South Africa is banned from the Olympic Games due to the country’s racist policies.
Isaac Singer is granted a patent for his sewing machine.
Portrait of Singer by Edward Harrison May, 1869
|Born||October 27, 1811|
Pittstown, New York, U.S.
|Died||July 23, 1875 (aged 63)|
|Net worth||USD $13 million at the time of his death (approximately 1/709th of US GNP)|
Catherine Maria Haley
(m. 1830; div. 1860)
|Partner(s)||Mary Ann Sponsler|
|Institutions||Singer Sewing Machine Company|
|Significant advance||Sewing machine|
Isaac Merritt Singer (October 27, 1811 – July 23, 1875) was an American inventor, actor, and businessman. He made important improvements in the design of the sewing machine and was the founder of what became one of the first American multi-national businesses, the Singer Sewing Machine Company.
Many others, including Walter Hunt and Elias Howe, had patented sewing machines before Singer, but his success was based on the practicality of his machine, the ease with which it could be adapted to home use and its availability on an installments payment basis.
Singer died in 1875, a millionaire dividing his $13 million fortune unequally among 20 of his children by his wives and various mistresses, although one son, who had supported his mother in her divorce case against Singer, received only $500.
Isaac Merritt Singer was born on October 27, 1811 in Schaghticoke, New York. He was one of six children born to Adam Singer (1772–1855) and his wife Ruth (née Benson) Singer. His siblings were John Valentine Singer, Alexander Singer, Elizabeth (née Singer) Colby, Christiana (née Singer) Cleveland, and Elijah Singer. In 1821, his parents divorced and Isaac was effectively abandoned by his mother. At the age of twelve, he ran away from home to join a traveling stage act, called the Rochester Players, after finding bits of work as a joiner and lathe operator.
In 1839, Singer obtained his first patent, for a machine to drill rock, selling it for $2,000 (or over $50,000 in 2018 dollars) to the I & M Canal Building Company. With this financial success, he opted to return to his career as an actor. He went on tour, forming a troupe known as the "Merritt Players", appearing onstage under the name "Isaac Merritt", with Mary Ann Sponsler (one of his mistresses) also appearing onstage, calling herself "Mrs. Merritt". The tour lasted about five years.
He developed and patented a "machine for carving wood and metal" on April 10, 1849.
At 38, with Mary Ann and eight children, he packed up his family and moved back to New York City, hoping to market his wood-block cutting machine there. He obtained an advance to build a working prototype, and constructed one in the shop of A. B. Taylor & Co. Here he met , who became Singer's financier and partner. However, not long after the machine was built, the steam boiler blew up at the shop, destroying the prototype. Zieber persuaded Singer to make a new start in Boston, a center of the printing trade. Singer went to Boston in 1850 to display his invention at the machine shop of Orson C. Phelps. Orders for Singer's wood cutting machine were not, however, forthcoming.
Lerow & Blodgett sewing machines were being constructed and repaired in Phelps' shop. Phelps asked Singer to look at the sewing machines, which were difficult to use and produce. Singer concluded that the sewing machine would be more reliable if the shuttle moved in a straight line rather than a circle, with a straight rather than a curved needle. Singer was able to obtain US Patent number 8294 for his improvements on August 12, 1851.
I. M. Singer & Co
In 1856, manufacturers Grover & Baker, Singer, Wheeler & Wilson, all accusing each other of patent infringement, met in Albany, New York to pursue their suits. Orlando B. Potter, a lawyer and president of the Grover and Baker Company, proposed that, rather than squander their profits on litigation, they pool their patents. This was the first patent pool, a process which enables the production of complicated machines without legal battles over patent rights. They agreed to form the Sewing Machine Combination, but for this to be of any use, they had to secure the cooperation of Elias Howe, who still held certain vital uncontested patents. Terms were arranged; Howe received a royalty on every sewing machine manufactured.
Sewing machines began to be mass-produced. I. M. Singer & Co manufactured 2,564 machines in 1856, and 13,000 in 1860 at a new plant on Mott Street in New York. Later, a massive plant was built near Elizabeth, New Jersey.
Up to then, sewing machines had been industrial machines, made for garments, shoes, bridles and for tailors, but in 1856, smaller machines began to be marketed for home use. However, at the then enormous price of over $100 ($2,846 in 2019 dollars), few sold. Singer invested heavily in mass production utilizing the concept of interchangeable parts developed by Samuel Colt and Eli Whitney for their firearms. He was able to cut the price in half, while at the same time increasing his profit margin by 530%. Singer was the first who put a family machine, "the turtle back", on the market. Eventually, the price came down to $10 ($285 in 2019 dollars). According to PBS, "His partner, Edward Cabot Clark, pioneered installment purchasing plans and accepted trade-ins, causing sales to soar."
Women were able to make items at home for their families or for sale and charitable groups began to support poorer women to find useful skills and respectable employment in sewing, such as (1875), , and associated magazines, pattern books and group classes began for the better off women who also wanted to have some form of useful, economic activity, which a sewing machine at home now offered.
I. M. Singer expanded into the European market, establishing a factory in Clydebank, near Glasgow, controlled by the parent company, becoming one of the first American-based multinational corporations, with agencies in Paris and Rio de Janeiro.
Even as early as 1880, Singer machines compared favourably with their nearest competitors: information articles becoming marketing tools.
Later as The Singer Manufacturing Company and its competitors expanded, due to its affordability (or purchase plan terms) by the 1940s there were 24,000 sewing classes a year running in the UK alone, and the 1944 Education Act made practical dressmaking a compulsory subject for girls in all state schools. By the 1950s, there were and advertising campaigns to encourage girls to make their own fashions to attract boys' interest.
Final years in Europe
In 1863, I. M. Singer & Co. was dissolved by mutual consent with Edward Cabot Clark seeing Singer's reputation as a risk to growth; but the business continued with Singer owning 40% of shares and still on the Board, as "The Singer Manufacturing Company," in 1887.
In 1871, Singer purchased an estate and settled with Isabella in Paignton, Devon, England. He commissioned the 110-roomed Oldway Mansion as his private residence, with a hall of mirrors, maze and grotto garden; it was rebuilt by Paris Singer, his third son from Isabella, in the style of the Palace of Versailles. And the area became known locally as 'Singerton'. It has been named by the Victorian Society as a heritage building at risk of disrepair.
Consequence on garment industry
Singer's prototype sewing machine became the first to work in a practical way. It could sew 900 stitches per minute, far better than the 40 of an accomplished seamstress on simple work. This started the industrialisation of garment and textile manufacturing, as a shirt took an hour to make compared to fifteen hours previously, but these still needed finishing by hand, and the finishers worked alone on piecework terms at home, but mass over-production by factories' machines, led to pressure on wages and to unemployment. In Scotland in 1861 there were 62,000 female dressmakers, thirty years later the USA had 300,000 mainly single women.
In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City killed 140 people, 62 jumping to their deaths from upper floors, as doors were locked to keep out inspectors and union leaders. This led to safer working practices although sweatshops continued. Women workers sewing car seat covers in Ford Motor Company Limited's Dagenham plant in the UK were getting 15% less pay than men doing the same job in 1968. A three-week strike helped win their case, and the Equal Pay Act was passed in 1970. But in 2013, the East Midlands area in the UK still had 11,000 textile workers paid below the national minimum wage.
Textile and garment sewing is now a global industry, and sweatshop factories often employ the poorest women, children and migrants, with few labour rights. A number of non-governmental organisations are attempting to end worker exploitation in clothing industry globally, such as Clean Clothes Campaign, Global Exchange, No Sweat, , Fairtrade. Fair Wear Foundation especially raised public awareness of the exploration of sewing workers—both after the 2012 garment factory disaster in Dhaka, Bangladesh, resulted in 117 dead and 200 injured from at least 1,600 people working in a nine-storey factory on sewing machines (unable to escape the fire in similar sweatshop circumstances to those in New York a century earlier) and again after 24 April 2013, as more were killed at Dhaka's Rana Plaza, another multi-storey factory which housed multiple clothing manufacturing companies along with a bank and apartments, collapsed killing over 1,100 workers and injuring 2,000 more. In November 2013, the Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh, the Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety and the National Tripartite Action Plan, agreed to work for new workplace safety standards for clothing manufacturing factories..
In 1830, at nineteen he married fifteen-year-old Catherine Maria Haley (1815–1884). The couple had two children before he left her to join the Baltimore Strolling Players. In 1860, Singer divorced Catherine on the basis of her adultery with Stephen Kent. Their son William spoke up for his mother in the divorce case and was snubbed by Singer, including in his will where William was received just $500 of Singer's $13,000,000 fortune. Their two children were:
- William Adam Singer (1834–1914), who in 1872 married Sarah Augusta Webb (1851–1909), a twin sister of William Seward Webb (who married Eliza Osgood Vanderbilt).
- Lillian C. Singer (1837–1912), who married Harry Hodson.
In 1836, while still married to Catherine, Singer began a 25-year affair with Mary Ann Sponsler (1817–1896). Together, Mary Ann and Isaac had ten children, two of whom died at birth, including:
- Isaac Augustus Singer (1837–1902), who married Sarah Jane Clarke.
- Vouletti Theresa Singer Proctor (1840–1913), who married William Fash Proctor.
- John Albert Singer (1842–1911), who married Jennie C. Belinski.
- Fanny Elizabeth Singer (1844–1909), who married William S. Archer.
- Jasper Hamlet Singer (1846–1922), who married Jane Collier Cook.
- Mary Olivia Singer (1848–1900), who married Sturges Selleck Whitlock, a Connecticut state senator.
- Julia Ann Singer (1855–1923), who married Martin J. Herz.
- Caroline Virginia Singer (1857–1896), who married Augustus C. Foster.
Financial success allowed Singer to buy a mansion on Fifth Avenue, into which he moved his second family. He and Mary Ann had abandoned their joint acting company, the Merritt Players, as his inventions were more successful. He continued to live with Mary Ann, until she spotted him driving down Fifth Avenue seated beside Mary McGonigal, an employee, about whom Mary Ann already had suspicions. Reportedly, Singer also had an affair with McGonigal's sister, Kate McGonigal. Together, Mary McGonigal and Isaac were the parents of seven children (who used the surname Matthews), two of whom died at birth, including:
- Ruth Mary Matthews (b. 1852)
- Clara Matthews (1854–1933), who married Col. Hugh Stafford in 1880.
- Margaret Matthews (1858–1939), who married Granville Henry Jackson Alexander, Esq., the High Sheriff of Armagh.
- Charles Alexander Matthews (1859–1883), who married Minnie Mathews.
- Florence Adelaide Matthews (c. 1859–1932), who married Harry Ruthven Pratt.
And Mary Ann, still calling herself Mrs. I. M. Singer, had her husband arrested for bigamy. Singer was let out on bond and, disgraced, fled to London in 1862, taking Mary McGonigal with him. In the aftermath, another of Isaac's families was discovered: he had a "wife", Mary Eastwood Walters, a machine demonstrator, and had had a daughter in Lower Manhattan:
- Alice Eastwood (née Walters) Merritt (1852–1890), who adopted the surname Merritt and married twice, including to W. A. P. LaGrove at age eighteen in a marriage arranged by Singer.
By 1860, Isaac had fathered and acknowledged eighteen children, sixteen of them still then living, by four women. In 1861, his longstanding mistress Mary Ann took him to court for abusing her and daughter Violette. With Isaac in London, Mary Ann began setting about securing a financial claim to his assets by filing documents detailing his infidelities, and claiming that, though she had never been formally married to Isaac, they were wed under common law by living together for seven months after Isaac had been divorced from his first wife, Catherine. Eventually, a settlement was made, but no divorce was granted. However, she asserted that she was free to marry, and indeed she married John E. Foster.
Isaac, meanwhile, had renewed acquaintance with Isabella Eugenie Boyer, a nineteen year old Frenchwoman, said to be the model for the Statue of Liberty, whom he had lived with in Paris when he was staying there in 1860. She left her husband and married Isaac, who was by now fifty, under the name of Isabella Eugenie Sommerville on June 13, 1863, while she was pregnant. Together, they had six children:
- Sir Adam Mortimer Singer (1863–1929)
- Winnaretta Eugenie Singer (1865–1943), a patron of 20th-century music who married Prince Louis de Scey-Montbéliard in 1887. They divorced in 1892 and she married Prince Edmond de Polignac.
- Washington Merritt Grant Singer (1866–1934), who married Blanche Emmeline Hale and Ellen Mary Allen.
- Paris Eugene Singer (1867–1932), who married Cecilia Henrietta Augusta "Lillie" Graham (1867–1951). Paris was a close friend of the Palm Beach architect Addison Mizner.
- Isabelle-Blanche Singer (1869–1896), who married the French aristocrat Jean, Duc Decazes et de Glücksbierg in 1888.
- Franklin Merritt Morse Singer (1870–1939), who married Emilie Maigret.
Isaac Singer died in 1875, shortly after the wedding of his daughter by Mary Eastwood Walters, Alice, whose dress had cost as much as a London apartment. His funeral was an elaborate affair with eighty horse-drawn carriages, and around 2000 mourners, to see him buried locally in Torquay, at his request in three layers of coffin (cedar lined with satin, lead, English oak with silver decoration) and a marble tomb.
Among his grandchildren were Daisy Fellowes, Mortimer Merritt Singer (1870–1960), Herbert Monrose Singer (1888–1941), Cecil Mortimer Singer (1889–1954), Paris Graham Singer, and Georges Farquar Singer (1892–1955). In addition, Isaac Singer was also the uncle of the Confederate naval engineer E. C. Singer, who is best known for inventing an early spar torpedo during the Civil War.
Legacy and honors
- The World War II Liberty Ship SS Isaac M. Singer was named in his honor.
- Singer Island, Florida was named for his son Paris Singer
- Klepper, Michael; Gunther, Michael (1996), The Wealthy 100: From Benjamin Franklin to Bill Gates—A Ranking of the Richest Americans, Past and Present, Secaucus, New Jersey: Carol Publishing Group, p. xiii, ISBN 978-0-8065-1800-8, OCLC 33818143
- Hunter, Clare (2019). Threads of life : a history of the world through the eye of a needle. London: Sceptre (Hodder & Stoughton). pp. 256 – 266 269 –271. ISBN 9781473687912. OCLC 1079199690.
- Forsdyke, Graham. "History of the Sewing Machine". International Sewing Machine Collectors Society. Retrieved 2019-06-30.
- История создания корпорации "Зингер". Биография Исаака Меррита Зингера. [All About Sewing Machines - The History of Singer Corporation] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2008-06-12.
- "Isaac Merritt Singer". PBS. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- Hounshell, David (1985). From the American System to Mass Production, 1800-1932: The Development of Manufacturing Technology in the United States. Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 67. ISBN 9780801831584.
litigation threatened the very existence of the [sewing machine] industry. The Great Sewing Machine Combination, the first important patent pooling arrangement in American history, changed all this.
- "Sewing Machines: Historical Trade Literature in Smithsonian Institution Collections". Smithsonian Institution.
- "Inventor of the Week / Isaac Merrit Singer (1811–1875)". Lemelson-MIT Program. Archived from the original on March 2, 2003. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- Genius rewarded; or, The story of the sewing machine. Gerstein - University of Toronto. New York J.J. Caulon printer. 1880.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Victorian Society reveals top 10 buildings 'crying out' to be saved". BBC News. BBC.
- Al-Mahmood, Syed Zain (2013-11-21). "Safety Groups Agree on Standards for Bangladesh Garment Factories". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2019-07-04.
- Gale, Robert L. (1993). A cultural encyclopedia of the 1850s in America. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-28524-0. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Klooster, John W. (2009). Icons of Invention: The Makers of the Modern World from Gutenberg to Gates. ABC-CLIO. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-313-34743-6. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "Singer Family Tree". Town & Country. Hearst Corporation: 60. 1942. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Reynolds, Cuyler (1914). Genealogical and Family History of Southern New York and the Hudson River Valley: A Record of the Achievements of Her People in the Making of a Commonwealth and the Building of a Nation. Lewis Historical Publishing Company. p. 1040. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Press, Brookhaven (1877). The Past and Present of Lake County, Illinois: Containing a History of the County--its Cities, Towns, &c., a Biographical Directory of Its Citizens, War Record of Its Volunteers in the Late Rebellion, Portraits of Early Settlers and Prominent Men, General and Local Statistics, Map of Lake County, History of Illinois, Illustrated, History of the Northwest, Illustrated, Constitution of the United States, Miscellaneous Matters, Etc., Etc. Brookhaven Press. p. 410. ISBN 978-1-58103-880-4. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "Fanny Elizabeth Singer Archer awarded $10,000". Buffalo Morning Express and Illustrated Buffalo Express. 27 October 1876. p. 2. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "Jasper H. Singer". New York Herald. 9 December 1922. p. 13. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Taylor, William Harrison (1901). Taylor's Legislative History and Souvenir of Connecticut. p. 43. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "Mary McGonigal". Geni.
- "Wedding dress | Worth, Charles Frederick | V&A Search the Collections". collections.vam.ac.uk. Victoria and Albert Museum. 2 April 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles (1910). Armorial Families: A Directory of Gentlemen of Coat-armour. T.C. & E.C. Jack. p. 19. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "Suicide of a Rich Young Man.; a New-Yorker Shoots Himself in a Philadelphia Hotel". The New York Times. 4 November 1883. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "Charles Matthews's Suicide". The New York Times. 5 November 1883. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "William H. Pratt". www.encyclopediaofalabama.org. Encyclopedia of Alabama. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "Berkshire". The London Gazette: 1994. 11 March 1921. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "PRINCESS DE POLIGNAC: Heiress to the Singer Sewing Machine Fortune Was 78". The New York Times. 27 November 1943. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "PRINCE DE POLIGNAC DEAD.; Was Brigadier General in Confederate Army in Civil War". The New York Times. 16 November 1913. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "WASHINGTON SINGER FREED.; Not Guilty of Conspiring with Princess de Polignac to Escape Tax". The New York Times. 25 July 1917. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "W. M. G. SINGER DIES; RACE-HORSE OWNER; Son of the Sewing-Machine Manufacturer Succumbs in Sleep at 68". The New York Times. 12 February 1934. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- TIMES, Special Cable to THE NEW TOBK (25 June 1932). "PARIS SINGER DEAD; SON OF INVENTOR; Youngest of 24 Children of the Sewing Machine Company ] Head Succumbs in London. ACTIVE IN FLORIDA BOOM Was Unsuccessful In Huge Project on Munyon IslanduMost of '. Life Spent In Europe". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Times, Special to The New York (10 April 1927). "TAKE PARIS E. SINGER; ALLEGE HUGE FRAUD; Florida Authorities Accuse Heir to Sewing Machine Fortune of $1,500,000 Realty Swindle. HE IS BALLED AFTER ARREST Sales Director of Palm Beach Tract Is Also Charged With Defrauding Investors. TAKE PARIS E. SINGER ALLEGE HUGE FRAUD". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Times, Marconi Transatlantic Wireless Telegraph To the New York (1 September 1912). "DUC DECAZES IS DEAD.; Third Holder of Title Married Miss Isabelle B. Singer, American". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "FRANKLIN M. SINGER SUCCUMBS IN PARIS; His Family Founded the Sewing Machine Company--Was 68". The New York Times. 12 August 1939. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Brandon, Ruth, Singer and the Sewing Machine: A Capitalist Romance, Kodansha International, New York, 1977.
- Glander, Angelika, SINGER-Der König der Nähmaschinen, Die Biographie, Norderstedt, 2009 (book, in German) ISBN 978-3-8370-3952-8
- Hawthorne, Paul Oldway Mansion, historic home of the Singer family Torbay Books, Paignton, 2009 ISBN 978-0-9551857-6-2
Joseph Lister performs 1st antiseptic surgery.
On the 12th August 1865 Joseph Lister carried out the world’s first antiseptic surgery using the chemical phenol, otherwise known as carbolic acid. Lister is remembered among the greats of medical science for being the first person to identify the link between clean hospital conditions and infection rates.
To understand the importance of Lister’s achievement, it’s important to remember that in the 19th Century up to 50% of all hospital patients died of infection. This often occurred after surgery, during which time patients developed ‘ward fever’ – a non-specific range of secondary infections caused through poor hospital hygiene where surgeons weren’t required to wash their hands or even their stained operating gowns.
Having read the work of the Frenchman Louis Pasteur regarding the spread and growth of bacteria, Lister became interested in finding a way to remove infection-causing micro-organisms from hospitals. Germ theory of disease was only just becoming more widely accepted, but after discovering that carbolic acid, now referred to as phenol, had successfully been used to reduce the smell of raw sewage Lister began experiments using it as what became termed an ‘antiseptic’.
On the 12th August Lister used a piece of lint covered in carbolic acid to cover the compound fracture wound of a seven-year-old boy, and found that over a period of six weeks the wound healed without developing gangrene. Developments in surgical hygiene followed. As well as surgeons wearing gloves, they began to wash their hands in carbolic acid, as well as washing their instruments in Lister’s 5% solution and spraying it liberally around the operating theatre.
Waffen-SS troops massacre over 560 people in Sant’Anna di Stazzema.
On that day in 1944, four columns of Hitler’s crack 16th SS Panzer Grenadier Division, noted for their ideological fervour, made the grinding journey up to Sant ‘Anna from the plains. Rome had been liberated two months before; slowly and expensively the British and the Americans were forcing the Germans back up the Italian peninsula, down which they had come roaring earlier that year after Mussolini was sacked by the Italian king and Italy switched to the Allied side.
In August 1944 the Nazis were defending the “Gothic Line” which ran from north of Viareggio on the Ligurian coast to the peaks of the Appenines. But they were fighting on another front, too, because on the fall of Mussolini, groups of anti-Nazi Partisans sprang up in towns and villages across northern Italy, waging guerrilla war on the Nazis from strongholds in the hills.
As four companies of the SS came up the hills before dawn, Sant’Anna slept the sleep of the innocent and the relatively secure. With war now raging up and down the Gothic Line, and thousands of Nazi troops encamped in the nearest town, Santa Pietra, terrorised civilians had fled for the hills in large numbers. “Men fled from the town because the Nazis were rounding them up for forced labour, either in Italy or in Germany,” says Enio Mancini, curator of Sant’Anna’s Historical Museum of the Resistance.
“Additionally the Allies had started bombarding the German frontline. So whole families fled from the towns and about 1,000 refugees arrived in Sant’Anna. They came because it was so isolated, there was no motorable road in those days so it seemed safe. There were families from the surrounding area but also from as far away as Genoa and Naples.”
Over 3000 Palestinians are killed in the Tel al-Zaatar massacre during the Lebanese Civil War.
Isaac Singer is given a patent for his sewing machine.
Cleopatra VII Philopator commits suicide.
The 1994 World Series is cancelled as the baseball players go on strike..
The personal computer is released by IBM
The worlds worse air disaster, Japan Airlines Flight 123 crashes into Osutaka ridge in Japan. 520 are killed.