8 September 1978

Black Friday, a massacre by soldiers against protesters in Tehran, results in 700–3000 deaths, it marks the beginning of the end of the monarchy in Iran.

Black Friday (1978)

Black Friday
Part of Iranian Revolution
JalehSquare2.jpg
LocationTehran, Iran
Date8 September 1978 (GMT+3.30)
Deaths84–15,000[1][2][3][4][5][6]
Injuries
205–8,000[5]
PerpetratorsImperial Army of Iran

Black Friday (Persian: جمعه سیاه Jom'e-ye Siyāh) is the name given to 8 September 1978 (17 Shahrivar 1357 in the Iranian calendar)[7] because of the shootings in Jaleh Square (Persian: میدان ژاله Meydān-e Jāleh) in Tehran, Iran.[8][9] Between 84 and 15,000[5] people were killed in the incident and 205–8,000 were injured. The deaths were described as the pivotal event in the Iranian Revolution that ended any "hope for compromise" between the protest movement and regime of the Mohammad Reza Shah.[10] The incident is described by historian Ervand Abrahamian as "a sea of blood between the shah and the people."[2]

Background

Sharif-Emami named his government as "Government of National reconciliation"

As protests against the Shah's rule continued during the spring and the summer of 1978, the Iranian government declared martial law. On 8 September, thousands gathered in Tehran's Jaleh Square for a religious demonstration, unaware that the government had declared martial law a day earlier.[11]

Massacre

The soldiers ordered the crowd to disperse, but the order was ignored. Initially, it was thought that because of that reason the protesters' continuous pushing towards the military that made it open fire, killing and wounding dozens of people.

Recent theories have suggested greater ambiguity in the situation, especially because of the presence of Palestinian guerrillas in Iran, who some[who?] believe were agitators.[12][6]

Aftermath

Demonstration of Black Friday, the sentence on placard: "We want an Islamic government, led by Imam Khomeini".

Black Friday is thought to have marked the point of no return for the revolution, and it led to the abolition of Iran's monarchy less than a year later. It is also believed that Black Friday played a crucial role in further radicalizing the protest movement, uniting the opposition to the Shah and mobilized the masses. Initially, opposition and western journalists claimed that the Iranian army had massacred thousands of protesters.[1][13][14] The clerical leadership announced that "thousands have been massacred by Zionist troops".[15]

The events triggered protests that continued for another four months. The day after Black Friday, Amir-Abbas Hoveyda resigned as minister of court for unrelated reasons.

A general strike in October shut down the petroleum industry that was essential to the administration's survival, "sealing the Shah's fate".[16] The continuation of protests ultimately led to Shah leaving Iran in January 1979, clearing the way for the Iranian Revolution, led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.[17][18][19][20][21][22][23]

Legacy

Initially, western media and opposition reported "15,000 dead and wounded" despite reports by the Iranian government officials that 86 people had died in Tehran in the whole day.[24] Michael Foucault, an influential French journalist and social theorist, first reported that 2000 to 3000 people had died in the Jaleh Square, and he later raised that number to 4000.[1] The BBC's correspondent in Iran, Andrew Whitley, reported that hundreds had died.[25]

According to Emadeddin Baghi, a former researcher at the Martyrs Foundation (Bonyad Shahid, part of the current Iranian government, which compensates families of victims) hired "to make sense of the data" on those killed on Black Friday, 64 were killed in Jaleh Square on Black Friday, with two females: one woman and a young girl. On the same day in other parts of the capital, 24 people died in clashes with martial law forces, with one female, making the total casualties on the same day to 88 deaths.[1] Another source puts the Martyrs Foundation tabulation of dead at 84 during that day.[26]

The square's name was later changed to the Square of Martyrs (Maidan-e Shohada) by the Islamic republic.[14]

In art

In Persian

A 1985 stamp

In 1978 shortly after the massacre, the Iranian musician Hossein Alizadeh set Siavash Kasraie's poem about the event to music. Mohammad Reza Shajarian sang the piece "Jāleh Khun Shod" (Jaleh [Square] became bloody).[27]

In English

Nastaran Akhavan, one of the survivors, wrote the book Spared about the event. The book explains how the author was forced into a massive wave of thousands of angry protesters, who were later massacred by the Shah's military.[28] The 2016 adventure video game 1979 Revolution: Black Friday is based on the event. The game is directed by Navid Khonsari, who was a child at the time of the revolution and admitted he did not have a realistic view of what was taking place. Khonsari described creating the game as "[wanting] people to feel the passion and the elation of being in the revolution – of feeling that you could possibly make a change."[29]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "A Question of Numbers".
  2. ^ a b Shakman Hurd, Elizabeth (2009). The Politics of Secularism in International Relations. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1400828012. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  3. ^ Berg-Sørensen, Anders (2016). Contesting Secularism: Comparative Perspectives. Routledge. ISBN 9781317160243. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  4. ^ Thiessen, Mark (2008). An Island of Stability: The Islamic Revolution of Iran and the Dutch Opinion. Sidestone Press. ISBN 9789088900198. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  5. ^ a b c "Emad Baghi :: English". www.emadbaghi.com. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  6. ^ a b Andrew Scott Cooper,The Fall of Heaven: The Pahlavis and the Final Days of Imperial Iran Hardcover – July 19, 2016 ISBN 0805098976
  7. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand (21 July 1982). Iran Between Two Revolutions. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691101347. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  8. ^ Bashiriyeh, Hossein (27 April 2012). The State and Revolution in Iran (RLE Iran D). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781136820892. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  9. ^ Fischer, Michael M. J. (15 July 2003). Iran: From Religious Dispute to Revolution. Univ of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 9780299184735. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  10. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Cambridge University Press, 2008, p. 160–1
  11. ^ Bakhash, Schaul (1990). The Reign of the Ayatollahs: Iran and the Islamic Revolution. New York: Basic Books. p. 15.
  12. ^ Manouchehr, Ganji (2002). Defying the Iranian Revolution: From a Minister to a Shah to a Leader of resistance. p. 14. ISBN 978-0275971878.
  13. ^ "Islamic Revolution of Iran". Archived from the original on 28 October 2009.
  14. ^ a b "Black Friday". Archived from the original on 20 May 2003.
  15. ^ Taheri, The Spirit of Allah (1985), p. 223.
  16. ^ Moin, Khomeini (2000), p. 189.
  17. ^ The Persian Sphinx: Amir Abbas Hoveyda and the Riddle of the Iranian Revolution, Abbas Milani, pp. 292–293
  18. ^ Seven Events That Made America America, Larry Schweikart, p.
  19. ^ The Iranian Revolution of 1978/1979 and How Western Newspapers Reported It, Edgar Klüsener, p. 12
  20. ^ Cultural History After Foucault, John Neubauer, p. 64
  21. ^ Islam in the World Today: A Handbook of Politics, Religion, Culture, and Society, by Werner Ende, Udo Steinbach, p. 264
  22. ^ The A to Z of Iran, John H. Lorentz, p. 63
  23. ^ Islam and Politics, John L. Esposito, p. 212
  24. ^ Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza Shah (2003) Answer to History Irwin Pub, page 160, ISBN 978-0772012968
  25. ^ "Black Friday Massacre – Iran (SEp. 8 1978)". Retrieved 7 June 2013
  26. ^ E. Baqi, 'Figures for the Dead in the Revolution', Emruz, 30 July 2003, quoted in Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Cambridge University Press, 2008, pp. 160–1
  27. ^ Staff writers. "Jales became bloody". www.asriran.com. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
  28. ^ Akhavan, Nastaran (3 May 2012). Spared. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 978-1463619428.
  29. ^ Holpuch, Amanda (14 November 2013). "Frag-counter revolutionaries: Iran 1979 revolution-based video game to launch". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2016.

23 November 1978

A cyclone kills over 1000 people in eastern Sri Lanka.

The 1978 cyclone in Eastern province was the strongest tropical cyclone to strike Eastern province of Sri Lanka on November 23, 1978. The cyclone was started at local time 6.30 pm and continued to next day morning and damaged the areas from Trincomalee to Arugam bay. In eastern province, Akkaraipattu, Ninthavur, Kalmunai, Kaluwanchikuddy, Pattiruppu, Chettipalayam, Thalankudah, Kattankudy, Batticaloa, Eravur and Kalkudah were most affected area due to cyclone’s vortex zone.

Due to the cyclone, approximately a thousand persons died, more than one million people affected, nearly 250,000 houses partially and completely damaged, 240 school buildings damaged, one fifth of Batticaloa’s fishing fleet smashed up, 9 of the 11 paddy stores destroyed, 90 percent of the coconut plantation 28,000 odd acres of coconut plantation in the Batticaloa district destroyed. Government had spent over LKR 600 million in order to response to the disaster. A post cyclone survey found that approximately 130 miles of electric cables were laid, so many religious building were destroyed or damaged. The cyclone resulted to people suffer without electricity, water and debris of fallen buildings, trees, etc. TIROS-N was observation satellite during the disaster and it was able to inform and to capture images.

Due to Sri Lanka being very unprotected, it is prone to US Millions of damage.

26 August 1978

Albino Luciani is elected as Pope John Paul I.

albino-luciani-e1471980509640

Pope John Paul I who was born Albino Luciani was a devout religious man who dedicated his life to the Catholic Church almost from the first time he could. From the time he entered the Seminary in 1923 to the time he was inaugurated as the Pope in 1978, he held a great many positions within the Catholic Church. Each of these positions marked a gradual progression through the ranks of the church until he reached the ultimate calling — that of Pope.

As Pope he combined the names of his immediate two predecessors Paul VI and John XXIII, to become Pope John Paul and was the first Pope to ever take a double name. He was always cheerful and low-key in his dealing with other people so was soon named the smiling Pope. He was reportedly also a big fan of American author Mark Twain, reading his works whenever he could.

His death is surrounded in great controversy. On the eve of September 28, 1978 he apparently died form a heart attack while reading in bed. His means of death has be greatly disputed and some including David Yallop in his book “In God’s Name” allege that Pope John Paul was poisoned in order to keep him from discovering the truth about Vatican financial misdeeds. The conspiracy theory revolves around some supposed Vatican officials who feared that if Pope John Paul had lived he would have uncovered their financial misconduct within Vatican affairs.

These same Vatican Officials supposedly then decided that Pope John Paul must be eliminated in order to protect them form prosecution. The officials then secured and used a slow acting poison that when used would cause a person to appear to have died from a heart attack. The poison was the administered to Pope John Paul over the span of a couple of days until he succumbed on September 28, 1978. To this date, none of these charges or allegations has ever led to an arrest and none have ever been proven.

Pope John Paul’s reign was short and who knows what would have happened had he lived. The next “Pope John Paul II” paid tribute to him by taking on the name of his predecessor.

23 November 1978

A cyclone in Eastern Sri Lanka kills almost 1000 people.

04b_nov_23_1978_0853z

The 1978 cyclone in Eastern province of Sri Lanka was the strongest tropical cyclone which happened on November 23, 1978. The cyclone was started at local time 6.30 pm and continued to next day morning and damaged the areas from Trincomalee to Arugam bay. Due to the cyclone, approximately a thousand persons died, more than one million people affected, nearly 250,000 houses partially and completely damaged, 240 school buildings damaged, one fifth of Batticaloa’s fishing fleet smashed up, 9 of the 11 paddy stores destroyed, 90 percent of the coconut plantation in the Batticaloa district destroyed. Government had spent over LKR 600 million in order to response to the disaster. A post cyclone survey found that approximately 130 miles of electric cables were laid, so many religious building were destroyed or damaged. The cyclone resulted to people suffer without electricity, water and debris of fallen buildings, trees, etc.TIROS-N was observation satellite during the disaster and it was able to inform and to capture images.