvaal, Union of South Africa
Spouse
(m. 1955)
Children4
Occupation
  • Cleric
  • Priest
  • Social activist
  • Author
ProfessionTheologian
EducationKing's College London, University of London
SignatureArchbishop Desmond Tutu's signature
Styles of
Desmond Tutu
Mitre plain 2.png
Reference styleArchbishop
Spoken styleYour Grace
Religious styleThe Most Reverend

Archbishop Desmond Mpilo Tutu OMSG CH GCStJ (born 7 October 1931) is a South African Anglican cleric and theologian, known for his work as an anti-apartheid and human rights activist. He was the Bishop of Johannesburg from 1985 to 1986 and then the Archbishop of Cape Town from 1986 to 1996, in both cases being the first black African to hold the position. Theologically, he sought to fuse ideas from black theology with African theology.

Tutu was born of mixed Xhosa and Motswana heritage to a poor family in Klerksdorp, Union of South Africa. Entering adulthood, he trained as a teacher and married Nomalizo Leah Tutu, with whom he had several children. In 1960, he was ordained as an Anglican priest and in 1962 moved to the United Kingdom to study theology at King's College London. In 1966 he returned to southern Africa, teaching at the Federal Theological Seminary and then the University of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. In 1972, he became the Theological Education Fund's director for Africa, a position based in London but necessitating regular tours of the African continent. Back in southern Africa in 1975, he served first as dean of St Mary's Cathedral in Johannesburg and then as Bishop of Lesotho, taking an active role in opposition to South Africa's apartheid system of racial segregation and white-minority rule. From 1978 to 1985 he was general-secretary of the South African Council of Churches, emerging as one of South Africa's most prominent anti-apartheid activists. Although warning the National Party government that anger at apartheid would lead to racial violence, as an activist he stressed non-violent protest and foreign economic pressure to bring about universal suffrage.

In 1985, Tutu became Bishop of Johannesburg and in 1986 the Archbishop of Cape Town, the most senior position in southern Africa's Anglican hierarchy. In this position he emphasised a consensus-building model of leadership and oversaw the introduction of women priests. Also in 1986, he became president of the All Africa Conference of Churches, resulting in further tours of the continent. After President F. W. de Klerk released the anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela from prison in 1990 and the pair led negotiations to end apartheid and introduce multi-racial democracy, Tutu assisted as a mediator between rival black factions. After the 1994 general election resulted in a coalition government headed by Mandela, the latter selected Tutu to chair the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses committed by both pro and anti-apartheid groups. Since apartheid's fall, Tutu has campaigned for gay rights and spoken out on a wide range of subjects, among them the Israel-Palestine conflict, his opposition to the Iraq War, and his criticism of South African presidents Thabo Mbeki and Jacob Zuma. In 2010, he retired from public life.

Tutu polarised opinion as he rose to notability in the 1970s. White conservatives who supported apartheid despised him, while many white liberals regarded him as too radical; many black radicals accused him of being too moderate and focused on cultivating white goodwill, while Marxist–Leninists criticised his anti-communist stance. He was widely popular among South Africa's black majority, and was internationally praised for his anti-apartheid activism, receiving a range of awards, including the Nobel Peace Prize. He has also compiled several books of his speeches and sermons.

Early life

Childhood: 1931–1950

Desmond Mpilo Tutu was born on 7 October 1931 in Klerksdorp, a city in northwest South Africa.[1] His mother, Allen Dorothea Mavoertsek Mathlare, was born to a Motswana family in Boksburg.[2] His father, Zachariah Zelilo Tutu, was from the amaFengu branch of Xhosa and had grown up in Gcuwa, Eastern Cape.[3] At home, the couple both spoke the Xhosa language.[4] Zachariah trained as a primary school teacher at Lovedale college before taking a post in Boksburg, where he married his wife.[5] In the late 1920s, he took a job in Klerksdorp; in the Afrikaaner-founded city, he and his wife resided in the black residential area. Established in 1907, it was then known as the "native location" although was later renamed Makoetend.[6] The native location housed a diverse community; although most residents were Tswana, it also housed Xhosa, Sotho, and a few Indian traders.[7] Zachariah worked as the principal of a Methodist primary school and the family lived in the schoolmaster's house, a small mud-brick building in the yard of the Methodist mission.[8]

Church of Christ the King
The Church of Christ the King in Sophiatown, where Tutu was a server under priest Trevor Huddlestone

The Tutus were poor;[9] describing his family, Tutu later related that "although we weren't affluent, we were not destitute either".[10] Tutu had an older sister, Sylvia Funeka, who called him "Mpilo" ("life"), a name given to him by his paternal grandmother.[11] The rest of the family called him "Boy".[12] He was his parent's second son; their firstborn boy, Sipho, had died in infancy.[12] Another daughter, Gloria Lindiwe, would be born after him.[13] Tutu was sickly from birth;[14] polio resulted in the atrophy of his right hand,[15] and on one occasion he was hospitalised with serious burns.[16] Tutu had a close relationship with his father, although was angered at the latter's heavy drinking, during which he would sometimes beat his wife.[17] The family were initially Methodists and Tutu was baptised into the Methodist Church in June 1932.[18] They subsequently changed denominations, first to the African Methodist Episcopal Church and then to the Anglican Church.[19]

In 1936, the family moved to Tshing, where Zachariah was employed as the principal of a Methodist school; they lived in a hut in the school yard.[16] There, Tutu started his primary education and played football with the other children,[10] also becoming the server at St Francis Anglican Church.[20] He developed a love of reading, particularly enjoying comic books and European fairy tales.[21] Here, he also learned Afrikaans, the main language of the area.[22] It was in Tshing that his parents had a third son, Tamsanqa, who also died in infancy.[10] Around 1941, Tutu's mother moved to Witwatersrand to work as a cook at Ezenzeleni Blind Institute in western Johannesburg. Tutu joined her in the city, first living with an aunt in Roodepoort West before they secured their own house in the township.[23] In Johannesburg, he attended a Methodist primary school before transferring to the (SBS) in the St Agnes Mission.[24] Several months later, he moved with his father to Ermelo, eastern Transvaal.[25] After six months, the duo returned to live with the rest of the family in Roodepoort West, where Tutu resuming his studies at SBS.[25] He had pursued his interest in Christianity and at the age of 12 underwent confirmation at St Mary's Church, Roodepoort.[26]

Tutu failed the arithmetic component of his primary school exam, but despite this, his father secured him entry to the Johannesburg Bantu High School in 1945, where he excelled academically.[27] There, he joined a school rugby team, developing a lifelong love of the sport.[28] Outside of school, he earned money selling oranges and as a caddie for white golfers.[29] To avoid the expense of a daily train commute to school, he briefly lived with family nearer to Johannesburg, before moving back in with his parents when they relocated to Munsieville.[30] He then returned to Johannesburg by moving into a hostel that was part of the Anglican complex surrounding the Church of Christ the King in Sophiatown.[31] He became a server at the church and came under the influence of its priest, Trevor Huddleston;[32] later biographer Shirley du Boulay suggested that Huddleston was "the greatest single influence" in Tutu's life.[33] In 1947, Tutu contracted tuberculosis and was hospitalised in Rietfontein for 18 months, during which he spent much of his time reading and was regularly visited by Huddleston.[34] In the hospital, he underwent a circumcision to mark his transition to manhood.[35] He returned to school in 1949 and took his national exams in late 1950, gaining a second-class pass.[36]

College and teaching career: 1951–1955

Wanting to become a doctor, Desmond Tutu secured admission to study medicine at the University of the Witwatersrand; however, his parents could not afford the tuition fees.[36] Instead, he turned toward teaching, gaining a government scholarship to start a course at Pretoria Bantu Normal College, a teacher training institution, in 1951.[37] There, he served as treasurer of the Student Representative Council, helped to organise the Literacy and Dramatic Society, and chaired the Cultural and Debating Society for two years.[38] It was during one local debating event that he first met the lawyer—and future president of South Africa—Nelson Mandela; the latter did not remember the meeting and they would not encounter each other again until 1990.[39] At the college, Tutu attained his Transvaal Bantu Teachers Diploma, having gained advice about taking exams from the activist Robert Sobukwe.[40] He had also taken five correspondence courses provided by the University of South Africa (UNISA), graduating in the same class as future Zimbabwean leader Robert Mugabe.[41]

In 1954, he began teaching English at Madibane High School; the following year, he transferred to the , where he taught English and history.[42] He began courting Nomalizo Leah Shenxane, a friend of his sister Gloria who was studying to become a primary school teacher.[43] They were legally married at Krugersdorp Native Commissioner's Court in June 1955, before undergoing a Roman Catholic wedding ceremony at the Church of Mary Queen of Apostles; although he was an Anglican, Tutu had agreed to the ceremony due to Leah's Roman Catholic faith.[44] The newly married couple initially lived in a room at Tutu's parental home before renting their own home six months later.[45] Their first child, Trevor, was born in April 1956;[46] their first daughter, Thandeka, appeared 16 months later.[47] The couple worshipped at St Paul's Church, where Tutu volunteered as a Sunday school teacher, assistant choirmaster, church councillor, lay preacher, and sub-deacon,[47] while outside of the church he also volunteered as a football administrator for a local team.[45]

Joining the clergy: 1956–1966

Tutu first ministered to a white congregation at the Church of St Alban the Martyr in Golders Green, living with his family in the curate's flat

In 1953, the white-minority National Party government had introduced the Bantu Education Act as a means of furthering their apartheid system of racial segregation and white domination; both Tutu and his wife disliked these changes and decided to leave the teaching profession.[48] With Huddleston's support, Tutu left the teaching profession to become an Anglican priest.[49] In January 1956, his request to join the was turned down due to the debts he had accrued; these were then paid off by the wealthy industrialist and philanthropist Harry Oppenheimer.[50] Tutu was admitted to St Peter's Theological College in Rosettenville, Johannesburg, which was run by the Anglican Community of the Resurrection.[51] The college was residential, and Tutu lived there while his wife moved to train as a nurse in Sekhukhuneland and his children lived with his parents in Munsieville.[52] In August 1960, his wife gave birth to another daughter, Naomi.[53]

At the college, Tutu studied the Bible, Anglican doctrine, church history, and Christian ethics,[54] earning a Licentiate of Theology degree.[55] The college's principal, , wrote that Tutu "has exceptional knowledge and intelligence and is very industrious. At the same time he shows no arrogance, mixes in well and is popular... He has obvious gifts of leadership."[56] He won the archbishop's annual essay prize for his discussion of Christianity and Islam.[57] During his years at the college, there had been an intensification in anti-apartheid activism in South Africa, accompanied by a growing government crackdown on this dissent; in March 1960 several hundred casualties resulted from the Sharpeville massacre.[58] Tutu and his other trainees did not mobilise in support of the anti-apartheid movement;[59] he later noted that "we were in some ways a very apolitical bunch".[60]

During his master's degree, Tutu worked as assistant curate at St Mary's Church in Bletchingley, Surrey

In December 1960, Edward Paget ordained Tutu as an Anglican priest at St Mary's Cathedral.[61] Tutu was then appointed assistant curate in St Alban's Parish, Benoni, where he was reunited with his wife and children; they lived in a converted garage.[62] He earned 72.50 rand a month, which was two-thirds of what his white counterparts were given.[63] In 1962, Tutu was transferred to St Philip's Church in Thokoza, where he was placed in charge of the congregation and developed a passion for pastoral ministry.[64] Many in South Africa's white-dominated Anglican establishment felt the need for a greater number of indigenous Africans in positions of ecclesiastical authority; to assist in this, proposed that Tutu be trained as a theology teacher at King's College London.[65] Funding was secured from the International Missionary Council's Theological Education Fund (TEF),[66] and the government agreed to give the Tutus permission to move to Britain.[67] They duly did so in September 1962.[68] Tutu was awarded Bachelor of Divinity in 1965 and Master of Theology in 1966, both from University of London.

At KCL's theology department, Tutu studied under theologians like Dennis Nineham, Christopher Evans, Sydney Evans, Geoffrey Parrinder, and Eric Mascall.[69] In London, the Tutus felt liberated experiencing a life free from apartheid and the pass laws of South Africa;[70] he later noted that "there is racism in England, but we were not exposed to it".[71] He was also impressed by the freedom of speech available in the country, especially that at Speakers' Corner.[72] The family moved into the curate's flat behind the Church of St Alban the Martyr in Golders Green; they were allowed to live rent-free on the condition that Tutu assisted Sunday services, the first time that he had ministered to a white congregation.[73] It was in the flat that a daughter, Mpho Andrea, was born in 1963.[74] Tutu was academically successful and his tutors suggested that he convert to an honours degree, which entailed him also studying Hebrew.[75] He received his degree from Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother in a ceremony held at the Royal Albert Hall.[76]

Nearing the end of his undergraduate studies, he decided to continue on to a master's degree, securing a TEF grant to fund it;[77] he studied for this degree from October 1965 until September 1966, completing his dissertation on Islam in West Africa.[78] During this period, the family moved from Golders Green to Bletchingley in Surrey, where Tutu worked as the assistant curate of St Mary's Church.[79] In the village, he encouraged cooperation between his Anglican parishioners and the local Roman Catholic and Methodist communities.[80] Tutu's time in London helped him to jettison any bitterness to whites and feelings of racial inferiority; he overcame his habit of automatically deferring to whites.[81]

Career during apartheid

Teaching in South Africa and Lesotho: 1966–1972

In 1966, the Tutu left the UK and travelled, via Paris and Rome, to East Jerusalem.[82] Spending two months in the city, Tutu studied Arabic and Greek at St George's College.[83] He was shocked at the level of tension between the city's Jewish and Arab citizens.[84] From there, the family returned to South Africa, spending Christmas with family in Witwatersrand.[85] They found it difficult readjusting to a society where they were impacted by segregation and pass laws.[86] He explored the possibility on conducting a PhD at UNISA, on the subject of Moses in the Quran, but this project never materialised.[87] In 1967 they proceeded to Alice, Eastern Cape, where the Federal Theological Seminary (Fedsem) had recently been established, an amalgamation of training institutions from different Christian denominations.[88] There, Tutu was employed teaching doctrine, the Old Testament, and Greek.[89] Tutu was the college's first black staff-member, with most of the others being European or American expatriates.[90] The campus allowed a level of racial-mixing which was absent in most of South African society.[91] Leah also gained employment there, as a library assistant.[92] They sent their children to a private boarding school in Swaziland, thereby ensuring that they were not instructed under the government's Bantu Education syllabus.[93]

While at St Peter's, Tutu had also joined a pan-Protestant group, the , and served as a delegate at Anglican-Catholic conversations in southern Africa.[94] It was also at this point that he began publishing in academic journals and journals of current affairs.[94] Tutu was also appointed as the Anglican chaplain to the neighbouring University of Fort Hare.[95] In an unusual move for the time, he invited female students to become servers during the Eucharist alongside their male counterparts.[96] He joined Anglican student delegations to meetings of the and the .[97] It was from this environment that the Black Consciousness Movement emerged under the leadership of figures like Steve Biko and Barney Pityana; although not averse to working with other racial groups to fight apartheid, as the exponents of Black Consciousness often were, Tutu was supportive of the movement's efforts.[98] In August 1968, he gave a sermon comparing the situation in South Africa with that in the Eastern Bloc, likening anti-apartheid protests to the recent Prague Spring.[99] In September, Fort Hare students held a sit-in protest at the university administration's policies; after they were surrounded by police with dogs, Tutu waded into the crowd to pray with the protesters.[100] This was the first time that he had witnessed state power used to suppress dissent, and he cried during public prayers the next day.[101]

Although plans were afoot for Tutu to become Vice Principal of Fedsem, he decided to leave the seminary to accept a teaching post at the University of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland (UBLS) in Roma, Lesotho.[102] The new position allowed him to live closer to his children and offered twice the salary he earned at Fedsem.[103] In January 1970, he and his wife moved to the UBLS campus; most of his fellow staff members were white expatriates from the U.S. or Britain although the university's policy was non-racial and inclusive.[104] As well as his teaching position, he also became the college's Anglican chaplain and the warden of two student residences.[105] In Lesotho, he joined the executive board of the and served as an external examiner for both Fedsem and Rhodes University.[94] He returned to South Africa on several occasions, including to visit his father shortly before the latter's death in February 1971.[94]

Africa Director for the TEF: 1972–1975

Black theology seeks to make sense of the life experience of the black man, which is largely black suffering at the hands of rampant white racism, and to understand this in the light of what God has said about himself, about man, and about the world in his very definite Word... Black theology has to do with whether it is possible to be black and continue to be Christian; it is to ask on whose side is God; it is to be concerned about the humanisation of man, because those who ravage our humanity dehumanise themselves in the process; [it says] that the liberation of the black man is the other side of the liberation of the white man—so it is concerned with human liberation.

— Desmond Tutu, in a conference paper presented at the Union Theological Seminary, 1973[106]

The TEF offered Tutu a job as their director for Africa, a position that would require relocating to London. Tutu agreed, although was initially refused permission to leave by the South African authorities; they regarded him with suspicion ever since his involvement in the Fort Hare student protests and were also increasingly antagonistic toward the WCC, which ran the TEF, because it had condemned apartheid as un-Christian. After Tutu insisted that taking the position would be good publicity for South Africa, the authorities relented.[107] In March 1972, he returned to Britain. The TEF's headquarters were in Bromley, a town in the southeast of the city, with the Tutu family settling in nearby Grove Park, where Tutu became honorary curate of St Augustine's Church.[108]

Tutu's job entailed assessing grants to theological training institutions and students.[109] This required him touring much of Africa in the early 1970s, and he wrote accounts of his experiences.[110] In Zaire, he for instance lamented the widespread corruption and poverty, while complaining that Mobutu Sese Seko's "military regime... is extremely galling to a black from South Africa".[111] In Nigeria, he first witnessed the interaction between Christians and Muslims in real life, and expressed concern at the Igbo people's resentment following the crushing of their Republic of Biafra.[112] In 1972 he travelled around East Africa, where he was impressed by Jomo Kenyatta's Kenyan government and witnessed Idi Amin's expulsion of Ugandan Asians.[113] Back in England, he experienced one of his only racist encounters in the country when a stranger told him "You bastard, get back to Uganda", mistaking him for a Ugandan Asian refugee.[114] He also acknowledged that he retained his own subconscious anti-black racist thoughts; when on a Nigerian plane, he felt a "nagging worry" on discovering that both pilot and co-pilot were black, having been conditioned to thinking that only whites could be entrusted with such positions of responsibility.[115]

During the early 1970s, Tutu's theology fundamentally changed as a result both of his experiences in Africa and his discovery of liberation theology, a term coined in 1971 by the Peruvian priest Gustavo Gutiérrez and introduced to Tutu by the TEF's associate director for Latin America, .[116] On discovering black theology, he had been immediately attracted to it,[117] in 1973 attending a conference on the subject at New York City's Union Theological Seminary.[118] There, he presented a paper in which he stated that "black theology is an engaged not an academic, detached theology. It is a gut level theology, relating to the real concerns, the life and death issues of the black man."[119] He stated that his paper was not an attempt to demonstrate the academic respectability of black theology but rather to make "a straightforward, perhaps shrill, statement about an existent. Black theology is. No permission is being requested for it to come into being... Frankly the time has passed when we will wait for the white man to give us permission to do our thing. Whether or not he accepts the intellectual respectability of our activity is largely irrelevant. We will proceed regardless."[120] Tutu sought to fuse the African-American derived black theology with African theology, an approach which contrasted with that of other African theologians like John Mbiti who regarded black theology as a foreign import not relevant to the African situation.[118]

Dean of Johannesburg and Bishop of Lesotho: 1975–1978

In 1975, Tutu was nominated to be the new Bishop of Johannesburg, although lost out to Timothy Bavin.[121] Bavin suggested that Tutu take his newly vacated position, that of the dean of St Mary's Cathedral, Johannesburg. Tutu was elected to this position—the fourth highest in South Africa's Anglican hierarchy—in March 1975, becoming the first black man to do so, an appointment making headline news in South Africa.[122] Tutu decided to return to South Africa, a decision opposed by Leah, resulting in a strain on their marriage.[123] Tutu was officially installed as dean in an August 1975 ceremony. The cathedral was packed for the event; in attendance was the TEF's chairman, Archbishop Karekin Sarkissian of the Armenian Orthodox Church.[124] Moving to the city, Tutu lived not in the official dean's residence in the white suburb of Houghton but rather in a house on a middle-class street in the Orlando West township of Soweto, a largely impoverished area for blacks.[125] The cathedral's congregation was racially mixed but with a white majority; this mixing gave Tutu hope that a racially equal, de-segregated future was possible for South Africa.[126] He attempted to modernise the liturgies used by the cathedral's congregation although found that this was not desired by most.[127] He also divided opinion among the congregation for his support of the ordination of women and for replacing masculine pronouns with gender neutral ones in his sermons and liturgy.[128]

As Bishop of Lesotho, Tutu travelled around the country's mountains visiting the people living there

Tutu used his position to speak out about what he regarded as social injustice.[129] He met with Black Consciousness Movement figures like Mamphela Ramphele and Soweto community leaders like ,[130] and publicly endorsed international economic boycott of South Africa over its apartheid policy.[131] He opposed the government's Terrorism Act, 1967 and shared a platform with anti-apartheid campaigner Winnie Mandela in condemning it.[132] He held a 24-hour vigil for racial harmony at the cathedral where he included special prayers for those activists detained under the act.[133] In May 1976, he wrote a letter to Prime Minister B. J. Vorster, urging him to dismantle apartheid and warning that if the government continued enforcing this policy then the country would erupt in racial violence.[134] Six weeks later, the Soweto uprising broke out as black youth protesting the introduction of Afrikaans as the mandatory language of instruction clashed with police. Over the course of ten months, at least 660 were killed, the majority of them under the age of 24.[135] Tutu was upset by what he regarded as the lack of outrage from South Africa's white community; he raised the issue in his Sunday sermon, stating that the white silence was "deafening" and asking if they would have shown the same nonchalance had the school children killed by police and pro-government paramilitaries been white.[136]

Tutu had been scheduled to serve a seven-year term as dean, however after seven months he was nominated as a candidate in an election for the position of Bishop of Lesotho.[137] Although Tutu stipulated that he did not want the position, he was elected to the position regardless in March 1976, at which he reluctantly accepted it.[138] This decision upset some of his congregation, who felt that he had used their parish as a stepping stone for his personal career advancement.[139] In July, Bill Burnett consecrated Tutu as a bishop at St Mary's Cathedral.[140] In August, Tutu was enthroned as the Bishop of Lesotho in a ceremony at Maseru's ; thousands attended, including King Moshoeshoe II and Prime Minister Leabua Jonathan.[140] In this position, he travelled around the diocese, often visiting parishes in the mountains.[141] He learned the Sesotho language and developed a deep affection for the country.[142] He appointed as the first dean of the diocese and placed great emphasis on further education for the Basotho clergy.[143] He befriended the royal family although his relationship with Jonathan's right-wing government, of which he disapproved, was strained.[144] In September 1977 he returned to South Africa after being invited to speak at the Eastern Cape funeral of Black Consciousness activist Steve Biko, who had been killed by police while in their custody.[145] At the funeral, Tutu stated that Black Consciousness was "a movement by which God, through Steve, sought to awaken in the black person a sense of his intrinsic value and worth as a child of God".[146]

General-Secretary of the South African Council of Churches: 1978–1985

Taking control of the SACC

We in the SACC believe in a non-racial South Africa where people count because they are made in the image of God. So the SACC is neither a black nor a white organization. It is a Christian organization with a definite bias in favour of the oppressed and the exploited ones of our society.

— Desmond Tutu, on the SACC[147]

After John Rees stepped down as general secretary of the South African Council of Churches, Tutu was among the nominees for his successor. John Thorne was ultimately elected to the position, although stepped down from the position after three months. Tutu was nominated once more, this time being selected. Tutu was unsure whether to accept, but agreed to do so at the urging of the synod of bishops.[148] His decision angered many Anglicans in Lesotho, who felt that Tutu was abandoning them.[149] Tutu took charge of the SACC in March 1978.[150] Returning to Johannesburg—where the SACC's headquarters were based at [151]—the Tutus returned to their former Orlando West home, now bought for them by an anonymous foreign donor.[152] Leah gained employment as the assistant director of the Institute of Race Relations.[153]

Tutu was the SACC's first black leader,[154] and at the time, the SACC was one of the only Christian institutions in South Africa where black people had the majority representation.[155] There, he introduced a schedule of daily staff prayers, regular Bible study, monthly Eucharist, and silent retreats.[156] He also developed a new style of leadership, appointing senior staff who were capable of taking the initiative, delegating much of the SACC's detailed work to them, and keeping in touch with them through meetings and memorandums.[157] Many of his staff referred to him as "Baba" (father).[158] He was determined that the SACC become one of South Africa's most visible human rights advocacy organisations, a course which would anger the government.[154] His efforts gained him international recognition; in 1978 Kings College London at University of London elected him a fellow while the University of Kent and General Theological Seminary gave him honorary doctorates; the following year Harvard University also gave him an honorary doctorate.[159]

As head of the SACC, Tutu's time was dominated by fundraising efforts, particularly attempts to secure funds from overseas to pay for the organisation's various projects.[160] While Tutu was in charge of the SACC, it was revealed that one of its divisional directors had been stealing funds. In November 1981 an all-white government commission was launched to investigate the issue, headed by the judge C. F. Eloff.[161] Tutu gave evidence to the commission, during which he criticised apartheid as "evil" and "unchristian".[162] When the Eloff report was published, Tutu criticised it, focusing particularly on the absence of any theologians on its board, likening it to "a group of blind men" judging the Chelsea Flower Show.[163] Tutu also missed pastoral work, and in 1981 also became the rector of St Augustine's Church in Soweto's Orlando West.[164] He also began collecting some of his sermons and speeches, publishing them in a collection titled Crying in the Wilderness: The Struggle for Justice in South Africa in 1982.[165] This was followed by another collected volume, Hope and Suffering, in 1984.[165]

Activism and the Nobel Peace Prize

During this period, he testified on behalf of a captured cell of the Umkhonto we Sizwe, an armed anti-apartheid group linked to the banned African National Congress (ANC). He stated that although he was committed to non-violence and censured those on all sides who used violence, he could understand why other black Africans would turn towards it when all their non-violent tactics had proved fruitless in overturning apartheid.[166] In an earlier address, he had expressed the view that an armed struggle against the South African government had little chance of succeeding but also called out Western nations for hypocrisy, noting that they were condemning armed liberation groups in southern Africa while they had praised armed liberation groups operating in Europe during the Second World War.[167]

U.S. President Ronald Reagan meeting with Desmond Tutu in 1984. Tutu described Reagan's administration as "an unmitigated disaster for us blacks",[168] and Reagan himself as "a racist pure and simple."[169]

After Tutu told Danish journalists that he supported an international economic boycott of South Africa, he was called before two government ministers to be reprimanded in October 1979.[170] In March 1980, the government confiscated his passport, an act which raised his international profile and brought condemnations from the US State Department and senior Anglicans like Robert Runcie.[171] Tutu also signed a petition calling for the release of Mandela, an imprisoned anti-apartheid activist; Mandela's freedom was not yet an international cause célèbre.[172] This led to a correspondence between the two men.[173] In 1980, the SACC committed itself to supporting civil disobedience against South Africa's racial laws.[174] After Thorne was arrested in May, Tutu and led a march of protest, during which they were arrested by riot police, imprisoned overnight, and fined.[175] The authorities confiscated Tutu's passport.[176] In the aftermath of the incident, a meeting was organised between 20 church leaders, including Tutu, Prime Minister of South Africa P. W. Botha, and seven government ministers. At this August meeting the clerical leaders unsuccessfully urged the government to dismantle the apartheid laws.[177] Some of the clergy saw this dialogue with the government as pointless, but Tutu disagreed, noting that "Moses went to Pharaoh repeatedly to secure the release of the Israelites".[178]

In January 1981, the government returned Tutu's passport to him.[179] In March, he embarked on a five-week visit to ten countries in Europe and North America, meeting politicians including the UN Secretary General Kurt Waldheim, and addressing the UN Special Committee Against Apartheid.[180] In the UK, he met Runcie gave a sermon in Westminster Abbey, while in Rome he spent a few minutes with Pope John Paul II.[181] On his return to South Africa, Botha again ordered his passport confiscated, preventing Tutu from personally collecting several further honorary degrees.[182] It was returned to him 17 months later.[183] In September 1982 he addressed the Triennial Convention of the Episcopal Church in New Orleans before traveling to Kentucky to see his daughter Naomi, who lived there with her American husband.[184] He was troubled that President Ronald Reagan adopted a warmer relationship with the South African government than his predecessor Jimmy Carter, relating that Reagan's government was "an unmitigated disaster for us blacks".[185] Tutu gained a popular following in the US, where he was often compared to civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr., although white conservatives like Patrick Buchanan and Jerry Falwell lambasted him as an alleged communist sympathiser.[186]

This award is for mothers, who sit at railway stations to try to eke out an existence, selling potatoes, selling mealies, selling produce. This award is for you, fathers, sitting in a single-sex hostel, separated from your children for 11 months a year... This award is for you, mothers in the KTC squatter camp, whose shelters are destroyed callously every day, and who sit on soaking mattresses in the winter rain, holding whimpering babies... This award is for you, the 3.5 million of our people who have been uprooted and dumped as if you were rubbish. This award is for you.

— Desmond Tutu's speech on receiving the Nobel Peace Prize[187]

By the 1980s, Tutu had become an icon for many black South Africans, his stature among them rivalled only by Mandela.[188] In August 1983, South Africans opposed to apartheid formed the United Democratic Front (UDF), with Tutu selected as one of the organisation's patrons.[189] Conversely, he angered the government as well as much of the press and white public.[190] Most of his critics were conservative whites who did not want apartheid to end.[190] He was criticised in pro-government press outlets like The Citizen and the South African Broadcasting Corporation,[191] with this criticism often centering on how his middle-class lifestyle contrasted with the poverty of the blacks he claimed to represent.[192] He received hate mail as well as death threats from white far-right groups like the Wit Wolwe.[193] His rhetoric of angry defiance against the government alienated many white liberals, who believed that apartheid could be gradually reformed away; among the white liberals who publicly criticised Tutu were Alan Paton and Bill Burnett.[194] He nevertheless remained close with other prominent white liberals like Helen Suzman.[195]

In 1984, Tutu embarked on a three-month sabbatical leave at the General Theological Seminary of the Episcopal Church in New York.[196] In the city, he was invited to address the United Nations Security Council in October,[197] and in December he met the Congressional Black Caucus and the subcommittees on Africa in the House of Representatives and the Senate, urging them to put pressure on South Africa.[198] He was also invited to the White House to visit President Ronald Reagan; he urged Reagan to change his approach to the South African government although was unsuccessful.[199] Referring to Reagan's decision to put Cold War alliances before the rights of black South Africans, Tutu later described Reagan as "a racist pure and simple".[169]

It was while in New York that Tutu was informed that he had won the 1984 Nobel Peace Prize; he had previously been nominated in 1981, 1982, and 1983.[200] When the Nobel Prize selection committee met to decide 1984's award, they agreed that it should go to a South African to recognise the problems in that country, deciding that Tutu would be a less controversial choice than other South African nominees Mandela and Mangosuthu Buthelezi.[201] Tutu travelled to London, where he gave a public statement dedicating his award to "the little people" in South Africa.[202] In December, he attended the award ceremony in Oslo—which was hampered by a bomb scare—before returning home via Sweden, Denmark, Canada, Tanzania, and Zambia.[203] He shared the $192,000 prize money with his family, SACC staff, and a scholarship fund for South Africans in exile.[204] He was the second South African to receive the award, after Albert Luthuli in 1960.[168] The South African government and mainstream media either downplayed or criticised the award,[205] while the Organisation of African Unity hailed it as evidence of apartheid's impending demise.[206]

Bishop of Johannesburg: 1985–1986

After Bavin retired as Bishop of Johannesburg, Tutu was among five candidates considered as his replacement. An elective assembly met at St Barnabas' College in October 1984 and although Tutu was one of the two most popular candidates, the white laity voting bloc consistently voted against his candidature. After a deadlock ensued, a bishops' synod was called to make the final decision; they decided to give the role to Tutu.[207] Black Anglicans celebrated, although many of their white co-religionists were angry at the selection.[208] Tutu was enthroned as the sixth Bishop of Johannesburg at a ceremony in St Mary's Cathedral in February 1985.[209] He was the first black man to hold the role,[210] and took over the largest diocese in South Africa, comprising 102 parishes and 300,000 Anglican parishioners, approximately 80% of whom were black.[211] In his inaugural sermon, Tutu declared that he would call on the international community to introduce punitive economic sanctions against South Africa unless apartheid had not begun to be dismantled within 18 to 24 months.[212] As bishop, he resigned as patron of the UDF.[213]

I have no hope of real change from this government unless they are forced. We face a catastrophe in this land and only the action of the international community by applying pressure can save us. Our children are dying. Our land is bleeding and burning and so I call the international community to apply punitive sanctions against this government to help us establish a new South Africa – non-racial, democratic, participatory and just. This is a non-violent strategy to help us do so. There is a great deal of goodwill still in our country between the races. Let us not be so wanton in destroying it. We can live together as one people, one family, black and white together.

— Desmond Tutu, 1985[214]

Tutu sought to reassure white South Africans that he was not the "horrid ogre" some believed him to be, and as bishop he spent much time visiting white-majority parishes and wooing the support of white Anglicans in his diocese.[215] Some white parishes had withdrawn their diocesan quota in protest at his appointment, but he was able to make up the shortfall by attracting foreign donations.[216]

In the mid-1980s, there were an increasing number of clashes between angry black youths and the security services, resulting in a growing death toll; Tutu was invited to speak at many of their funerals, which attracted crowds of thousands.[217] At a funeral in Duduza, he stepped in to prevent members of the crowd from killing a black man suspected to be a government informant.[218] He spoke out against the torture and killing of suspected collaborators, angering some of those in the black community.[219] For these young militants, Tutu and his calls for non-violence were perceived as an obstacle on the path to revolution;[220] one young woman was quoted as saying that Tutu was "too moderate for most of us, too much within the system".[220] When Tutu accompanied the U.S. politician Ted Kennedy on the latter's speaking tour of South Africa in January 1985, he was angered and humiliated that protesters from the Azanian People's Organisation (AZAPO)—who regarded Kennedy as an agent of capitalism and American imperialism—repeatedly disrupted proceedings.[221]

Amid the violence, the ANC called on black South Africans to make the country "ungovernable",[222] while foreign companies increasingly disinvested in the country and the rand reached a record low.[223] In July 1985, Botha declared a state of emergency in 36 magisterial districts, further suspending civil liberties and giving the security services additional powers;[224] Tutu criticised this, and offered to serve as a go-between for the government and leading black organisations, but was rebuffed by the former.[225] He also continued with his protests; in April 1985, Tutu led a small march of clergy through Johannesburg to protest the arrest of Reverend .[226] In October 1985, he backed the 's proposal for people to refrain from work and engage in a day of prayer, fasting and mourning.[227] He also proposed a national strike against apartheid, angering trade unions whom he had not consulted about such an idea.[228]

Tutu had continued to make foreign visits to promote his cause. In May he embarked on a speaking tour of the U.S.,[229] and in October 1985 addressed the political committee of the United Nations General Assembly urging that the international community impose sanctions on South Africa if apartheid was not dismantled within six months.[230] He proceeded to the United Kingdom, where he met with Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.[231] He also announced the formation of a Bishop Tutu Scholarship Fund to financially assist South African students living in exile.[232] He returned to the U.S. in May 1986,[94] and in August 1986 visited Japan, China, and Jamaica to promote sanctions.[233] Given that most senior anti-apartheid activists were imprisoned, Mandela referred to Tutu as "public enemy number one for the powers that be".[234]

Archbishop of Cape Town: 1986–1994

Tutu on a visit to San Francisco in 1986

After Philip Russell announced his retirement as the Archbishop of Cape Town,[235] in February 1986 the formed a plan to get Tutu appointed as his replacement.[236] At the time of the meeting, Tutu was in Atlanta, Georgia receiving the Martin Luther King, Jr. Nonviolent Peace Prize.[237] Tutu's name was put forward for the position alongside that of Michael Nuttall, although both expressed hesitation at the nomination. In the vote, Tutu secured a two-thirds majority from both the clergy and laity and was then ratified in a unanimous vote by the synod of bishops.[238] He was the first black man to hold the post.[235] Some white Anglicans left the church in protest at his election.[239] Over 1300 people attended his enthronement ceremony, which was held on 7 September 1986 at the Cathedral of St George the Martyr.[240] After the ceremony, Tutu held an open-air Eucharist for 10,000 people at the Cape Showgrounds in Goodwood, where he invited Albertina Sisulu and Allan Boesak to give political speeches.[241]

On becoming archbishop, he moved into the post's official residence at Bishopscourt. He did so illegally, because he had not sought official permission to reside in what the state allocated as a "white area".[242] He obtained money from the church to oversee renovations of the house,[243] and had a children's playground installed in its ground, opening this and the Bishopscourt swimming pool to members of his diocese.[244] He invited the English priest to set up the at Bishopscourt, with the latter moving into a building in the house's grounds.[245] Such projects led to Tutu's ministry taking up an increasingly large portion of the Anglican church's budget, which Tutu sought to expand through requesting donations from overseas.[245] Some Anglicans were critical of his spending.[246]

His work as archbishop, coupled with his political activism and regular foreign trips, led to him accumulating a vast workload, which he managed with the assistance of his executive officer Njongonkulu Ndungane and with Nuttall, who in 1989 was elected dean of the province.[247] In church meetings, Tutu drew upon traditional African custom by adopting a consensus-building model of leadership, seeking to ensure that competing groups in the church reached a compromise and thus all votes would be unanimous rather than divided.[248] He secured approval for the ordination of female priests in the Anglican church, having likened the exclusion of women from the position to the exclusionary system of apartheid.[249] He also appointed gay priests to senior positions and privately—although not at the time publicly—criticised the church's insistence that gay priests remain celibate, regarding it as impractical.[250]

Along with Boesak and Stephen Naidoo, Tutu became one of the church leaders involved in mediating conflicts between black protesters and the security forces; they for instance worked to avoid clashes at the 1987 funeral of ANC guerrilla Ashley Kriel.[251] In February 1988, the government banned 17 black or multi-racial organisations, including the UDF, and restricted the activities of trade unions. Church leaders organised a protest march, and after that too was banned they established the . When the group's rally was banned, Tutu, Boesak, and Naidoo organised a service at St George's Cathedral to replace it.[252]

You have already lost! Let us say to you nicely: you have already lost! We are inviting you to come and join the winning side! Your cause is unjust. You are defending what is fundamentally indefensible, because it is evil. It is evil without question. It is immoral. It is immoral without question. It is unchristian. Therefore, you will bite the dust! And you will bite the dust comprehensively.

— Desmond Tutu addressing the government, 1988[253]

In March 1988, he took up the cause of the Sharpeville Six who had been sentenced to death; opposed on principle to capital punishment, he called for their lives to be spared.[254] He telephoned representatives of the U.S., British, and German governments urging them to pressure Botha on the issue,[255] and personally met with Botha at the latter's Tuynhuys home to discuss the issue. The two did not get on well, and argued.[256] Botha accused Tutu of supporting the ANC's armed campaign; Tutu said that while he did not support their use of violence, he supported the ANC's objective of a non-racial, democratic South Africa.[257] The death sentences were ultimately commuted.[258]

In May 1988, the government launched a covert campaign against Tutu, organised in part by Stratkom wing of the State Security Council.[259] The security police printed leaflets and stickers with anti-Tutu slogans while unemployed blacks were paid to protest at the airport when he arrived there.[259] Traffic police arrested Leah and locked her in a cell when she was late to renew her motor vehicle license.[260] Although the security police organised assassination attempts on various anti-apartheid Christian leaders, they later claimed to have never done so for Tutu, regarding him as too high-profile.[261]

Tutu remained actively involved in acts of civil disobedience against the government; he was encouraged by the fact that many whites also took part in these protests.[262] In August 1989 he helped to organise an "Ecumenical Defiance Service" at St George's Cathedral,[263] and shortly after joined protests at segregated beaches outside Cape Town.[264] To mark the sixth anniversary of the UDF's foundation he held a "service of witness" at the cathedral,[265] and in September organised a church memorial for those protesters who had been killed in clashes with the security forces.[266] He organised a protest march through Cape Town for later that month, which the new President F. W. de Klerk agreed to permit; a multi-racial crowd containing an estimated 30,000 people took part.[267] That the march had been permitted inspired similar demonstrations to take place across the country.[268] In October, de Klerk met with Tutu, Boesak, and Frank Chikane; Tutu was impressed that "we were listened to".[269] In 1994, a further collection of Tutu's writings, The Rainbow People of God, was published, and followed the next year with his An African Prayer Book, a collection of prayers from across the continent accompanied by the Archbishop's commentary.[165]

Dismantling of apartheid

Tutu welcomed Mandela (pictured) to Bishopscourt when the latter was released from prison and later organised the religious component of his presidential inauguration ceremony.

In February 1990, de Klerk un-banned political parties like the ANC; Tutu phoned him to congratulate him on the move.[270] Shortly after, de Klerk announced that Mandela was to be released from prison. The ANC asked Tutu if Mandela and his wife Winnie could stay at Bishopscourt on the first night of his freedom, to which Tutu agreed.[271] They met for the first time in 35 years at Cape Town City Hall, where Mandela gave a speech to assembled crowds from the balcony.[272] Tutu invited Mandela to attend an Anglican synod of bishops in February 1990, at which the latter described Tutu as the "people's archbishop".[273] At that synod, Tutu and the bishops decide to call for an end to foreign sanctions once the transition to universal suffrage was "irreversible", urged anti-apartheid groups to end their use of armed struggle, and ban Anglican clergy from belonging to political parties.[274] Many clergy protested about the latter point, particularly as it has been imposed without consultation.[275] Tutu publicly defended the decision, stating that if priests openly affiliated with political parties then it would prove divisive, particularly amid the growing violence between the supporters of rival parties throughout South Africa.[276]

In March, violence broke out between supporters of the ANC and of Inkatha in kwaZulu; Tutu cancelled a visit to the US to join the SACC delegation in talks within Mandela, de Klerk, and Inkatha leader Mangosuthu Buthelezi in Ulundi.[277] Church leaders urged Mandela and Buthelezi to hold a joint rally to quell the violent rivalry between their respective parties.[278] Although Tutu's relationship with Buthelezi had always been strained—particularly due to Tutu's opposition to Buthelezi's collaboration in the apartheid government's Bantustan system—the clergyman visited Buthelezi on a number of occasions to encourage his involvement in the democratic process.[279] As the ANC-Inkatha violence spread from kwaZulu into the Transvaal, Tutu toured affected townships in Witwatersrand, visiting those made homeless and calling for peace.[280] He visited the victims of the massacre at Sebokeng,[281] and later those of the Boipatong massacre.[282]

Like many other activists, Tutu believed that there was a "third force" stoking the tensions between the ANC and Inkatha; it later emerged that sectors of the intelligence agencies were supplying Inkatha with weapons to weaken the ANC's negotiating position.[283] Unlike some ANC figures, Tutu never accused de Klerk of personal complicity in these operations.[284] In November 1990, Tutu organised a "summit" at Bishopscourt attended by both church leaders and leaders of political groups like the ANC, PAC, and AZAPO, in which he encouraged them to call on their supporters to avoid violence and allow free political campaigning.[285] After the South African Communist Party leader Chris Hani was assassinated by a white man, Tutu served as preacher at Hani's funeral outside Soweto; despite his objections to Hani's Marxist beliefs, Tutu had admired him as an activist.[286] Amid these events, Tutu had experienced physical exhaustion and ill-health,[287] and he undertook a four-month sabbatical at Emory University's Candler School of Theology in Atlanta, Georgia.[288]

Tutu had been exhilarated by the prospect that South Africa was transforming towards universal suffrage via a negotiated transition rather than a racial civil war.[289] He allowed his face to be used on posters encouraging South Africans to vote.[290] When the April 1994 multi-racial general election took place, Tutu was visibly exuberant, telling reporters that "we are on cloud nine".[291] He voted in Cape Town's Gugulethu township.[291] The ANC won the election and Mandela was declared president, overseeing the formation of a government of national unity.[292] Tutu attended Mandela's inauguration ceremony and had been responsible for planning its religious component; Tutu had insisted that it be a multi-religious ceremony, with Christian, Muslim, Jewish, and Hindu leaders taking part in prayers and readings.[293]

International affairs

Alongside his domestic work, he also turned his attention to events elsewhere in Africa, and in 1987 gave the keynote speech at the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) in Lomé, Togo. There, he called on churches to champion the oppressed throughout the continent, stating that "it pains us to have to admit that there is less freedom and personal liberty in most of Africa now then there was during the much-maligned colonial days."[294] At the conference, he was elected president of the AACC, while was elected its general-secretary. Calling for an "African renaissance" across the continent, the pair formed a partnership that would last a decade.[295] In 1989 they visited Zaire to encourage the country's churches to distance themselves from Seko's autocratic government.[295] In 1994, he and Belo visited war-torn Liberia in a mission co-organised by the AACC and the Carter Center. There, they met Charles Taylor, but Tutu did not trust his promise of a ceasefire.[296] In 1995, Mandela sent Tutu to Nigeria to meet with Nigerian military leader Sani Abacha to request the release of imprisoned politicians Moshood Abiola and Olusegun Obasanjo.[297] In July 1995, he visited Rwanda a year after the genocide, where he preached to 10,000 people in Kigali. Drawing on his experiences in South Africa, he called for justice to be tempered with mercy towards the Hutu who had orchestrated the genocide.[298] Tutu also travelled to other parts of world, for instance spending March 1989 in Panama and Nicaragua.[299]

Tutu also spoke out on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. While in New York in 1989, he had praised God for the creation of the state of Israel and asserted its right to "territorial integrity and fundamental security against attacks from those who deny her right to exist".[300] He visited Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat in Cairo, urging him to accept Israel's existence.[301] At the same time he expressed anger that Israel had supplied military hardware to South Africa during the apartheid era, expressing bemusement as to how the Jewish state could co-operate with a government that had contained many Nazi sympathisers.[302] Referring to the Israeli-occupied territories in the Gaza Strip and West Bank, he stated that there were "deeply, deeply distressing" parallels with the situation in apartheid South Africa.[303] He called for the formation of a distinct Palestinian state,[304] and emphasised that his criticisms were of the Israeli government rather than Jews as a broader group.[305] At the invitation of Palestinian bishop Samir Kafity, he undertook a Christmas pilgrimage to Jerusalem, where he gave a sermon at near Bethlehem, in which he called for a two-state solution.[306] On that trip, he also visited the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial, where he laid a wreath and spoke to journalists on the importance of forgiveness.[307] His calls to forgive those who perpetrated the Holocaust, coupled with his support for a Palestinian state, brought criticism from many Jewish groups across the world.[308] This was exacerbated by the fact that he sought to evade suspicions of anti-Semitism through comments such as "my dentist is a Dr. Cohen".[301]

Tutu also spoke out regarding The Troubles in Northern Ireland. At the Lambeth conference of 1988, he backed a resolution on the issue which condemned the use of violence by all sides; Tutu believed that, given Irish republicans had the right to vote, they had not exhausted peaceful means of bringing about change and thus should not resort to armed struggle.[309] Three years later, he gave a televised service from Dublin's Christ Church Cathedral where he called for negotiations to take place between all factions, including the Irish republican Sinn Féin and the Provisional Irish Republican Army, groups which Thatcher's UK government had refused to engage with.[309] He visited Belfast in 1998 and again in 2001.[304]

Later life

In October 1994, Tutu announced his intention to retire as archbishop in 1996.[165] Although retired archbishops normally return to the position of bishop, the other bishops bestowed on him a new title: "archbishop emeritus".[310] A farewell ceremony was held at St George's Cathedral in June 1996, attended by senior politicians like Mandela and de Klerk.[310] There, Mandela awarded Tutu the Order for Meritorious Service, South Africa's highest honour.[310] Tutu was succeeded as archbishop by Ndungane.[311]

In January 1997, Tutu was diagnosed with prostate cancer and travelled abroad for treatment.[312] He publicly revealed his diagnosis, hoping to encourage other men to go for prostate exams.[313] He faced recurrences of the disease in 1999 and 2006.[314] Back in South Africa, he divided his time between homes in Soweto's Orlando West and Cape Town's Milnerton area.[311] In 2000, he opened an office in Cape Town.[311] In June 2000, the Cape Town-based Desmond Tutu Peace Centre was launched, which in 2003 launched an Emerging Leadership Program.[315]

Conscious that his presence in South Africa might overshadow Ndungane, Tutu agreed to a two-year visiting professorship at Emory University.[311] This took place between 1998 and 2000, and during the period he wrote a book about the TRC, No Future Without Forgiveness.[316] In early 2002 he taught at the Episcopal Divinity School in Cambridge, Massachusetts.[315] From January to May 2003 he taught at the University of North Carolina.[315] In January 2004, he was visiting professor of postconflict societies at KCL, his alma mater.[315] While in the United States, he signed up with a speakers' agency and travelled widely on speaking engagements; this gave him financial independence in a way that his clerical pension would not.[311] In his speeches, he focused on South Africa's transition from apartheid to universal suffrage, presenting it as a model for other troubled nations to adopt.[317] In the US, he thanked anti-apartheid activists for campaigning for sanctions, also calling for US companies to now invest in South Africa.[318]

Truth and Reconciliation Commission: 1996–1998

Tutu popularised the term "Rainbow Nation" as a metaphor for post-apartheid South Africa after 1994 under ANC rule.[319] He had first used the metaphor in 1989 when he described a multi-racial protest crowd as the "rainbow people of God".[320] Tutu advocated what liberation theologians call "critical solidarity", offering support for pro-democracy forces while reserving the right to criticise his allies.[289] He criticised Mandela on several points, such as his tendency to wear brightly coloured Madiba shirts, which he regarded as inappropriate; Mandela offered the tongue-in-cheek response that it was ironic coming from a man who wore dresses.[321] More serious was Tutu's criticism of Mandela's retention of South Africa's apartheid-era armaments industry and the significant pay packet that newly elected members of parliament adopted.[322] Mandela hit back, calling Tutu a "populist" and stating that he should have raised these issues privately rather than publicly.[323]

A key question facing the post-apartheid government was how they would respond to the various human rights abuses that had been committed over the previous decades by both the state and by anti-apartheid activists. The National Party had wanted a comprehensive amnesty package whereas the ANC wanted trials of former state figures.[324] Alex Boraine helped Mandela's government to draw up legislation for the establishment of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), which was passed by parliament in July 1995.[325] Nuttall suggested that Tutu become one of the TRC's seventeen commissioners, while in September a synod of bishops formally nominated him.[326] Tutu proposed that the TRC adopt a threefold approach: the first being confession, with those responsible for human rights abuses fully disclosing their activities, the second being forgiveness in the form of a legal amnesty from prosecution, and the third being restitution, with the perpetrators making amends to their victims.[327]

Mandela named Tutu as the chair of the TRC, with Boraine as his deputy.[328] The commission was a significant undertaking, employing over 300 staff, dividing into three committees, and holding as many as four hearings simultaneously.[329] In the TRC, Tutu advocated "restorative justice", something which he considered characteristic of traditional African jurisprudence "in the spirit of ubuntu".[330] As head of the commission, Tutu had to deal with its various inter-personal problems, with much suspicion between those on its board who had been anti-apartheid activists and those who had supported the apartheid system.[331] He acknowledged that "we really were like a bunch of prima donnas, frequently hypersensitive, often taking umbrage easily at real or imagined slights".[332] Tutu opened meetings with prayers and often referred to Christian teachings when discussing the TRC's work, frustrating some who saw him as incorporating too many religious elements into an expressly secular body.[332]

The first hearing took place in April 1996.[332] The hearings were publicly televised and had a considerable impact on South African society.[333] He had very little control over the committee responsible for granting amnesty, instead chairing the committee which heard accounts of human rights abuses perpetrated by both anti-apartheid and apartheid figures.[334] While listening to the testimony of victims, Tutu was sometimes overwhelmed by emotion and cried during the hearings.[335] He singled out those victims who expressed forgiveness towards those who had harmed them and used these individuals as his leitmotif.[336] The ANC's image was tarnished by the revelations that some of its activists had engaged in torture, attacks on civilians, and other human rights abuses. It sought to suppress part of the final TRC report, infuriating Tutu.[337] He warned of the ANC's "abuse of power", stating that "yesterday's oppressed can quite easily become today's oppressors... We've seen it happen all over the world and we shouldn't be surprised if it happens here".[338] Tutu presented the five-volume TRC report to Mandela in a public ceremony in Pretoria in October 1998.[339] Ultimately, Tutu was pleased with the TRC's achievement, believing that it would aid long-term reconciliation, although recognised its short-comings.[340]

Social and international issues: 1999–2009

I would refuse to go to a homophobic heaven. No, I would say sorry, I mean I would much rather go to the other place. I would not worship a God who is homophobic and that is how deeply I feel about this. I am as passionate about this campaign as I ever was about apartheid. For me, it is at the same level

— Tutu in 2013[341]

Post-apartheid, Tutu's status as a gay rights activist kept him in the public eye more than any other issue facing the Anglican Church.[342] Tutu regarded discrimination against homosexuals as being the equivalent to discrimination against black people and women,[342] and his views on this known through speeches and sermons.[343] After the 1998 Lambeth Conference of bishops reaffirmed the church's opposition to same-sex sexual acts, Tutu wrote to George Carey stating "I am ashamed to be an Anglican".[344] He regarded the Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams as too accommodating of conservatives who wanted to eject various US and Canadian Anglican churches from the Anglican Communion after they expressed a pro-LGB rights stance.[345] Tutu expressed the view that if these conservatives disliked the inclusiveness of the Anglican Communion, they always had "the freedom to leave".[346] In 2007, Tutu accused the church of being obsessed with homosexuality and declared: "If God, as they say, is homophobic, I wouldn't worship that God."[347] In 2011, he called on the Anglican Church of Southern Africa to accept and conduct same-sex marriages.[348]

Desmond Tutu gets an HIV test on The Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation's Tutu Tester, a mobile test unit

Tutu also spoke out on the need to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic, in June 2003 stating that "Apartheid tried to destroy our people and apartheid failed. If we don't act against HIV-AIDS, it may succeed, for it is already decimating our population".[349] On the April 2005 election of Pope Benedict XVI—who was known for his conservative views on issues of gender and sexuality—Tutu described it as unfortunate that the Roman Catholic Church was now unlikely to change its opposition to the use of condoms "amidst the fight against HIV/AIDS" nor its opposition to the ordination of women priests.[350] To help combat child trafficking, in 2006 Tutu launched a global campaign, organised by the aid organisation Plan, to ensure that all children are registered at birth.[351]

Tutu retained his interest in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and after the signing of the Oslo Accords was invited to Tel Aviv to attend the Peres Centre for Peace.[305] He became increasingly frustrated following the collapse of the 2000 Camp David Summit,[305] and in 2002 gave a widely publicised speech denouncing Israeli policy regarding the Palestinians and calling for sanctions against Israel.[305] Comparing the Israeli-Palestinian situation with that in South Africa, he said that "one reason we succeeded in South Africa that is missing in the Middle East is quality of leadership – leaders willing to make unpopular compromises, to go against their own constituencies, because they have the wisdom to see that would ultimately make peace possible."[305] Tutu was named to head a United Nations fact-finding mission to Beit Hanoun in the Gaza Strip to investigate the November 2006 incident in which soldiers from the Israel Defense Forces killed 19 civilians.[352] Israeli officials expressed concern that the report would be biased against Israel. Tutu cancelled the trip in mid-December, saying that Israel had refused to grant him the necessary travel clearance after more than a week of discussions.[353]

Tutu with Irish President Mary Robinson, British First Secretary of State William Hague, and former US President Jimmy Carter in 2012

In 2003, Tutu was the scholar in residence at the University of North Florida.[305] It was there, in February, that he broke his normal rule on not joining protests outside South Africa by taking part in a New York demonstration against plans for the U.S. to launch the Iraq War.[354] He telephoned Condoleezza Rice urging the U.S. government not to go to war without a resolution from the United Nations Security Council.[355] Tutu questioned why Iraq was being singled out for allegedly possessing weapons of mass destruction when Europe, India, and Pakistan also had many such devices.[356] In 2004, he appeared in Honor Bound to Defend Freedom, an Off Broadway play in New York City critical of the U.S. detention of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay.[357] In January 2005, he added his voice to the growing dissent over terrorist suspects held at Guantánamo's Camp X-Ray, stating that these detentions without trial were "utterly unacceptable" and comparable to the apartheid-era detentions.[358] He also criticised the UK's introduction of measures to detain terrorist subjects for 28 days without trial.[359] In 2012, he called for U.S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair to be tried by the International Criminal Court for initiating the Iraq War.[360]

In 2004, he gave the inaugural lecture at the Church of Christ the King, where he commended the achievements made in South Africa over the previous decade although warned of widening wealth disparity among its population.[361] He questioned the government's spending on armaments, its policy regarding Mugabe's government in Zimbabwe, and the manner in which Nguni-speakers dominated senior positions, stating that this latter issue would stoke ethnic tensions.[361] He made the same points three months later when giving the annual Nelson Mandela Lecture in Johannesburg.[361] There, he charged the ANC under Mbeki's leadership of demanding "sycophantic, obsequious conformity" among its members.[362] Tutu and Mbeki had long had a strained relationship; Mbeki had accused Tutu of criminalising the ANC's military struggle against apartheid through the TRC, while Tutu disliked Mbeki's active neglect of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.[362] Like Mandela before him, Mbeki accused Tutu of being a populist, further claiming that the cleric had no understanding of the ANC's inner workings.[362] Tutu later criticised ANC leader and South African President Jacob Zuma; in 2006, he criticised Zuma's "moral failings" as a result of accusations of rape and corruption that he was facing.[363] In 2007, he again criticised South Africa's policy of "quiet diplomacy" toward Mugabe's government, calling for the Southern Africa Development Community to chair talks between Mugabe's ZANU-PF and the opposition Movement for Democratic Change, to set firm deadlines for action, with consequences if they were not met.[364] In 2008, he called for a UN Peacekeeping force to be sent to Zimbabwe.[365]

The 14th Dalai Lama and Archbishop Desmond Tutu, both Nobel Peace Prize laureates, in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 2004

Before the 31st G8 summit at Gleneagles, Scotland, in 2005, Tutu called on world leaders to promote free trade with poorer countries and to end expensive taxes on anti-AIDS drugs.[366] In July 2007, Tutu was declared Chair of The Elders, a group of world leaders to contribute their wisdom, kindness, leadership and integrity to tackle some of the world's toughest problems.[367] Tutu served in this capacity until May 2013. Upon stepping down and becoming an Honorary Elder, he said: "As Elders we should always oppose presidents for Life. After six wonderful years as Chair, I am sad to say that it was time for me to step down."[368] Tutu led The Elders' visit to Sudan in October 2007 – their first mission after the group was founded – to foster peace in the Darfur crisis. "Our hope is that we can keep Darfur in the spotlight and spur on governments to help keep peace in the region," said Tutu.[369] He has also travelled with Elders delegations to Ivory Coast, Cyprus, Ethiopia, India, South Sudan and the Middle East.[370]

During the 2008 Tibetan unrest, Tutu marched in a pro-Tibet demonstration in San Francisco; there, he called on heads of states to boycott the 2008 Summer Olympics opening ceremony in Beijing "for the sake of the beautiful people of Tibet".[371] Tutu invited the Tibetan Buddhist leader, the 14th Dalai Lama, to attend his 80th birthday in October 2011, although the South African government did not grant him entry; observers suggested that they had not given permission so as not to offend China, a major trading partner.[372] In 2009, Tutu assisted in the establishing of the Solomon Islands' Truth and Reconciliation Commission, modelled after the South African body of the same name.[373] He also attended the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen,[374] and has publicly called for fossil fuel divestment, comparing it to disinvestment from apartheid-era South Africa.[375]

Retirement from public life: 2010–present

Tutu at the COP17 "We Have Faith: Act Now for Climate Justice Rally", in Durban, November 2011

In October 2010, Tutu announced his retirement from public life so that he could spend more time "at home with my family – reading and writing and praying and thinking".[376] In May 2013, Tutu declared that he would no longer vote for the ANC, stating that while the party was "very good at leading us in the struggle to be free from oppression", it had done a poor job in countering inequality, violence, and corruption in South Africa.[377] The following month, he welcomed Raphele's launch of a new party, Agang South Africa.[378] After Mandela died in December 2013, Tutu initially stated that he had not been invited to the funeral, but the government denied this and Tutu subsequently announced that he would attend.[379] He publicly criticised the memorials held for Mandela, stating that they had given too much prominence to the ANC and that Afrikaners had been marginalised from them, believing that Mandela himself would have been appalled by this.[380]

Tutu also maintained an interest in social issues. In July 2014, he came out in support of legalised assisted dying, stating that life shouldn't be preserved "at any cost" and that the criminalisation of assisted dying deprived the terminally ill of their "human right to dignity".[381][382] He later stated that he would want that option open to him personally.[383] He reiterated his support for assisted dying legislation in September 2018 following the arrest of assisted dying campaigner Sean Davison.[384] In December 2015, Tutu's daughter, Mpho Tutu, married a woman, Marceline van Furth, in the Netherlands. Tutu attended and gave the proceedings a blessing, in spite of ongoing Anglican opposition to same-sex marriage.[385]

Tutu also continued to comment on international affairs. In November 2012, he published a letter alongside Mairead Maguire and Adolfo Pérez Esquivel in which they expressed support for U.S. military whistleblower Chelsea Manning and condemned Manning's imprisonment in the U.S.[386] In August 2017, Tutu was among ten Nobel Peace Prize laureates who urged Saudi Arabia to stop the executions of 14 young people for participating in the 2011–12 Saudi Arabian protests.[387] In September, Tutu asked Myanmar's leader Aung San Suu Kyi, a fellow Nobel Peace Prize laureate, to halt the army's persecution of the country's Muslim Rohingya minority.[388] In December, he was among those to condemn U.S. President Donald Trump's decision to officially recognise Jerusalem as Israel's capital despite opposition from the Palestinians; Tutu said that God was weeping at Trump's decision.[389]

Personal life and personality

[Tutu's] extravert nature conceals a private, introvert side that needs space and regular periods of quiet; his jocularity runs alongside a deep seriousness; his occasional bursts of apparent arrogance mask a genuine humility before God and his fellow men. He is a true son of Africa who can move easily in European and American circles, a man of the people who enjoys ritual and episcopal splendour, a member of an established Church, in some ways a traditionalist, who takes a radical, provocative and fearless stand against authority if he sees it to be unjust. It is usually the most spiritual who can rejoice in all created things and Tutu has no problem in reconciling the sacred and the secular, but critics note a conflict between his socialist ideology and his desire to live comfortably, dress well and lead a life that, while unexceptional in Europe or America, is considered affluent, tainted with capitalism, in the eyes of the deprived black community of South Africa.

Shirley du Boulay on Tutu's personality[390]

Du Boulay noted that Tutu was "a man of many layers" and "contradictory tensions".[391] His personality has been described as warm,[80] exuberant,[80] and outgoing.[392] Du Boulay noted that his "typical African warmth and a spontaneous lack of inhibition" proved shocking to many of the "reticent English" whom he encountered when in England,[393] but that it also meant that he had the "ability to endear himself to virtually everyone who actually meets him".[394]

Du Boulay noted that as a child, Tutu had been hard-working and "unusually intelligent".[395] She added that he had a "gentle, caring temperament and would have nothing to do with anything that hurt others",[396] commenting on how he had "a quicksilver mind a disarming honesty".[397] Tutu was rarely angry in his personal contacts with others, although could become so if he felt that his integrity was being challenged.[157] He had a tendency to be highly trusting, something which some of those close to whom sometimes believed was unwise in various situations.[158] He was also reportedly bad at managing finances and prone to overspending, resulting in accusations of irresponsibility and extravagance.[398]

Tutu had a passion for preserving African traditions of courtesy.[105] He could be offended by discourteous behaviour and careless language,[392] as well as by swearing and ethnic slurs.[399] He could get very upset if a member of his staff forgot to thank him or did not apologise for being late to a prayer session.[400] He also disliked gossip and discouraged it among his staff.[401] He was very punctual,[402] and insisted on punctuality among those in his employ.[403] Du Boulay noted that "his attention to the detail of people's lives is remarkable", for he would be meticulous in recording and noting people's birthdays and anniversaries.[404] He was attentive to his parishioners, making an effort to regularly visit and spend time with them; this included making an effort to visit parishioners who disliked him.[405]

According to Du Boulay, Tutu had "a deep need to be loved",[391] a facet that the clergyman recognised about himself and referred to as a "horrible weakness".[400] Tutu has also been described as being sensitive,[406] and very easily hurt, an aspect of his personality which he concealed from the public eye;[400] Du Boulay noted that he "reacts to emotional pain" in an "almost childlike way".[407] He never denied being ambitious,[408] and acknowledged that he enjoyed the limelight which his position gave him, something that his wife often teased him about.[409] He was, according to Du Boulay, "a man of passionate emotions" who was quick to both laugh and cry.[400]

As well as English, Tutu could speak Zulu, Sotho, Tswana, and Xhosa.[402] Tutu was often praised for his public speaking abilities; Du Boulay noted that his "star quality enables him to hold an audience spellbound".[410] Gish noted that "Tutu's voice and manner could light up an audience; he never sounded puritanical or humourless".[411] Quick witted, he used humour to try and win over audiences.[412] He had a talent for mimicry but, according to Du Boulay, "his humour has none of the cool acerbity that makes for real wit".[413] His application of humour included jokes that made a point about apartheid;[414] "the whites think the black people want to drive them into the sea. What they forget is, with apartheid on the beaches – we can't even go to the sea."[415] In a speech made at the Sixth Assembly of the World Council of Churches in Vancouver, he for instance drew laughs from the audience for referring to South Africa as having a "few local problems".[416]

Tutu with his daughter Mpho Andrea in the Netherlands, 2012

Tutu has had a lifelong love of literature and reading,[417] and was a fan of cricket.[418] To relax, he enjoyed listening to classical music and reading books on politics or religion.[419] His favourite foods included samosas, marshmallows, fat cakes, and .[418] When hosts asked what his culinary tastes were, his wife responded: "think of a five year old".[409] Tutu awoke at 4 am each morning, before engaging in an early morning walk, prayers, and the Eucharist.[420] On Fridays, he fasted until supper.[421]

Tutu was a committed Christian since boyhood.[422] Prayer was a big part of his life; he often spent an hour in prayer at the start of each day, and would ensure that every meeting or interview that he was part of was preceded by a short prayer.[423] He was even known to often pray while driving.[423] He reads the Bible every day.[424] Tutu says he reads the Bible every day and recommends that people read it as a collection of books, not a single constitutional document: "You have to understand is that the Bible is really a library of books and it has different categories of material," he said. "There are certain parts which you have to say no to. The Bible accepted slavery. St Paul said women should not speak in church at all and there are people who have used that to say women should not be ordained. There are many things that you shouldn't accept."[424]

On 2 July 1955, Tutu married Nomalizo Leah Shenxane, a teacher whom he had met while at college. They had four children: Trevor Thamsanqa, Theresa Thandeka, Naomi Nontombi and Mpho Andrea, all of whom attended the Waterford Kamhlaba School in Swaziland.[425] Du Boulay referred to him as "a loving and concerned father",[426] while Allen described him as a "loving but strict father" to his children.[153]

Ideology

Political views

Anti-apartheid views

Apartheid legislation impacted all areas of life

Allen stated that the theme running through Tutu's campaigning was that of "democracy, human rights and tolerance, to be achieved by dialogue and accommodation between enemies."[346] Racial equality was a core principle,[427] and his opposition to apartheid was unequivocal.[410] Tutu believed that the apartheid system had to be wholly dismantled rather than being reformed in a piecemeal fashion.[428] He compared the apartheid ethos of South Africa's National Party to the ideas of the Nazi Party, and drew comparisons between apartheid policy and the Holocaust. He noted that whereas the latter was a quicker and more efficient way of exterminating whole populations, the National Party's policy of forcibly relocating black South Africans to areas where they lacked access to food and sanitation had much the same result.[429] In his words, "Apartheid is as evil and as vicious as Nazism and Communism".[430]

Tutu never became anti-white, in part due to his many positive experiences with white people.[431] In his speeches, he stressed that it was apartheid—rather than white people—that was the enemy.[432] He promoted racial reconciliation between South Africa's communities, believing that most blacks fundamentally wanted to live in harmony with whites,[176] although he stressed that reconciliation would only be possible among equals, after blacks had been given full civil rights.[415] He tried to cultivate goodwill from the country's white community, making a point of showing white individuals gratitude when they made concessions to black demands.[176] He also spoke to many white audiences, urging them to support his cause, referring to it as the "winning side",[433] and reminding them that when apartheid had been overthrown, black South Africans would remember who their friends had been.[434] When he held public prayers, he always included mention of those who upheld apartheid, such as politicians and police, alongside the system's victims, emphasising his view that all humans were the children of God.[435] He stated that "the people who are perpetrators of injury in our land are not sporting horns or tails. They're just ordinary people who are scared. Wouldn't you be scared if you were outnumbered five to one?"[436]

Tutu was always committed to non-violent activism,[437] and in his speeches was also cautious never to threaten or endorse violence, even when he warned that it was a likely outcome of government policy.[438] He nevertheless described himself as a "man of peace" rather than a pacifist.[439] He for instance accepted that violence had been necessary to stop Nazism.[440] In the South African situation, he criticised the use of violence by both the government and anti-apartheid groups, although was also critical of white South Africans who would only condemn the use of violence by the latter, regarding such a position as a case of a double standard.[440] To end apartheid, he advocated foreign economic pressure be put on South Africa.[440] To critics who claimed that this measure would only cause further hardship for impoverished black South Africans, he responded that said communities were already experiencing significant hardship and that it would be better if they were "suffering with a purpose".[441]

During the apartheid period, he criticised the black leaders of the Bantustans, describing them as "largely corrupt men looking after their own interests, lining their pockets";[442] Buthelezi, the leader of the Zulu Bantustan, privately claimed that there was "something radically wrong" with Tutu's personality.[443] In the 1980s, he also condemned Western political leaders, namely Reagan, Thatcher, and West Germany's Helmut Kohl, for retaining links with the South African government, stipulating that "support of this racist policy is racist".[444] Regarding Reagan, he stated that although he once thought him a "crypto-racist" for his soft stance on the National Party administration, he would "say now that he is a racist pure and simple".[169] He and his wife boycotted a lecture given at the Federal Theological Institute by former British Prime Minister Alec Douglas-Home in the 1960s; Tutu noted that they did so because Britain's Conservative Party had "behaved abominably over issues which touched our hearts most nearly".[445] Later in life, he also spoke out against various African leaders, for instance describing Zimbabwe's Robert Mugabe as the "caricature of an African dictator", who had "gone bonkers in a big way".[297]

Broader political views

According to Du Boulay, "Tutu's politics spring directly and inevitably from his Christianity".[446] He believed that it was the duty of Christians to oppose unjust laws,[147] and that there could be no separation between the religious and the political just as—according to Anglican theology—there is no separation between the spiritual realm (the Holy Ghost) and the material one (Jesus Christ).[447] However, he was adamant that he was not personally a politician.[446] He felt that religious leaders like himself should stay outside of party politics, citing the example of Abel Muzorewa in Zimbabwe, Makarios III in Cyprus, and Ruhollah Khomeini in Iran as examples in which such crossovers proved problematic.[448] He tried to avoid alignment with any particular political party; in the 1980s he for instance signed a plea urging anti-apartheid activists in the United States to support both the ANC and the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC).[449] Du Boulay however noted that Tutu was "most at home" with the UDF umbrella organisation,[450] and that his views on a multi-racial alliance against apartheid placed him closer to the approach of the ANC and UDF than the blacks-only approach favoured by the PAC and Black Consciousness groups like AZAPO.[451] When, in the late 1980s, there were suggestions that he should take political office, he rejected the idea.[452]

Tutu at the World Economic Forum in 2009

When pressed to describe his ideological position, Tutu has described himself as a socialist.[451] In 1986 he related that "All my experiences with capitalism, I'm afraid, have indicated that it encourages some of the worst features in people. Eat or be eaten. It is underlined by the survival of the fittest. I can't buy that. I mean, maybe it's the awful face of capitalism, but I haven't seen the other face."[453] Also in the 1980s, he was reported as saying that "apartheid has given free enterprise a bad name".[454] While identifying with socialism, he opposed forms of socialism like Marxism-Leninism which promoted communism, being critical of Marxism-Leninism's promotion of atheism.[451] Tutu has often used the aphorism that "African communism" is an oxymoron because—in his view—Africans are intrinsically spiritual and this conflicts with the atheistic nature of Marxism.[455] He was critical of the Marxist-Leninist governments in the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc, comparing the way that they treated their populations with the way that the National Party treated South Africans.[429] In 1985 he stated that he hated Marxism-Leninism "with every fiber of my being" although sought to explain why black South Africans turned to it as an ally: "when you are in a dungeon and a hand is stretched out to free you, you do not ask for the pedigree of the hand owner."[456]

Mandela had foregrounded the idea of Ubuntu as being of importance to South Africa's political framework.[457] In 1986, Tutu had defined Ubuntu: "It refers to gentleness, to compassion, to hospitality, to openness to others, to vulnerability, to be available to others and to know that you are bound up with them in the bundle of life."[457] Reflecting this view of ubuntu, Tutu was fond of the Xhosa saying that "a person is a person through other persons".[402]

Theology

Tutu in Cologne in 2007

Tutu was attracted to Anglicanism because of what he saw as its tolerance and inclusiveness, its appeal to reason alongside scripture and tradition, and the freedom that its constituent churches had from any centralized authority.[343] Tutu's approach to Anglicanism has been characterised as Anglo-Catholic in nature.[458] He regarded the Anglican Communion as a family, replete with its internal squabbles.[459]

Tutu rejected the idea that any particular variant of theology was universally applicable, instead maintaining that all understandings of God had to be "contextual" in relating to the socio-cultural conditions in which they existed.[460] In the 1970s, Tutu became an advocate of both black theology and African theology, seeking ways to fuse the two schools of Christian theological thought.[461] Unlike other theologians, like John Mbiti, who saw the traditions as largely incompatible, Tutu emphasised the similarities between the two.[462] He believed that both theological approaches had arisen in contexts where black humanity had been defined in terms of white norms and values, in societies where "to be really human", the black man "had to see himself and to be seen as a chocolate coloured white man."[463] He also argued that both black and African theology shared a repudiation of the supremacy of Western values.[463] In doing so he spoke of an underlying unity of Africans and the African diaspora, stating that "All of us are bound to Mother Africa by invisible but tenacious bonds. She has nurtured the deepest things in us blacks."[462]

He became, according to Du Boulay, "one of the most eloquent and persuasive communicators" of black theology.[447] He expressed his views on theology largely through sermons and addresses rather than in extended academic treatises.[447] Tutu expressed the view that Western theology sought answers to questions that Africans were not asking.[464] For Tutu, two major questions were being posed by African Christianity: how to replace imported Christian expressions of faith with something authentically African, and how to liberate people from bondage.[465] He believed that there were many comparisons to be made between contemporary African understandings of God and those featured in the Old Testament.[118] He nevertheless criticised African theology for failing to sufficiently address contemporary societal problems, and suggested that to correct this it should learn from the black theology tradition.[463]

When chairing the TRC, Tutu advocated an explicitly Christian model of reconciliation, as part of which he believed that South Africans had to face up to the damages that they had caused and accept the consequences of their actions.[466] As part of this, he believed that the perpetrators and beneficiaries of apartheid must admit to their actions but that the system's victims should respond generously, stating that it was a "gospel imperative" to forgive.[466] At the same time, he argued that those responsible had to display true repentance in the form of restitution.[466]

Reception and legacy

Gish noted that by the time of apartheid's fall, Tutu had attained "worldwide respect" for his "uncompromising stand for justice and reconciliation and his unmatched integrity".[467] According to Allen, Tutu "made a powerful and unique contribution to publicizing the antiapartheid struggle abroad", particularly in the United States.[468] In the latter country, he was able to rise to prominence as a South African anti-apartheid activist because—unlike Mandela and other members of the ANC—he had no links to the South African Communist Party and thus was more acceptable to Americans amid the Cold War anti-communist sentiment of the period.[469] In the U.S., he was often compared to Martin Luther King, with the African-American civil rights activist Jesse Jackson referring to him as "the Martin Luther King of South Africa"; this was a comparison that Tutu was embarrassed by.[470] After the end of apartheid, Tutu became "perhaps the world's most prominent religious leader advocating gay and lesbian rights", according to Allen.[342] Ultimately, Allen thought that perhaps Tutu's "greatest legacy" was the fact that he gave "to the world as it entered the twenty-first century an African model for expressing the nature of human community".[471]

During Tutu's rise to notability during the 1970s and 1980s, responses to him were "sharply polarized".[472] Noting that he was "simultaneously loved and hated, honoured and vilified",[473] Du Boulay attributed his divisive reception to the fact that "strong people evoke strong emotions".[474] Tutu gained much adulation from black journalists, inspired imprisoned anti-apartheid activists, and led to many black parents naming their children after him.[472] For many black South Africans, he was a respected religious leader and a symbol of black achievement.[475] By 1984 he was—according to Gish—"the personification of the South African freedom struggle".[412] In 1988, Du Boulay described him as "a spokesman for his people, a voice for the voiceless".[391]

The response he received from South Africa's white minority was more mixed. Most of those who criticised him were conservative whites who did not want a shift away from apartheid and white-minority rule.[476] Many of these whites were angered that he was calling for economic sanctions against South Africa and that he was warning that racial violence was impending.[477] Said whites often accused him of being a tool of the communists.[451] This hostility was exacerbated by the government's campaign to discredit Tutu and distort his image,[478] which included repeatedly misquoting him to present his statements out of context.[479] According to Du Boulay, the SABC and much of the white press went to "extraordinary attempts to discredit him", something that "made it hard to know the man himself".[391] Allen noted that in 1984, Tutu was "the black leader white South Africans most loved to hate" and that this antipathy extended beyond supporters of the far-right government to liberals too.[191] The fact that he was "an object of hate" for many was something that deeply pained him.[474]

Hated by many white South Africans for being too radical, he was also scorned by many black militants for being too moderate.

— On Tutu in the mid-1980s, by Steven D. Gish, 2004[220]

Tutu also drew criticism from within the anti-apartheid movement and the black South African community. He was criticised repeatedly for making statements on behalf of black South Africans without consulting other community leaders first.[394] Some black anti-apartheid activists regarded him as too moderate,[480] and in particular too focused on cultivating white goodwill.[481] The African-American civil rights campaigner Bernice Powell for instance complained that he was "too nice to white people".[482] According to Gish, Tutu "faced the perpetual dilemma of all moderates – he was often viewed suspiciously by the two hostile sides he sought to bring together".[481] Tutu's critical view of Marxist-oriented communism and the governments of the Eastern Bloc, and the comparisons he drew between these administrations and far-right ideologies like Nazism and apartheid brought criticism from the South African Communist Party in 1984.[483] After the transition to universal suffrage, Tutu's criticism of presidents Mbeki and Zuma brought objections from their supporters; in 2006, Zuma's personal advisor claimed that it as a double standard that Tutu could "accept the apology from the apartheid government that committed unspeakable atrocities against millions of South Africans", yet "cannot find it in his heart to accept the apology" from Zuma.[484]

Honours

Tutu gained many international awards and honorary degrees, particularly in South Africa, the United Kingdom, and United States.[315] By 2003, he had approximately 100 honorary degrees;[485] he was, for example, the first person to be awarded an honorary doctorate by the Ruhr University of West Germany, and only the third person whom Columbia University in the U.S. agreed to award an honorary doctorate off-campus to.[486] Many schools and scholarships were named after him.[315] For instance, in 2000 the Munsieville Library in Klerksdorp was renamed the Desmond Tutu Library.[315] At Fort Hare University, the Desmond Tutu School of Theology was launched in 2002.[315]

On 16 October 1984, the then Bishop Tutu was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The Nobel Committee cited his "role as a unifying leader figure in the campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa".[487] This was seen as a gesture of support for him and The South African Council of Churches which he led at that time. In 1987 Tutu was awarded the Pacem in Terris Award.[488] It was named after a 1963 encyclical letter by Pope John XXIII that calls upon all people of good will to secure peace among all nations.[489]

In 2003, Tutu received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement.[490] In 2008, Governor Rod Blagojevich of Illinois proclaimed 13 May 'Desmond Tutu Day'.[491]

In 2015, Queen Elizabeth II was graciously pleased to approve Desmond Tutu the honorary British award of The Order of the Companions of Honour. (CH).[492] Queen Elizabeth II appointed Tutu as a Bailiff Grand Cross of the Venerable Order of St. John in September 2017.[493]

In 2010 Desmond Tutu delivered the Bynum Tudor Lecture at the University of Oxford and became Visiting Fellow at Kellogg College, Oxford.[494] In 2013 he received the £1.1m ($1.6m) Templeton Prize for "his life-long work in advancing spiritual principles such as love and forgiveness".[495] In 2018 the fossil of a Devonian tetrapod was found in Grahamstown by Rob Gess of the Albany Museum; this tetrapod was named Tutusius umlambo in Tutu's honour.[496]

Writings

Tutu is the author of seven collections of sermons and other writings:

  • Crying in the Wilderness, Eerdmans, 1982. ISBN 978-0-8028-0270-5
  • Hope and Suffering: Sermons and Speeches, Skotaville, 1983. ISBN 978-0-620-06776-8
  • The Words of Desmond Tutu, Newmarket, 1989. ISBN 978-1-55704-719-9
  • The Rainbow People of God: The Making of a Peaceful Revolution, Doubleday, 1994. ISBN 978-0-385-47546-4
  • Worshipping Church in Africa, Duke University Press, 1995. ASIN B000K5WB02
  • The Essential Desmond Tutu, David Phillips Publishers, 1997. ISBN 978-0-86486-346-1
  • No Future Without Forgiveness, Doubleday, 1999. ISBN 978-0-385-49689-6
  • An African Prayerbook, Doubleday, 2000. ISBN 978-0-385-47730-7
  • God Has a Dream: A Vision of Hope for Our Time, Doubleday, 2004. ISBN 978-0-385-47784-0
  • Desmond and the Very Mean Word, Candlewick, 2012. ISBN 978-0-763-65229-6
  • The Book of Forgiving: The Fourfold Path for Healing Ourselves and Our World, HarperOne, 2015. ISBN 978-0062203571

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 22; Gish 2004, p. 2; Allen 2006, pp. 9–10.
  2. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 22; Allen 2006, p. 10.
  3. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 22; Allen 2006, pp. 10–11.
  4. ^ Allen 2006, p. 11.
  5. ^ Allen 2006, p. 14.
  6. ^ Allen 2006, pp. 14–15.
  7. ^ Allen 2006, p. 16.
  8. ^ Gish 2004, p. 3; Allen 2006, p. 16.
  9. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 28; Gish 2004, p. 3.
  10. ^ a b c Allen 2006, p. 21.
  11. ^ Du Boulay 1988, pp. 22, 29; Gish 2004, p. 3; Allen 2006, p. 19.
  12. ^ a b Allen 2006, p. 19.
  13. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 22.
  14. ^ Gish 2004, p. 2; Allen 2006, p. 19.
  15. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 32; Allen 2006, p. 19.
  16. ^ a b Allen 2006, p. 20.
  17. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 22; Gish 2004, p. 3; Allen 2006, p. 22.
  18. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 30; Gish 2004, p. 4; Allen 2006, p. 33.
  19. ^ Du Boulay 1988, pp. 30–31; Gish 2004, p. 4; Allen 2006, p. 33.
  20. ^ Allen 2006, p. 33.
  21. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 30; Gish 2004, p. 4; Allen 2006, p. 21.
  22. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 23; Gish 2004, p. 4; Allen 2006, p. 21.
  23. ^ Gish 2004, p. 5; Allen 2006, p. 24.
  24. ^ Allen 2006, p. 24.
  25. ^ a b Allen 2006, p. 25.
  26. ^ Allen 2006, p. 34.
  27. ^ Allen 2006, pp. 25, 34–35.
  28. ^ Allen 2006, p. 36.
  29. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 27; Gish 2004, p. 7; Allen 2006, p. 37.
  30. ^ Allen 2006, pp. 36, 37–38.
  31. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 29; Gish 2004, p. 8; Allen 2006, p. 42.
  32. ^ Gish 2004, p. 10; Allen 2006, pp. 43–45.
  33. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 31.
  34. ^ Du Boulay 1988, pp. 29–30; Gish 2004, p. 9; Allen 2006, pp. 45–46.
  35. ^ Allen 2006, p. 47.
  36. ^ a b Allen 2006, pp. 47–48.
  37. ^ Gish 2004, p. 12; Allen 2006, p. 48.
  38. ^ Allen 2006, p. 48.
  39. ^ Gish 2004, p. 17; Allen 2006, pp. 48–49.
  40. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 37; Gish 2004, p. 18; Allen 2006, p. 50.
  41. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 37; Gish 2004, p. 18; Allen 2006, pp. 49–50.
  42. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 37; Gish 2004, pp. 17, 18; Allen 2006, pp. 50–51.
  43. ^ Gish 2004, p. 18; Allen 2006, p. 51.
  44. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 38; Allen 2006, pp. 51–52.
  45. ^ a b Allen 2006, p. 52.
  46. ^ Gish 2004, p. 22; Allen 2006, p. 53.
  47. ^ a b Allen 2006, p. 53.
  48. ^ Du Boulay 1988, pp. 41–45; Gish 2004, pp. 20–21; Allen 2006, pp. 60–61.
  49. ^ Gish 2004, p. 23; Allen 2006, p. 61.
  50. ^ Allen 2006, pp. 61–62.
  51. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 46; Gish 2004, p. 25; Allen 2006, pp. 63–64.
  52. ^ Gish 2004, p. 26; Allen 2006, p. 64.
  53. ^ Allen 2006, p. 68.
  54. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 47; Allen 2006, pp. 64–65.
  55. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 47.
  56. ^ Allen 2006, p. 67.
  57. ^ Du Boulay 1988, pp. 62–63; Gish 2004, p. 35; Allen 2006, p. 72.
  58. ^ Gish 2004, p. 26; Allen 2006, pp. 68–69.
  59. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 49; Allen 2006, p. 70.
  60. ^ Allen 2006, p. 70.
  61. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 54; Gish 2004, p. 28; Allen 2006, p. 74.
  62. ^ Du Boulay 1988, pp. 54–55; Gish 2004, p. 28; Allen 2006, p. 74.
  63. ^ Allen 2006, p. 75.
  64. ^ Du Boulay 1988, pp. 55; Gish 2004, p. 28; Allen 2006, p. 76.
  65. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 57; Gish 2004, p. 31; Allen 2006, p. 77.
  66. ^ Allen 2006, p. 81.
  67. ^ Gish 2004, p. 31; Allen 2006, pp. 79–81.
  68. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 57.
  69. ^ Allen 2006, p. 86.
  70. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 58; Gish 2004, p. 32; Allen 2006, p. 87.
  71. ^ Allen 2006, p. 87.
  72. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 59.
  73. ^ Du Boulay 1988, pp. 57–58, 63; Gish 2004, pp. 31, 33; Allen 2006, pp. 84, 87.
  74. ^ Gish 2004, p. 34; Allen 2006, p. 88.
  75. ^ Allen 2006, pp. 89–90.
  76. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 61.
  77. ^ Du Boulay 1988, pp. 61–62; Allen 2006, p. 92.
  78. ^ Gish 2004, p. 35; Allen 2006, pp. 92, 95.
  79. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 63; Gish 2004, p. 35; Allen 2006, p. 93.
  80. ^ a b c Gish 2004, p. 35.
  81. ^ Gish 2004, p. 34.
  82. ^ Allen 2006, pp. 98–99.
  83. ^ Gish 2004, p. 39; Allen 2006, pp. 98–99.
  84. ^ Gish 2004, p. 39.
  85. ^ Allen 2006, p. 101.
  86. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 69; Allen 2006, p. 101.
  87. ^ Du Boulay 1988, pp. 73–74; Gish 2004, p. 42; Allen 2006, p. 95.
  88. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 69; Gish 2004, p. 41; Allen 2006, pp. 101, 103.
  89. ^ Du Boulay 1988, p. 73; Allen 2006, p. 104.
  90. ^ Allen 2006, pp. 104, 105.
  91. ^ Du Boulay 1988, pp. 71–72; Allen 2006, p. 105.
  92. ^ Allen 2006, p. 105.
  93. ^ Gish 2004, p. 42; Allen 2006, p. 101.
  94. ^ a b c d e Allen 2006, p. 116.
  95. ^ Gish 2004, p. 42; Allen 2006, p. 108.
  96. ^ Allen 2006, p. 108.
  97. ^ Allen 2006, p. 109.
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