14 October 1805

France defeats Austria in the Battle of Elchingen.

The Battle of Elchingen, fought on 14 October 1805, saw French forces under Michel Ney rout an Austrian corps led by Johann Sigismund Riesch. This defeat led to a large part of the Austrian army being invested in the fortress of Ulm by the army of Emperor Napoleon I of France while other formations fled to the east. Soon afterward, the Austrians trapped in Ulm surrendered and the French mopped up most of the remaining Austrians forces, bringing the Ulm Campaign to a close.

In late September and early October 1805, Napoleon carried out a gigantic envelopment of the Austrian army in Bavaria led by Karl Mack von Lieberich. While the Austrian army lay near Ulm, south of the Danube River, the French army marched west on the north side of the river. Then Napoleon’s troops crossed the river east of Ulm, cutting the Austrian retreat route to Vienna. Finally waking up to his danger, Mack tried to break out on the north side of the river, but a lone French division blocked his first attempt.

Realizing that his enemies might escape the trap, Napoleon ordered Ney to cross to the north bank of the river. Ney’s larger corps attacked Riesch’s corps at Elchingen on the north bank. The French captured the heights and drove the Austrian soldiers west toward Ulm, forcing many of them to surrender. While a body of Austrians remained at large on the north bank, the near destruction of Riesch’s command meant that the bulk of Mack’s army was hopelessly surrounded in Ulm.

26 December 1805

Austria and France sign the Treaty of Pressburg.

The fourth Peace of Pressburg  was signed on 26 December 1805 between Napoleon and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II as a consequence of the French victories over the Austrians at Ulm  and Austerlitz. A truce was agreed on 4 December, and negotiations for the treaty began. The treaty was signed in Pressburg, at that time in Hungary, by Johann I Josef, Prince of Liechtenstein, and the Hungarian Count Ignaz Gyulai for Austria and Charles Maurice de Talleyrand for France.

Beyond the clauses establishing “peace and amity” and the Austrian withdrawal from the Third Coalition, the treaty also mandated substantial European territorial concessions from Austria. The gains of the previous treaties of Campo Formio and Lunéville were reiterated and Austrian holdings in Italy and Bavaria were ceded to France. Certain Austrian holdings in Germany were passed to French allies: the King of Bavaria, the King of Württemberg, and the Elector of Baden. Austrian claims on those German states were renounced without exception. The most notable territorial exchanges concerned the Tyrol and Vorarlberg, which went to Bavaria, and Venetia, Istria, and Dalmatia, which were incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy, of which Napoleon had become king earlier that year. Augsburg, previously an independent Free Imperial City, was ceded to Bavaria. As a minor compensation, Austria received the Electorate of Salzburg.

The Primate’s Palace, where the Peace of Pressburg was signed
Emperor Francis II also recognized the kingly titles assumed by the Electors of Bavaria and Württemberg, which foreshadowed the end of the Holy Roman Empire. Within months of the signing of the treaty and after a new entity, the Confederation of the Rhine, had been created by Napoleon, Francis II renounced his title as Holy Roman Emperor and became Emperor Francis I of Austria. An indemnity of 40 million francs to France was also provided for in the treaty.

17 May 1805

Muhammad Ali becomes W?li of Egypt.

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Muhammad Ali was an Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, he
joined the forces that were sent to Egypt in 1801 to expel the French forces led by Napoléon Bonaparte that occupied Egypt in 1798. Ali exploited the anarchy resulting from
the power vacuum in Egypt after the French withdrawal to strengthen his troops and gain the trust and support of the public. In 1805, Muhammad Ali was placed as a ruler of Egypt by the Egyptian public chiefs and religious sheikhs.

Shortly after he seized the power, Muhammad Ali started his ambitious plan to modernize
Egypt in all fields. A question may arise regarding the intentions of Muhammad Ali, that is, why he, an Albanian, was interested in building a modern country in Egypt? The answer is simply that in his original country, Ali’s furthermost ambition was to be a military leader or even a minister. But in Egypt, he found it a golden chance for him to seize the power for himself and his successors and be the ruler of a big and rich country like Egypt. This motivation is important and will be a significant factor in the comparison between the Egyptian case and the Japanese one.