30 August 1574

Guru Ram Das becomes the Fourth Sikh Guru/Master.

As a Guru, one of his main contributions to Sikhism was organizing the structure of Sikh society. Additionally, he was the author of Laava, the four hymns of the Sikh marriage Rites. He was planner and creator of the township of Ramdaspur which became the Sikh holy city of Amritsar. He founded it in 1574 on land he bought for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. Earlier Guru Ram Das had begun building Santokhsar Sarovar, near the village of Sultanwind in 1564 according to one source in 1570. It could not be completed before 1588. In 1574, Guru Ram Das built his residence and moved to the new place. At that time, it was known as Guru Da Chakk. Later, it came to be known as Chakk Ram Das. In Amritsar, he designed the gurdwara Harmandir Sahib, which translates as “The Abode of God” also known as the Golden Temple.

A hymn by Guru Ram Das can be found from page 305 of the Sikh holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib:

“ One who calls himself a Sikh of the True Guru shall get up early morning and meditate on the Lord’s Name. Make effort regularly to cleanse, bathe and dip in the ambrosial pool. Upon Guru’s instructions, chant Har, Har singing which, all misdeeds, sins and pains shall go away. ”
—Bani of Guru Ram Das

There are 688 Hymns of Guru Ram Das included in the Guru Granth Sahib which have various teachings for Sikhs. Guru Sahib’s Bani is also part of Rehras Sahib and Kirtan Sohila, the daily prayers of Sikhs. Page 305 of the Guru Granth Guru Sahib decries the morning activity of one who calls himself a Sikh of the True Guru:

One who calls himself a Sikh of the True Guru shall get up early morning and meditate on the Lord’s Name. Bathe daily in the ambrosial pool and following the Guru’s instructions, chant Har, Har. All sins, misdeeds and negativity shall be erased.
—Guru Sahib on Sadhu People and Pilgrimage Bath

Anand Karaj
The standard Sikh marriage ceremony known as the Anand Karaj is centered around a four-stanza hymn composed by Guru Ram Das ji. During the marriage ceremony the couple circumscribe the Guru Granth Sahib ji as each stanza of the Lawan is read. The first round is the Divine consent for commencing the householders life through marriage. The second round states that the union of the couple has been brought about by God. In the third round the couple is described as the most fortunate as they have sung the praises of the Lord in the company of saints. In the fourth round the feeling of the couple that they have obtained their hearts’ desire and are being congratulated is described.

Guru Ram Das Sahib composed a beautiful bani called Laavan about the meaning of marriage to a Sikh couple. Effectively, the Guru defines a Sikh marriage as a spiritual union in these two lines: “They are not said to be husband and wife who merely sit together. Rather they alone are called husband and wife, who have one soul in two bodies.”

Jyoti Jot
Guru Ram Das died on 1 September 1581, in the city of Amritsar, Punjab. Guru Ram Das Ji is still present in the form of “Shabad” holy words written in Guru Granth Sahib ji.

30 May 1574

Henry III becomes King of France.

Henry III, also called Henry of Valois, king of France from 1574, under whose reign the prolonged crisis of the Wars of Religion was made worse by dynastic rivalries arising because the male line of the Valois dynasty was going to die out with him.

The third son of Henry II and Catherine de Médicis, Henry was at first entitled duc d’Anjou. Given command of the royal army against the Huguenots during the reign of his brother, Charles IX, he defeated two Huguenot leaders, the prince de Condé at Jarnac in March 1569 and Gaspard de Coligny at Moncontour in October of that year. Henry was Catherine’s favourite son, much to Charles’s chagrin, and she used her influence to advance his fortunes. In 1572 she presented him as a candidate for the vacant throne of Poland, to which he was finally elected in May 1573. In May 1574, however, Charles died, and Henry abandoned Poland and was crowned at Reims on Feb. 13, 1575. He was married two days later to Louise de Vaudémont, a princess of the house of Lorraine. The marriage proved childless.

The French Wars of Religion continued during Henry III’s reign. In May 1576 he agreed to the Peace of Monsieur, named after the style of his brother François, duc d’Alençon, but his concession to the Huguenots in the Edict of Beaulieu angered the Roman Catholics, who formed the Holy League to protect their own interests. Henry resumed the war against the Huguenots, but the Estates-General, meeting at Blois in 1576, was weary of Henry’s extravagance and refused to grant him the necessary subsidies. The Peace of Bergerac ended the hostilities temporarily; the Huguenots lost some of their liberties by the Edict of Poitiers, and the Holy League was dissolved. In 1584, however, the Roman Catholics were alarmed when the Huguenot leader, Henry of Navarre, became heir to the throne on the death of Henry III’s brother François, and the League was revived under the leadership of Henri, 3e duc de Guise.