9 October 1804

Hobart, capital of Tasmania, is founded.

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Hobart is the capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. With a population of approximately 225,000, it is the second least populated Australian capital city. Founded in 1804 as a penal colony, Hobart is Australia’s second oldest capital city after Sydney, New South Wales. The modern history of Hobart dates to its foundation as a British colony in 1804. Prior to British settlement, the area had been occupied for possibly as long as 35,000 years, by the semi-nomadic Mouheneener tribe, a sub-group of the Nuennone, or South-East tribe.The descendants of the indigenous Tasmanians now refer to themselves as ‘Palawa’.

Since its foundation as a colonial outpost, the city has grown from the mouth of Sullivans Cove to stretch in a generally north-south direction along both banks of the Derwent River, from 22 km inland from the estuary at Storm Bay to the point where the river reverts to fresh water at Bridgewater.

Hobart has experienced both booms and busts over its history. The early 20th century saw a period of growth on the back of mining, agriculture and other primary industries, and the loss of men who served in world wars was counteracted by an influx of immigration after World War II.In the later years of the 20th century, migrants increasingly arrived to settle in Hobart from Asia. Despite the rise in migration from parts of the world other than the United Kingdom and Ireland, the population of Hobart remains predominantly ethnically Anglo-Celtic and has the highest percentage per capita of Australian-born residents among the Australian capital cities.

11 August 1804

Francis II becomes the first Emperor of Austria.

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Francis II, the last Holy Roman emperor of Austria. He supported the conservative political system of Metternich in Germany and Europe after the Congress of Vienna.

Son of the future emperor Leopold II and Maria Luisa of Spain, Francis received his political education from his uncle, Emperor Joseph II, who disliked his nephew’s unimaginative outlook and stubbornness but praised his application and sense of duty and justice. Ascending to the throne on the death of his father in 1792, Francis inherited the problems raised by the French Revolution.

An absolutist who hated constitutionalism in any form, he supported Austria’s first coalition war against France, sometimes taking the field himself, until forced to accept the Treaty of Campo Formio, by which the empire lost Lombardy and the left bank of the Rhine. Again defeated by France, he elevated Austria to the status of an empire soon after Napoleon had made himself emperor of the French. After Austria took the field against Napoleon for the third time in 1805 and was again defeated, Napoleon dictated the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire; Francis abdicated his title in 1806.

Thus, the ancien régime that had come to an end in France in 1789 ended in Germany also. The year 1809 saw Austria’s fourth unsuccessful war against Napoleon, during which Francis, always distrustful of revolutionary or even popular movements, abandoned pro-Habsburg Tirolese rebels to France and Bavaria.

15 February 1804

The Serbian Revolution starts.

The First Serbian Uprising was an uprising of Serbs in the Sanjak of Smederevo against the Ottoman Empire from 14 February 1804 to 7 October 1813. Initially a local revolt against renegade janissaries who had seized power through a coup, it evolved into a war for independence (the Serbian Revolution) after more than three centuries of Ottoman rule and short-lasting Austrian occupations.

The janissary commanders murdered the Ottoman Vizier in 1801 and occupied the sanjak, ruling it independently from the Sultan. Tyranny ensued; the janissaries suspended the rights granted to Serbs by the Sultan earlier, and increased taxes, and imposed forced labor, among other things. In 1804 the janissaries feared that the Sultan would use the Serbs against them, so they murdered many Serbian chiefs. Enraged, an assembly chose Kara?or?e as leader of the uprising, and the rebel army quickly defeated and took over towns throughout the sanjak, technically fighting for the Sultan. The Sultan, fearing their power, ordered all pashaliks in the region to crush them. The Serbs marched against the Ottomans and, after major victories in 1805–06, established a government and parliament that returned the land to the people, abolished forced labor and reduced taxes.

Military success continued over the years; however, there was dissent between Kara?or?e and other leaders—Kara?or?e wanted absolute power while his dukes, some of whom abused their privileges for personal gain, wanted to limit it. After the Russo-Turkish War ended and Russian support ceased, the Ottoman Empire exploited these circumstances and reconquered Serbia in 1813.Although the uprising was crushed, it was continued by the Second Serbian Uprising in 1815, which resulted in the creation of the Principality of Serbia, as it gained semi-independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1817.

Background