16 April 1912

Harriet Quimby becomes the first woman to fly an airplane across the English Channel.

Harriet Quimby
Harriet Quimby 1911.jpg
Quimby circa 1911
Born(1875-05-11)May 11, 1875
DiedJuly 1, 1912(1912-07-01) (aged 37)
OccupationWriter, aviator

Harriet Quimby (May 11, 1875 – July 1, 1912) was an early American aviation pioneer and a movie screenwriter.

In 1911, she was awarded a U.S. pilot's certificate by the Aero Club of America, becoming the first woman to gain a pilot's license in the United States.[1] In 1912, she became the first woman to fly across the English Channel. Although Quimby lived only to the age of 37, she influenced the role of women in aviation.

Early life and early career

She was born on May 11, 1875, in Arcadia Township, Manistee County, Michigan. After her family moved to San Francisco, California, in the early 1900s, she became a journalist. Harriet Quimby's public life began in 1902, when she began writing for the San Francisco Dramatic Review and also contributed to the Sunday editions of the San Francisco Chronicle and San Francisco Call. She moved to Manhattan, New York City in 1903 to work as a theater critic for Leslie's Illustrated Weekly and more than 250 of her articles were published over a nine-year period.[2]

Quimby continued to write for Leslie's even when touring with airshows, recounting her adventures in a series of articles. Totally committed to her new passion, the dedicated journalist and aviator avidly promoted the economic potential of commercial aviation and touted flying as an ideal sport for women.[3]

Quimby became interested in aviation in 1910, when she attended the Belmont Park International Aviation Tournament in Elmont, New York.[2] There she met John Moisant, a well-known aviator and operator of a flight school, and his sister Matilde.[4][5]

On August 1, 1911, she took her pilot's test and became the first U.S. woman to earn an Aero Club of America aviator's certificate.[2] Matilde Moisant soon followed and became the second.[6]

Due to the absence of any official birth certificate, many communities have claimed her over the years.[7]

Aviation

After earning her license, the "Dresden China Aviatrix" or "China Doll," as the press called her because of her petite stature and fair skin, moved to capitalize on her new notoriety. Pilots could earn as much as $1,000 per performance, and prize money for a race could go as high as $10,000 or more. Quimby joined the Moisant International Aviators, an exhibition team, and made her professional debut, earning $1,500, in a night flight over Staten Island before a crowd of almost 20,000 spectators.

As one of the country's few female pilots, she capitalized on her femininity by wearing trousers tucked into high lace boots accentuated by a plum-colored satin blouse, necklace, and antique bracelet. She drew crowds whenever she competed in cross-country meets and races. As part of the exhibition team, she showcased her talents around the United States and even went to Mexico City at the end of 1911 to participate in aviation activities held in honor of the inauguration of President Francisco Madero.[3]

Hollywood

Photograph of Quimby in 1911 by Theodore Marceau

In 1911 Quimby authored seven screenplays or scenarios that were made into silent film shorts by Biograph Studios. All seven were directed by director D. W. Griffith. Stars in her films included Florence La Badie, Wilfred Lucas, and Blanche Sweet. Quimby had a small acting role in one movie.[8]

Vin Fiz

The Vin Fiz Company, a division of Armour Meat Packing Plant of Chicago, recruited Quimby as the spokesperson for the new grape soda, Vin Fiz, after the death of Calbraith Perry Rodgers in April 1912. Her distinctive purple aviator uniform and image graced many of the advertising pieces of the day.[9]

English Channel flight

On April 16, 1912, Quimby took off from Dover, England, en route to Calais, France, and made the flight in 59 minutes, landing about 25 miles (40 km) from Calais on a beach in Équihen-Plage, Pas-de-Calais. She became the first woman to pilot an aircraft across the English Channel.[10] Her accomplishment received little media attention, however, as the sinking of the RMS Titanic the day before consumed the interest of the public and filled newspapers.[11]

Death

Harriet Quimby and Matilde Moisant, circa 1911–12

On July 1, 1912, she flew in the Third Annual Boston Aviation Meet at Squantum, Massachusetts.[1] Although she had obtained her ACA certificate to be allowed to participate in ACA events, the Boston meet was an unsanctioned contest. Quimby flew out to Boston Light in Boston Harbor at about 3,000 feet, then returned and circled the airfield.[12]

, the organizer of the event and father of the aviator , was a passenger in her brand-new two-seat Bleriot monoplane. At an altitude of 1,000 feet (300 m) the aircraft unexpectedly pitched forward for reasons still unknown. Both Willard and Quimby were ejected from their seats and fell to their deaths, while the plane "glided down and lodged itself in the mud".[5]

Harriet Quimby was buried in the Woodlawn Cemetery in The Bronx, New York. The following year her remains were moved to the Kensico Cemetery in Valhalla, New York.[13] A cenotaph to Quimby, the Harriet Quimby Compass Rose Fountain, stands at Pierce Brothers/Valhalla Memorial Park Cemetery in Burbank, Los Angeles, California. Located close to the cemetery's Portal of the Folded Wings, a shrine containing the ashes of aviation pioneers, the Quimby fountain's plaque reads:

"Harriet Quimby became the first licensed female pilot in America on August 1, 1911. On April 16, 1912, she was the first woman to fly a plane across the English Channel. She pointed the direction for future women pilots including her friend, Matilde Moisant, buried at the Portal of the Folded Wings."

Filmography

[14]

As actress

Title Year Role Director
Lines of White on a Sullen Sea 1909 Fishermaiden D.W. Griffith
The Late Harriet Quimby's Flight Across the English Channel 1912 Self Unknown

As writer

Title Year Director
Sunshine Through the Dark 1911 D.W. Griffith
The Blind Princess and the Poet 1911 D.W. Griffith
His Mother's Scarf 1911 D.W. Griffith
The Broken Cross 1911 D. W. Griffith
Fisher Folks 1911 D. W. Griffith

Legacy

In 1991 the United States Postal Service issued a 50 cent airmail postage stamp featuring Harriet Quimby.[15]

She is memorialized in two official Michigan historical markers. One is located near Coldwater where she was born.[16] The other was erected near the now abandoned farmhouse in Arcadia Township where Quimby grew up.[17]

In 2004 Quimby was inducted into the National Aviation Hall of Fame.[4]

In 2012 Quimby was inducted into the Long Island Air and Space Hall of Fame.[18]

The Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome possesses a flyable Anzani-powered one-seater Blériot XI, which bears the Blériot factory's serial number 56, showing that it was manufactured in 1909. Since Quimby's plane, in 1912, was a brand new two-seater, the idea that the former was the aircraft that she was flying in 1912 seems to be an urban legend.[19]

Aircraft

Harriet Quimby in her monoplane.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Miss Quimby Dies In Airship Fall. Noted Woman Aviator and W.A.P. Willard, Passenger, Are Thrown 1,000 Feet". The New York Times. July 2, 1912.
  2. ^ a b c Tallman, Jill W. (August 2, 2011). "Thanks, Harriet" (Harriet Quimby profile). AOPA Pilot. Archived from the original on December 21, 2014. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
  3. ^ a b "Harriet Quimby" (PDF).
  4. ^ a b "Harriet Quimby profile". The National Aviation Hall of Fame. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
  5. ^ a b "Harriet Quimby profile". centennialofflight.net. Retrieved May 10, 2015.
  6. ^ "An American Lady Aviator". Flight. August 26, 1911. Retrieved May 16, 2012.
  7. ^ "Quimby, Harriet". National Aviation Hall of Fame. Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  8. ^ Internet Movie Database, Harriet Quimby (and links therein); accessed April 16, 2009.
  9. ^ Holden, Henry M. "Vin Fiz reborn". Airport journal. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
  10. ^ "Miss Quimby Flies The Channel"Flight April 20, 1912
  11. ^ "Titanic Sinks Four Hours After Hitting Iceberg". The New York Times. April 16, 1912. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
  12. ^ "Harriet Quimby Crash, 1912". CelebrateBoston.com. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
  13. ^ "Aeronautics – Harriet Quimby". Aeronautics Learning Laboratory for Science Technology and Research. Florida International University. December 20, 2004. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
  14. ^ "Harriet Quimby". IMDb. Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  15. ^ Sama, Dominic (April 28, 1991). "Stamp Honors First Woman Licensed Pilot". Chicago Tribune. Knight-Ridder Newspapers. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
  16. ^ "Harriet Quimby". The Historical Marker database. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
  17. ^ "Harriet Quimby Childhood Home". The Historical Marker database. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
  18. ^ Melanson, Alana (May 16, 2012). "Fitchburg pays tribute to first woman to fly across English Channel". Fitchburg, Massachusetts: Sentinel & Enterprise. Retrieved May 16, 2012.
  19. ^ Pat Trenner (April 15, 2013). "Did Harriet Quimby's Blériot End Up in New York?". airspacemag. Retrieved March 2, 2016.

External links

6 December 1912

The Nefertiti Bust is discovered.

Nefertiti Bust
Nofretete Neues Museum.jpg
The iconic bust of Nefertiti is part of the Egyptian Museum of Berlin collection.
MaterialLimestone and stucco
Size20 kilograms (44 lb)
Height48 centimetres (19 in)
Created1345 BC
Thutmose, Ancient Egypt
Discovered6 December 1912
Amarna, Khedivate of Egypt
Discovered byGerman Oriental Society
Present locationNeues Museum
Berlin, Germany

The Nefertiti Bust is a painted stucco-coated limestone bust of Nefertiti, the Great Royal Wife of Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten.[1] The work is believed to have been crafted in 1345 B.C. by Thutmose because it was found in his workshop in Amarna, Egypt.[2] It is one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt. Nefertiti has become one of the most famous women of the ancient world and an icon of feminine beauty.

A German archaeological team led by Ludwig Borchardt discovered the bust in 1912 in Thutmose's workshop.[3] It has been kept at various locations in Germany since its discovery, including the cellar of a bank, a salt mine in Merkers-Kieselbach, the Dahlem museum, the Egyptian Museum in Charlottenburg and the Altes Museum.[3] It is currently on display at the Neues Museum in Berlin, where it was originally displayed before World War II.[3]

The Nefertiti bust has become a cultural symbol of Berlin as well as ancient Egypt. It has also been the subject of an intense argument between Egypt and Germany over Egyptian demands for its repatriation, which began in 1924 once the bust was first displayed to the public. Egyptian inspectors were not shown the actual bust before they let it out of the country.

History

Background

A "house altar" (c. 1350 BC) depicting Akhenaten, Nefertiti and three of their daughters. Note Nefertiti wears a crown similar to that depicted on the bust.

Nefertiti (meaning "the beautiful one has come forth") was the 14th-century BC Great Royal Wife (chief consort) of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. Akhenaten initiated a new monotheistic form of worship called Atenism dedicated to the Sun disc Aten.[4] Little is known about Nefertiti. Theories suggest she could have been an Egyptian royal by birth, a foreign princess or the daughter of a high government official named Ay, who became pharaoh after Tutankhamun. She may have been the co-regent of Egypt with Akhenaten, who ruled from 1352 BC to 1336 BC.[4] Nefertiti bore six daughters to Akhenaten, one of whom, Ankhesenpaaten (renamed Ankhesenamun after the suppression of the Aten cult), married Tutankhamun, Nefertiti's stepson. While it was once thought that Nefertiti disappeared in the twelfth year of Akhenaten's reign because of her death or because she took a new name, she was still alive in the sixteenth year of her husband's reign according to a limestone quarry inscription found at Dayr Abū Ḥinnis[5] "on the eastern side of the Nile, about ten kilometres north of Amarna."[6] Nefertiti may have become a pharaoh in her own right for a short time after her husband's death.[4][7]

The bust of Nefertiti is believed to have been crafted about 1345 BC by the sculptor Thutmose.[4][8] The bust does not have any inscriptions, but can be certainly identified as Nefertiti by the characteristic crown, which she wears in other surviving (and clearly labelled) depictions, for example the "house altar".[9]

Discovery

Nefertiti bust

The bust was found on 6 December 1912 at Amarna by the German Oriental Company (Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft – DOG), led by German archaeologist Ludwig Borchardt. It was found in what had been the workshop of the sculptor Thutmose, along with other unfinished busts of Nefertiti.[10][11] Borchardt's diary provides the main written account of the find; he remarks, "Suddenly we had in our hands the most alive Egyptian artwork. You cannot describe it with words. You must see it."[12]

A 1924 document found in the archives of the German Oriental Company recalls a 20 January 1913 meeting between Borchardt and a senior Egyptian official to discuss the division of the archeological finds of 1912 between Germany and Egypt. According to the secretary of the German Oriental Company (who was the author of the document and who was present at the meeting), Borchardt "wanted to save the bust for us".[13][14] Borchardt is suspected of having concealed the bust's real value,[15] although he denied doing so.[16]

While Philipp Vandenberg describes the coup as "adventurous and beyond comparison",[17] Time magazine lists it among the "Top 10 Plundered Artifacts".[18] Borchardt showed the Egyptian official a photograph of the bust "that didn't show Nefertiti in her best light". The bust was wrapped up in a box when Egypt's chief antiques inspector, Gustave Lefebvre, came for inspection. The document reveals that Borchardt claimed the bust was made of gypsum to mislead Lefebvre. The German Oriental Company blames the negligence of Lefebvre and points out that the bust was at the top of the exchange list and says the deal was done fairly.[14][19]

Description and examinations

The bust is 48 centimetres (19 in) tall and weighs about 20 kilograms (44 lb). It is made of a limestone core covered with painted stucco layers. The face is completely symmetrical and almost intact, but the left eye lacks the inlay present in the right.[20][21] The pupil of the right eye is of inserted quartz with black paint and is fixed with beeswax. The background of the eye-socket is unadorned limestone. Nefertiti wears her characteristic blue crown known as the "Nefertiti cap crown" with a golden diadem band looped around like horizontal ribbons and joining at the back, and an Uraeus (cobra), which is now broken, over her brow. She also wears a broad collar with a floral pattern.[22] The ears have suffered some damage.[21] Gardner's Art Through the Ages suggests that "With this elegant bust, Thutmose may have been alluding to a heavy flower on its slender sleek stalk by exaggerating the weight of the crowned head and the length of the almost serpentine neck."[23]

Right profile and front
Left profile and back

According to David Silverman, the bust reflects the classical Egyptian art style, deviating from the "eccentricities" of the Amarna art style, which was developed in Akhenaten's reign. The exact function of the bust is unknown, though it is theorized that the bust may be a sculptor's modello to be used as a basis for other official portraits, kept in the artist's workshop.[24]

Colours

Borchardt commissioned a chemical analysis of the coloured pigments of the head. The result of the examination was published in the book Portrait of Queen Nofretete in 1923:[25]

Missing left eye

When the bust was first discovered, no quartz to represent the iris of the left eyeball was present as in the other eye, and none was found despite an intensive search and a then significant reward of £1000 being put up for information regarding its whereabouts.[26] Borchardt assumed that the quartz iris had fallen out when Thutmose's workshop fell into ruin.[27] The missing eye led to speculation that Nefertiti may have suffered from an ophthalmic infection and lost her left eye, though the presence of an iris in other statues of her contradicted this possibility.[28]

Dietrich Wildung proposed that the bust in Berlin was a model for official portraits and was used by the master sculptor for teaching his pupils how to carve the internal structure of the eye, and thus the left iris was not added.[29] Gardner's Art Through the Ages and Silverman present a similar view that the bust was deliberately kept unfinished.[21][23] Zahi Hawass, former Egyptian Minister of State for Antiquities Affairs, suggested that Thutmose created the left eye, but that it was later destroyed.[30]

CT scans

The bust was first CT scanned in 1992, with the scan producing cross sections of the bust every five millimetres (0.20 in).[31][32] In 2006, Dietrich Wildung, director of Berlin's Egyptian Museum, while trying a different lighting at the Altes Museum, where the bust was then displayed, observed wrinkles on Nefertiti's neck and bags under her eyes, suggesting the sculptor had tried to depict signs of aging. A CT scan confirmed Wildung's findings; Thutmose had added gypsum under the cheeks and eyes in an attempt to perfect his sculpture.[29]

The CT scan in 2006, led by Alexander Huppertz, director of the Imaging Science Institute in Berlin, revealed a wrinkled face of Nefertiti carved in the inner core of the bust.[32] The results were published in the April 2009's Radiology.[33] The scan revealed that Thutmose placed layers of varying thickness on top of the limestone core. The inner face has creases around her mouth and cheeks and a swelling on the nose. The creases and the bump on the nose are leveled by the outermost stucco layer. According to Huppertz, this may reflect "aesthetic ideals of the era".[8][34] The 2006 scan provided greater detail than the 1992 one, revealing subtle details just 1–2 millimetres (0.039–0.079 in) under the stucco.[31]

Later history

The bust has become "one of the most admired, and most copied, images from ancient Egypt", and the star exhibit used to market Berlin's museums.[35] It is seen as an "icon of international beauty."[15][29][36] "Showing a woman with a long neck, elegantly arched brows, high cheekbones, a slender nose and an enigmatic smile played about red lips, the bust has established Nefertiti as one of the most beautiful faces of antiquity."[29] It is described as the most famous bust of ancient art, comparable only to the mask of Tutankhamun.[22]

Nefertiti has become an icon of Berlin's culture.[10] Some 500,000 visitors see her every year.[14] The bust is described as "the best-known work of art from ancient Egypt, arguably from all antiquity".[37] Her face is on postcards of Berlin and 1989 German postage stamps.[36][38]

Locations in Germany

Neues Museum, Berlin is the present location of the Nefertiti bust

The bust has been in Germany since 1913,[13] when it was shipped to Berlin and presented to James Simon, a wholesale merchant and the sponsor of the Amarna excavation.[11] It was displayed at Simon's residence until 1913, when Simon lent the bust and other artifacts from the Amarna dig to the Berlin Museum.[39] Although the rest of the Amarna collection was displayed in 1913–14, the bust was kept secret at Borchardt's request.[17] In 1918, the museum discussed the public display of the bust, but again kept it secret at the request of Borchardt.[39] It was permanently donated to the museum in 1920. In 1923, the bust was revealed to the public in Borchardt's writings; in 1924, it was displayed to the public as part of the Egyptian Museum of Berlin.[17][39] The bust created a sensation, swiftly becoming a world-renowned icon of feminine beauty and one of the most universally recognised artifacts to survive from Ancient Egypt. The bust was displayed in Berlin's Neues Museum on Museum Island until the museum was closed in 1939; with the onset of World War II, Berlin museums were emptied and artifacts moved to secure shelters for safekeeping.[11] Initially stored in the cellar of the Prussian Governmental Bank, the bust was moved in the autumn of 1941 to the tower of a flak bunker in Berlin.[39] The Neues Museum suffered bombings in 1943 by the Royal Air Force.[40] On 6 March 1945, the bust was moved to a German salt mine at Merkers-Kieselbach in Thuringia.[11]

In March 1945, the bust was found by the American Army and given over to its Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives branch. It was moved to the Reichsbank in Frankfurt and shipped in August to the U.S. Central Collecting Point in Wiesbaden, where it was put on public display beginning in 1946.[11][39] It remained on display at the Museum Wiesbaden for ten years before being transferred in 1956 to West Berlin,[11] where it was exhibited at the Dahlem Museum. As early as 1946, East Germany (German Democratic Republic) pressed for the return of the bust to Museum Island in East Berlin, where it had been displayed before the war.[11][39] In 1967, the bust was moved to the Egyptian Museum in the Charlottenburg borough of Berlin and remained there until 2005, when it was moved to the Altes Museum.[39] The bust returned to the Neues Museum as its centerpiece when the museum reopened in October 2009.[15][40][41]

Controversies

External video
Queen nefertiti1.jpg
Thutmose's Bust of Nefertiti (Amarna Period), Smarthistory[42]

Requests for repatriation to Egypt

Since the official unveiling of the bust in Berlin in 1924, Egyptian authorities have demanded its return to Egypt.[10][39][43] In 1925, Egypt threatened to ban German excavations in Egypt unless the bust was returned. In 1929, Egypt offered to exchange other artifacts for the bust, but Germany declined. In the 1950s, Egypt again tried to initiate negotiations, but there was no response from Germany.[39][43] Although Germany had previously strongly opposed repatriation, in 1933 Hermann Göring considered returning the bust to King Farouk Fouad of Egypt as a political gesture. Hitler opposed the idea and told the Egyptian government that he would build a new Egyptian museum for Nefertiti. "In the middle, this wonder, Nefertiti, will be enthroned," Hitler said. "I will never relinquish the head of the Queen."[15][43] While the bust was under American control, Egypt requested the United States to hand it over; the US refused and advised Egypt to take up the matter with the new German authorities.[39] In 1989, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak viewed the bust and announced that Nefertiti was "the best ambassador for Egypt" in Berlin.[39]

Zahi Hawass believed that the bust belongs to Egypt and that it was taken out of Egypt illegally and should therefore be returned. He maintained the stance that Egyptian authorities were misled over the acquisition of the bust in 1913 and demanded that Germany prove that it was exported legally.[13][44] According to Kurt G. Siehr, another argument in support of repatriation is that "Archeological finds have their 'home' in the country of origin and should be preserved in that country."[45] The repatriation issue sprang up again in 2003 over the Body of Nefertiti sculpture. In 2005, Hawass requested that UNESCO intervene to return the bust.[46]

In 2007, Hawass threatened to ban exhibitions of Egyptian artifacts in Germany if the bust was not lent to Egypt, but to no avail. He also requested a worldwide boycott of loans to German museums to initiate what he called a "scientific war". Hawass wanted Germany to lend the bust to Egypt in 2012 for the opening of the new Grand Egyptian Museum near the Great Pyramids of Giza.[35] Simultaneously, a campaign called "Nefertiti Travels" was launched by cultural association CulturCooperation, based in Hamburg, Germany. They distributed postcards depicting the bust with the words "Return to Sender" and wrote an open letter to German Culture Minister Bernd Neumann supporting the view that Egypt should be given the bust on loan.[36][47] In 2009, when the bust was moved back to the Neues Museum, the appropriateness of Berlin as its location was questioned.

Several German art experts have attempted to refute all the claims made by Hawass, pointing to the 1924 document discussing the pact between Borchardt and Egyptian authorities.[13][14] German authorities have also argued the bust is too fragile to transport and that legal arguments for repatriation were insubstantial. According to The Times, Germany may be concerned that lending the bust to Egypt would mean its permanent departure from Germany.[15][35]

In December 2009, Friederike Seyfried, director of Berlin's Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection, presented to the Egyptians documents held by the museum regarding the discovery of the bust, which include a protocol signed by the German excavator and the Egyptian Antiquities Service. In the documents, the bust was listed as a painted plaster bust of a princess, but in his diary, Borchardt clearly referred to it as the head of Nefertiti. "This proves that Borchardt wrote this description so that his country can get the statue," Hawass said. "These materials confirm Egypt's contention that (he) did act unethically with intent to deceive." However, Hawass said Egypt didn't consider the bust to be a looted antiquity. "I really want it back," he said.[35] His statement quoted the director of the museum as saying the authority to approve the return of the bust to Egypt lies with Prussian Cultural Heritage and the German culture minister.[48]

Allegations over authenticity

The French language book Le Buste de Nefertiti – une Imposture de l'Egyptologie? (The Bust of Nefertiti – a Fraud in Egyptology?) by Swiss art historian Henri Stierlin and the book Missing Link in Archaeology by Berlin author and historian Erdogan Ercivan both claimed that the bust was a modern fake. Stierlin claims that Borchardt may have created the bust to test ancient pigments and that when the bust was admired by Prince Johann Georg of Saxony, Borchardt pretended it was genuine to avoid offending the prince. Stierlin argues that the missing left eye of the bust would have been a sign of disrespect in ancient Egypt, that no scientific records of the bust appear until 11 years after its supposed discovery and, while the paint pigments are ancient, the inner limestone core has never been dated. Ercivan suggests Borchardt's wife was the model for the bust and both authors argue that it was not revealed to the public until 1924 because it was a fake.[12] Another theory suggested that the existing bust was crafted in the 1930s on Hitler's orders and that the original was lost in World War II.[19]

In 1989, a 70 pfennig stamp which featured the bust of Nefertiti was on issue in Germany.

Dietrich Wildung dismissed the claims as a publicity stunt since radiological tests, detailed computer tomography and material analysis have proved its authenticity.[12] The pigments used on the bust have been matched to those used by ancient Egyptian artisans. The 2006 CT scan that discovered the "hidden face" of Nefertiti proved, according to Science News, that the bust was genuine.[19]

Egyptian authorities also dismissed Stierlin's theory. Hawass said, "Stierlin is not a historian. He is delirious." Although Stierlin had argued "Egyptians cut shoulders horizontally" and Nefertiti had vertical shoulders, Hawass said that the new style seen in the bust is part of the changes introduced by Akhenaten, the husband of Nefertiti. Hawass also claimed that Thutmose had created the eye, but it was later destroyed.[30]

Body of Nefertiti

In 2003, the Egyptian Museum in Berlin allowed the Hungarian artist duo Little Warsaw, András Gálik and Bálint Havas, to place the bust atop a nearly nude female bronze for a video installation to be shown at the Venice Biennale modern art festival. The artists said the project, called Body of Nefertiti, was an attempt to pay homage to the bust. According to Wildung, it showed "the continued relevance of the ancient world to today's art."[49] Egyptian cultural officials proclaimed it to be a disgrace to "one of the great symbols of their country's history" and banned Wildung and his wife from further exploration in Egypt.[35][49][50] The Egyptian Minister for Culture, Farouk Hosny, declared that Nefertiti was "not in safe hands" and although Egypt had not renewed their claims for restitution "due to the good relations with Germany," this "recent behaviour" was unacceptable.[39]

Cultural significance

In 1930, the German press described the bust as their new monarch, personifying it as a queen. As the "'most precious ... stone in the setting of the diadem' from the art treasures of 'Prussia Germany'", Nefertiti would re-establish the imperial German national identity after 1918.[51] Hitler described the bust as "a unique masterpiece, an ornament, a true treasure", and pledged to build a museum to house it.[12] By the 1970s, the bust had become an issue of national identity to both German states, East Germany and West Germany, created after World War II.[51] In 1999, the bust appeared on an election poster for the green political party Bündnis 90/Die Grünen as a promise for a cosmopolitan and multi-cultural environment with the slogan "Strong Women for Berlin!"[38] According to Claudia Breger, another reason that the bust became associated with German national identity was its place as a rival to Tutankhamun, found by the British who then ruled Egypt.[38]

The bust became an influence on popular culture, with Jack Pierce's make-up work on Elsa Lanchester's iconic hairstyle in the film Bride of Frankenstein being inspired by it.[52]

References

Notes
  1. ^ "Nefertiti - Ancient History - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  2. ^ e.V., Verein zur Förderung des Ägyptischen Museums und Papyrussammlung Berlin. "Nefertiti: (Society for the Promotion of the Egyptian Museum Berlin)". www.egyptian-museum-berlin.com. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  3. ^ a b c Tharoor, Ishaan. "The Bust of Nefertiti: Remembering Ancient Egypt's Famous Queen". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d Maryalice Yakutchik. "Who Was Nefertiti?". Discovery Channel. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
  5. ^ Athena van der Perre, The Year 16 graffito of Akhenaten in Dayr Abū Ḥinnis. A Contribution to the Study of the Later Years of Nefertiti, Journal of Egyptian History (JEH) 7 (2014), pp.67-108
  6. ^ A. Van der Perre, 'Nefertiti's last documented reference for now' F. Seyfried (ed.), In the Light of Amarna. 100 Years of the Nefertiti Discovery, (Berlin, 2012), pp.195-197 (academia.edu)
  7. ^ Silverman, Wegner, Wegner pp.130-33
  8. ^ a b Christine Dell'Amore (30 March 2009). "Nefertiti's Real, Wrinkled Face Found in Famous Bust?". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
  9. ^ Charlotte Booth (30 July 2007). The Ancient Egyptians for Dummies. for Dummies. ISBN 978-0-470-06544-0.
  10. ^ a b c Breger p. 285
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Siehr p.115
  12. ^ a b c d Connolly, Kate (7 May 2009). "Is this Nefertiti – or a 100-year-old fake?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
  13. ^ a b c d Dempsy, Judy (18 October 2009). "A 3,500-Year-Old Queen Causes a Rift Between Germany and Egypt". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  14. ^ a b c d "Archaeological Controversy: Did Germany Cheat to Get Bust of Nefertiti?". Spiegel Online. 10 February 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  15. ^ a b c d e Roger Boyes (20 October 2009). "Neues Museum refuses to return the bust of Queen Nefertiti to Egyptian museum". The Times. London. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  16. ^ Berger p. 288
  17. ^ a b c Breger p. 286
  18. ^ "Top 10 Plundered Artifacts". TIME. 5 March 2009. Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 24 November 2009.
  19. ^ a b c "Nefertiti's 'hidden face' proves Berlin bust is not Hitler's fake". Science News. 27 April 2009. Archived from the original on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2009. For pictures, "Nefertiti's 'Hidden Face' Proves Famous Berlin Bust is not Hitler's Fake". 3 April 2009. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
  20. ^ Horst Woldemar Janson; Anthony F. Janson (2003). History of art: the Western tradition. Prentice Hall PTR. ISBN 978-0-13-182895-7.
  21. ^ a b c Silverman, Wegner, Wegner pp. 21, 113
  22. ^ a b Schultz. Egypt the World of Pharaohs: The World of the Pharaohs. American Univ in Cairo Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-977-424-661-6.
  23. ^ a b Helen Gardner (2006). "Art of Ancient Egypt". Gardner's Art Through the Ages: the western perspective. Cengage Learning. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-495-00478-3.
  24. ^ Silverman, David P. (1997). Ancient Egypt. USA: Oxford University Press. p. 221. ISBN 0-19-521952-X.
  25. ^ Rudolph Anthes (1961). Nofretete – The Head of Queen Nofretete. Mann, Berlin: Verlag Gebr. p. 6.
  26. ^ Matthias Schulz (2012). "Die entführte Königin (German)". Der Spiegel. 49 (3 December 2012): 128.
  27. ^ Joyce A. Tyldesley, Nefertiti: Egypt's sun queen, Viking, 1999, p.196.
  28. ^ Fred Gladstone Bratton, A history of Egyptian archaeology, Hale, 1968, p.223
  29. ^ a b c d Lorenzi, R (5 September 2006). "Scholar: Nefertiti Was an Aging Beauty". Discovery News. Discovery Channel. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 18 December 2009.
  30. ^ a b Szabo, Christopher (12 May 2009). "Egypt's Rubbishes Claims that Nefertiti Bust is 'Fake'". DigitalJournal.com.
  31. ^ a b Patrick McGroarty (31 March 2009). "Nefertiti Bust Has Two Faces". Discovery News. Discovery Channel. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  32. ^ a b For comparative analysis between 1992 and 2006 CT scans: Bernhard Illerhaus; Andreas Staude; Dietmar Meinel (2009). "Nondestructive Insights into Composition of the Sculpture of Egyptian Queen Nefertiti with CT and the dependence of object surface from image processing" (PDF). NDT Database & e-Journal of Nondestructive Testing. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  33. ^ Alexander Huppertz, A; Dietrich Wildung; Barry J. Kemp; Tanja Nentwig; Patrick Asbach; Franz Maximilian Rosche; Bernd Hamm (April 2009). "Nondestructive Insights into Composition of the Sculpture of Egyptian Queen Nefertiti with CT". Radiology. Radiological Society of North America. 251 (1): 233–240. doi:10.1148/radiol.2511081175. PMID 19332855. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011.
  34. ^ "Hidden Face In Nefertiti Bust Examined With CT Scan". Science Daily. 8 April 2009. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
  35. ^ a b c d e Dan Morrison (18 April 2007). "Egypt Vows "Scientific War" If Germany Doesn't Loan Nefertiti". National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  36. ^ a b c Moore, Tristana (7 May 2007). "Row over Nefertiti bust continues". BBC News. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
  37. ^ Siehr p.114
  38. ^ a b c Breger p. 292
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "The Bust of Nefertiti: A Chronology". "Nefertiti travels" campaign website. CulturCooperation. 2007. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
  40. ^ a b Tony Paterson (17 October 2009). "Queen Nefertiti rules again in Berlin's reborn museum". The Independent. London. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  41. ^ Isabelle de Pommereau (2 November 2009). "Germany: Time for Egypt's Nefertiti bust to go home?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  42. ^ "Thutmose's Bust of Nefertiti (Amarna Period)". Smarthistory at Khan Academy. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
  43. ^ a b c Sieher p. 116
  44. ^ Kimmelman, Michael (23 October 2009). "When Ancient Artifacts Become Political Pawns". New York Times. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
  45. ^ Siehr pp. 133–4
  46. ^ El-Aref, Nevine (14–20 July 2005). "Antiquities wish list". Al-Ahram Weekly (751). Archived from the original on 16 September 2010.
  47. ^ "Nefertiti travels". CulturCooperation. 2007. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
  48. ^ The Associated Press:Egypt antiquities chief to demand Nefertiti bust
  49. ^ a b HUGH EAKIN (21 June 2003). "Nefertiti's Bust Gets a Body, Offending Egyptians". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
  50. ^ For a picture of "The Body of Nefertiti" see "Nefertiti's Bust Gets a Body, Offending Egyptians: A Problematic Juxtaposition". The New York Times. 21 June 2003. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
  51. ^ a b Breger p. 291
  52. ^ Elizabeth Young, "Here Comes the Bride: Wedding Gender and Race in Bride of Frankenstein"; Feminist Studies, Vol. 17, 1991. 35 pgs.
Books

External links

8 May 1912

Paramount Pictures is founded.

Paramount Pictures Corporation also known simply as Paramount is an American film studio based in Hollywood, California, that has been a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world, the second oldest in the United States, and the sole member of the “Big Six” film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood.

In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. These fortunate few would become the first “movie stars.” In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only. The company’s headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, Hollywood, California, United States.

Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company, and Universal Studios. It is the last major film studio still headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles.

Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company. Hungarian-born founder Adolph Zukor, who had been an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed mainly to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the middle class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time leading to the slogan “Famous Players in Famous Plays”. By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, and Zukor was on his way to success. Its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth, which starred Sarah Bernhardt.

That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish, later known as Samuel Goldwyn. The Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with virtually no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a suitable site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film, The Squaw Man.

Paramount Pictures’ first logo, based on a design by its founder William Wadsworth Hodkinson, used from 1917 to 1967. Starting in 1914, both Lasky and Famous Players released their films through a start-up company, Paramount Pictures Corporation, organized early that year by a Utah theatre owner, W. W. Hodkinson, who had bought and merged several smaller firms. Hodkinson and actor, director, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies. Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor; until this time, films were sold on a statewide or regional basis which had proved costly to film producers. Also, Famous Players and Lasky were privately owned while Paramount was a corporation.

6 January 1912

The German geophysicist Alfred Wegener first describes his theory of continental drift.

article is about the development of the continental drift hypothesis before 1958. For the contemporary theory, see plate tectonics. For the Russell Banks novel, see Continental Drift. For the fourth film in the Ice Age franchise, see Ice Age: Continental Drift.

The continental drift of the last 250 million years

Antonio Snider-Pellegrini’s Illustration of the closed and opened Atlantic Ocean.
Continental drift is the theory that the Earth’s continents have moved over geologic time relative to each other, thus appearing to have “drifted” across the ocean bed. The speculation that continents might have ‘drifted’ was first put forward by Abraham Ortelius in 1596. The concept was independently and more fully developed by Alfred Wegener in 1912, but his theory was rejected by many for lack of any motive mechanism. Arthur Holmes later proposed mantle convection for that mechanism. The idea of continental drift has since been subsumed by the theory of plate tectonics, which explains that the continents move by riding on plates of the Earth’s lithosphere.

Abraham Ortelius, Theodor Christoph Lilienthal, Alexander von Humboldt, Antonio Snider-Pellegrini, and others had noted earlier that the shapes of continents on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean seem to fit together. W. J. Kious described Ortelius’ thoughts in this way:

Abraham Ortelius in his work Thesaurus Geographicus … suggested that the Americas were “torn away from Europe and Africa … by earthquakes and floods” and went on to say: “The vestiges of the rupture reveal themselves if someone brings forward a map of the world and considers carefully the coasts of the three.”

In 1889, Alfred Russel Wallace remarked, “It was formerly a very general belief, even amongst geologists, that the great features of the earth’s surface, no less than the smaller ones, were subject to continual mutations, and that during the course of known geological time the continents and great oceans had, again and again, changed places with each other.”[8] He quotes Charles Lyell as saying, “Continents, therefore, although permanent for whole geological epochs, shift their positions entirely in the course of ages.”[9] and claims that the first to throw doubt on this was James Dwight Dana in 1849.

In his Manual of Geology, Dana wrote, “The continents and oceans had their general outline or form defined in earliest time. This has been proved with respect to North America from the position and distribution of the first beds of the Silurian – those of the Potsdam epoch. … and this will probably prove to the case in Primordial time with the other continents also”. Dana was enormously influential in America – his Manual of Mineralogy is still in print in revised form – and the theory became known as Permanence theory.

This appeared to be confirmed by the exploration of the deep sea beds conducted by the Challenger expedition, 1872-6, which showed that contrary to expectation, land debris brought down by rivers to the ocean is deposited comparatively close to the shore on what is now known as the continental shelf. This suggested that the oceans were a permanent feature of the Earth’s surface, and did not change places with the continents.

Apart from the earlier speculations mentioned in the previous section, the idea that the American continents had once formed a single landmass together with Europe and Asia before assuming their present shapes and positions was speculated by several scientists before Alfred Wegener’s 1912 paper. Although Wegener’s theory was formed independently and was more complete than those of his predecessors, Wegener later credited a number of past authors with similar ideas: Franklin Coxworthy, Roberto Mantovani, William Henry Pickering and Frank Bursley Taylor. In addition, Eduard Suess had proposed a supercontinent Gondwana in 1885 and the Tethys Ocean in 1893, assuming a land-bridge between the present continents submerged in the form of a geosyncline, and John Perry had written an 1895 paper proposing that the earth’s interior was fluid, and disagreeing with Lord Kelvin on the age of the earth.

For example: the similarity of southern continent geological formations had led Roberto Mantovani to conjecture in 1889 and 1909 that all the continents had once been joined into a supercontinent; Wegener noted the similarity of Mantovani’s and his own maps of the former positions of the southern continents. In Mantovani’s conjecture, this continent broke due to volcanic activity caused by thermal expansion, and the new continents drifted away from each other because of further expansion of the rip-zones, where the oceans now lie. This led Mantovani to propose an Expanding Earth theory which has since been shown to be incorrect.

Continental drift without expansion was proposed by Frank Bursley Taylor, who suggested in 1908 that the continents were moved into their present positions by a process of “continental creep”. In a later paper he proposed that this occurred by their being dragged towards the equator by tidal forces during the hypothesized capture of the moon in the Cretaceous, resulting in “general crustal creep” toward the equator. Although his proposed mechanism was wrong, he was the first to realize the insight that one of the effects of continental motion would be the formation of mountains, and attributed the formation of the Himalayas to the collision between the Indian subcontinent with Asia. Wegener said that of all those theories, Taylor’s, although not fully developed, had the most similarities to his own. In the mid-20th century, the theory of continental drift was referred to as the “Taylor-Wegener hypothesis”, although this terminology eventually fell out of common use.

Alfred Wegener first presented his hypothesis to the German Geological Society on 6 January 1912. His hypothesis was that the continents had once formed a single landmass, called Pangaea, before breaking apart and drifting to their present locations.

Wegener was the first to use the phrase “continental drift” and formally publish the hypothesis that the continents had somehow “drifted” apart. Although he presented much evidence for continental drift, he was unable to provide a convincing explanation for the physical processes which might have caused this drift. His suggestion that the continents had been pulled apart by the centrifugal pseudoforce of the Earth’s rotation or by a small component of astronomical precession was rejected, as calculations showed that the force was not sufficient. The Polflucht hypothesis was also studied by Paul Sophus Epstein in 1920 and found to be implausible.

The theory of continental drift was not accepted for many years. One problem was that a plausible driving force was missing. A second problem was that Wegener’s estimate of the velocity of continental motion, 250 cm/year, was implausibly high. It also did not help that Wegener was not a geologist. Other geologists also believed that the evidence that Wegener had provided was not sufficient. It is now accepted that the plates carrying the continents do move across the Earth’s surface, although not as fast as Wegener believed; ironically one of the chief outstanding questions is the one Wegener failed to resolve: what is the nature of the forces propelling the plates?

The British geologist Arthur Holmes championed the theory of continental drift at a time when it was deeply unfashionable. He proposed in 1931 that the Earth’s mantle contained convection cells which dissipated radioactive heat and moved the crust at the surface. His Principles of Physical Geology, ending with a chapter on continental drift, was published in 1944.

Geological maps of the time showed huge land bridges spanning the Atlantic and Indian oceans to account for the similarities of fauna and flora and the divisions of the Asian continent in the Permian era but failing to account for glaciation in India, Australia and South Africa.

Geophysicist Jack Oliver is credited with providing seismologic evidence supporting plate tectonics which encompassed and superseded continental drift with the article “Seismology and the New Global Tectonics”, published in 1968, using data collected from seismologic stations, including those he set up in the South Pacific.

It is now known that there are two kinds of crust: continental crust and oceanic crust. Continental crust is inherently lighter and its composition is different from oceanic crust, but both kinds reside above a much deeper “plastic” mantle. Oceanic crust is created at spreading centers, and this, along with subduction, drives the system of plates in a chaotic manner, resulting in continuous orogeny and areas of isostatic imbalance. The theory of plate tectonics explains all this, including the movement of the continents, better than Wegener’s theory.

2 September 1912

Arthur Eldred is awarded the first Eagle Scout award of the Boy Scouts of America.

Arthur Rose Eldred August 16, 1895 – January 4, 1951 was an American agricultural and railroad industry executive, civic leader, and the first Eagle Scout in the Boy Scouts of America. As a 16-year-old candidate for the highest rank bestowed by the BSA, he was personally interviewed by a panel composed of the youth organization’s founding luminaries, including Ernest Thompson Seton and Daniel Carter Beard. Eldred was awarded the coveted distinction of Eagle Scout on September 2, 1912, becoming the first of more than two million boys in the U.S. since then to earn Scouting’s most vaunted rank. Eldred also received the Bronze Honor Medal for lifesaving, and was the first of four generations of Eagle Scouts in his family.

A graduate of Cornell University, Eldred enlisted at age 22 in the United States Navy in January 1918, nine months after the U.S. entry into World War I. After serving aboard various Navy vessels and seeing combat in that conflict, he then worked in the agriculture and produce transportation industries, serving as a railroad industry official. Eldred continued as an active Scout leader and school board member throughout much of his adult life.

Eldred was born in Brooklyn, New York, and raised in Oceanside, Long Island, New York by his mother after his father died. Eldred’s older brother, Hubert W. Eldred, was instrumental in starting Troop 1 of Oceanside, Long Island, New York in November 1910. Troop 1 was fully uniformed and their appearance so impressed Chief Scout Executive James E. West that he asked the troop to serve as honor guard for the visit of Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting. West paid the expenses for the troop to travel to New York harbor for Baden-Powell’s arrival in the morning of January 31, 1912. Baden-Powell inspected Troop 1, and spoke with Eldred at some length. It is uncertain how Baden-Powell found out that Eldred’s Board of Review was that afternoon, but he ended up attending it and being part of the Board of Review.

In March 1911, Eldred earned First Class rank. He subsequently completed the 21 merit badges required for Eagle Scout. Merit badges are awards for mastering skills taught in the Scouting program. At the time, only 141 merit badges had then been earned by about 50 Scouts. As originally implemented, Eagle Scout was part of the merit badge system and was not a rank. Thus Eldred, like several of the early Eagles, did not earn the Life or Star awards that later preceded Eagle Scout. Eldred’s merit badges were noted in the Honor Roll of the August 1912 edition of Boys’ Life.

Eldred did not have a troop board of review, a review by the adult troop leaders to ensure eligibility. Instead, Eldred had a thorough National Board of Review consisting of West, Baden-Powell, Ernest Thompson Seton, Daniel Carter Beard, Arthur R. Forbush, and Wilbert E. Longfellow, who wrote in the Handbook for Boys on life-saving and swimming. At the time there had still not been a council-level system for Eagle Scouts boards of review. Largely due to delays caused by Baden-Powell’s visit, the National Court of Honor did not convene until March 29, 1912. A press announcement was released on or about April 10, 1912, leading to a century of confusion wherein it was believed Eldred’s Board of Review had been held in April. West informed Eldred of his Eagle award in a letter dated August 21, 1912. Another reason for the delays was that the Boy Scouts of America felt no one would ever earn the Eagle Scout award and at the time of Eldred’s Board of Review, the Eagle Scout medal had not yet been designed. This letter also informed Eldred of the delay in the medal, caused by the fact that the design of the Eagle Scout medal had not been finalized. Eldred was presented Eagle Scout on Labor Day, September 2, 1912, becoming the first to earn Scouting’s highest rank, just two years after the founding of the BSA itself.

In August 1912, Eldred was camping with the troop in Orange Lake, New York. While swimming in the lake, fifteen-year-old Melvin Daly, another Scout who was a non-swimmer, began to drown. Eldred rescued Daly with the assistance of Merritt Cutler. Chief Scout Seton presented Eldred with the Honor Medal for this action.

Eldred entered Cornell University in 1912 and graduated in 1916 having studied agriculture. At the university, Eldred was a member of the Alpha Zeta fraternity, president of the Agricultural Association and participated in track and cross-country.

Eldred enlisted in the United States Navy in January 1918, during World War I. He was initially assigned to the Philadelphia Naval Yard before shipping out on the transport USS Henderson on Sunday, June 30, 1918 from Bush Terminal in Brooklyn, New York for overseas duty. On July 1, 1918 his convoy spotted two enemy submarines and attacked them with depth charges. It is not known whether the submarines were damaged. During the Henderson’s seventh troop transport voyage to France there was a fire on board on July 2, 1918, that resulted in the ship returning to the United States. All but one or two of those on board were rescued by the destroyers USS Mayrant and USS Paul Jones and eventually taken aboard the USS Von Steuben ID-3017, which continued to Brest, France, where Eldred’s knowledge of French proved useful. From there, he was sent by train to Italy.

Eldred arrived in Italy in July 1918 and eventually at Sub Chaser Base 25, located in Corfu, Greece in September 1918. There he served as a machinist aboard submarine chaser SC-244, where they patrolled the Strait of Otranto and were engaged in combat. While in Corfu, Eldred and many others got sick with the flu during the 1918 flu pandemic. The conditions at the hospital were so bad that he had to crawl to a stream to get water, which resulted in a permanent scar on his left hip. Eldred began his return to the United States and arrived in Malta on December 25, 1918. By February 1919, he was in Gibraltar. He was given the option of staying in the Navy until they arrived home in six months or being discharged and paying his own way home. He elected the discharge and was separated from the Navy on March 4, 1919. He met some U.S. Army soldiers who were en route to America aboard an Army troop ship. They took him aboard as a stowaway and loaned him an Army uniform. Eldred slept in a life boat on the way back to America.

After the war, Eldred worked for a dairy, then became the agricultural agent for Atlantic County, New Jersey in 1921 and established the Atlantic City municipal market. He later promoted produce transportation for the Reading Railroad. As the trucking industry became a major competitor for the carriage of agricultural products, Eldred became the manager of the Eastern Railroad Association’s Motor Carrier Committee. He also served on the Camden County Council, the Clementon School District Board of Education, and also served as Overbrook Regional school board president.

Eldred was a board of review examiner throughout the 1920s. He was later the troop committee chairman for Troop 77 in Clementon, New Jersey. Eldred’s descendants have followed in his footsteps. Eldred was present when his eldest son, Willard “Bill” G. Eldred, had his Eagle Scout ceremony on October 27, 1944. Eldred also had a younger son, Arthur, and one daughter, Patricia. Two of Eldred’s grandsons are also Eagle Scouts: James I. Hudson III 1968 and Willard “Bill” Eldred 1977. Four of his great-grandsons, Kyle Kern, Tyler Eldred, Tennessee Abbott, and Bobby Hitte, were Scouts as of March 2007, working towards Eagle Scout. Tyler Eldred and Kyle Kern did not make Eagle Scout and were no longer in Scouting as youths by July 2009. Tennessee Abbott had his Eagle Scout ceremony on May 2, 2010. Bobby Hitte became an Eagle Scout in 2012, 100 years after Arthur and another Eldred descendant, Jack Eldred, had joined Scouting.

Eldred died at the age of 55 from colon cancer on January 4, 1951 at his home in Clementon. He is buried in Berlin Cemetery, Berlin, New Jersey. The National Eagle Scout Association chapter of the BSA’s Theodore Roosevelt Council in Massapequa, New York is named in honor of Eldred. In October 1976 the Village of Rockville Centre, New York honored Arthur Eldred by dedicating Eagle Scout Park in the village in his memory. The ceremony was attended by his widow, son Bill and grandsons.

8 May 1912

Paramount Pictures is founded.

Paramount Pictures Corporation also known simply as Paramount is an American film studio based in Hollywood, California, that has been a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world, the second oldest in the United States, and the sole member of the “Big Six” film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood.

In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. These fortunate few would become the first “movie stars.” In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only. The company’s headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, Hollywood, California, United States.

Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company, and Universal Studios. It is the last major film studio still headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles.

Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company. Hungarian-born founder Adolph Zukor, who had been an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed mainly to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the middle class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time leading to the slogan “Famous Players in Famous Plays”. By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, and Zukor was on his way to success. Its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth, which starred Sarah Bernhardt.

That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish, later known as Samuel Goldwyn. The Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with virtually no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a suitable site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film, The Squaw Man.

Paramount Pictures’ first logo, based on a design by its founder William Wadsworth Hodkinson, used from 1917 to 1967. Starting in 1914, both Lasky and Famous Players released their films through a start-up company, Paramount Pictures Corporation, organized early that year by a Utah theatre owner, W. W. Hodkinson, who had bought and merged several smaller firms. Hodkinson and actor, director, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies. Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor; until this time, films were sold on a statewide or regional basis which had proved costly to film producers. Also, Famous Players and Lasky were privately owned while Paramount was a corporation.

23 January 1912

The International Opium Convention is signed at The Hague.

On 23 January 1912, the International Opium Convention was signed in the Hague by representatives from China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Persia (Iran), Portugal, Russia, Siam (Thailand), the UK and the British oversees territories (including British India). Three years later, it entered into force in five countries. The Convention gained, however, near-universal adherence after 1919 when all the countries signing the Peace Treaties of Versailles, St. Germain-en-Laye etc. also became party to the International Opium Convention. Thus by the mid 1920s close to 60 countries had – de jure – signed and ratified the Hague treaty and this number increased to 67 by 1949.

The International Opium convention consisted of six chapters and 25 articles. In addition to opium and morphine, which were already under extensive international discussion, the Hague Convention also included two new substances that had become problematic: cocaine and heroin.

Cocaine was first isolated by the German chemist Albert Niemann in 1860, and rapidly gained popularity for both medical and recreational use. Heroin was a relatively new drug at the time of the Hague Convention, as it had only become available as a pharmaceutical product in 1898. Ironically, it was originally marketed as a non-addictive alternative to morphine, which was proving problematic in many areas.

The 1912 Convention was far from perfect, but it contained many elements of a comprehensive drug control treaty. Moreover, as an official declaration on the dangerous practices of opium smoking and the non-medical trade in opium and other drugs, it had value as an advocacy tool. It also inspired national drug control legislation, such as the 1913 Harrison Act in the United States, the foundation of U.S. drug law in the 20th century.

8 May 1912

Paramount Pictures is established.

Paramount Pictures Corp. was established in 1914 by W.W. Hodkinson as a film distributor, offering Adolph Zukor’s Famous Players Film Company, the Jesse L. Lasky Feature Play Company, and other producers an outlet for their movies. In 1916 Zukor and Lasky merged their companies to form the Famous Players–Lasky Corporation and acquired Paramount to distribute their films. The new company, which continued to use the name Paramount as well, quickly rose to prominence by featuring such popular stars as Mary Pickford, Fatty Arbuckle, Gloria Swanson, Clara Bow, and Rudolph Valentino. Its early hits included the first “big western,” The Covered Wagon (1923), and The Ten Commandments (1923), a biblical epic directed by Cecil B. DeMille.

In the late 1920s and ’30s the studio added to its roster such stars as Claudette Colbert, Carole Lombard, Marlene Dietrich, Mae West, Gary Cooper, Maurice Chevalier, W.C. Fields, and Bing Crosby and such directors as Ernst Lubitsch, Josef von Sternberg, and Rouben Mamoulian. Although it continued to produce films that were artistically and financially successful, it suffered losses from its chain of theatres during the transition to sound, and Paramount was declared bankrupt in 1933. It was reorganized two years later as Paramount Pictures, Inc., and was soon profitable again. However, it suffered a setback in 1948 when the Supreme Court ruled that seven movie studios, including Paramount, were in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act by controlling both movie distribution and exhibition. As a result, the studios were forced to sell their theatres. No longer able to dictate where and when films would be played, Paramount and other studios began to make fewer—though more expensive—movies.

28 November 1912

Albania declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire.

a06-twih-100y-300

On November 28, 1912 Albanian nationalist leader Ismail Qemal, an Ottoman civil servant who rose to the position of President of the Ottoman National Assembly in Istanbul in 1909, returned to Albania with Austro-Hungarian support and at the head of a swiftly convened national assembly declared Albanian independence in the town of Vlora. The chairman, Ismail Kemal Bey, stated that although they had always been faithful to the Ottoman Empire, the Albanians had never forgotten their own language and nationality. The declaration, in Albanian and Turkish read:

“In Vlora, on the 15th/28th of November. Following the speech made by the President, Ismail Kemal Bey, in which he spoke of the great perils facing Albania today, the delegates have all decided unanimously that Albania, as of today, should be on her own, free and independent.”

This signaled the end of almost 500 years of Ottoman rule in Albania. The leaders raised the flag on the balcony of the two-story building in Vlora where the Declaration of Independence had just been signed.