10 October 1967

The Outer Space Treaty comes into force.

Outer Space Treaty
French: Traité de l'espace
Russian: Договор о космосе
Spanish: Tratado sobre el espacio ultraterrestre
Chinese: 外层空间条约
Outer Space Treaty parties.svg
  Parties
  Signatories
  Non-parties
Signed27 January 1967
LocationLondon, Moscow and Washington, D.C.
Effective10 October 1967
Condition5 ratifications, including the depositary Governments
Parties110[1][2][3][4]
DepositaryGovernments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America
LanguagesEnglish, French, Russian, Spanish and Chinese
Outer Space Treaty of 1967 at Wikisource

The Outer Space Treaty, formally the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, is a treaty that forms the basis of international space law. The treaty was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union on 27 January 1967, and entered into force on 10 October 1967. As of June 2020, 110 countries are parties to the treaty, while another 23 have signed the treaty but have not completed ratification.[1] In addition, Taiwan, which is currently recognized by 14 UN member states, ratified the treaty prior to the United Nations General Assembly's vote to transfer China's seat to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971.[5]

Among the Outer Space Treaty's main points are that it prohibits the placing of nuclear weapons in space, limits the use of the Moon and all other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes only, and establishes that space shall be free for exploration and use by all nations, but that no nation may claim sovereignty of outer space or any celestial body. The Outer Space Treaty does not ban military activities within space, military space forces, or the weaponization of space, with the exception of the placement of weapons of mass destruction in space, and establishing military bases, testing weapons and conducting military maneuvers on celestial bodies.[6][7] It is mostly a non-armament treaty and offers limited and ambiguous regulations to newer space activities such as lunar and asteroid mining.[8][9][10]

Key points

The Outer Space Treaty represents the basic legal framework of international space law. Among its principles, it bars states party to the treaty from placing weapons of mass destruction in Earth orbit, installing them on the Moon or any other celestial body, or otherwise stationing them in outer space. It specifically limits the use of the Moon and other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes, and expressly prohibits their use for testing weapons of any kind, conducting military maneuvers, or establishing military bases, installations, and fortifications (Article IV). However, the treaty does not prohibit the placement of conventional weapons in orbit, and thus some highly destructive attack tactics, such as kinetic bombardment, are still potentially allowable.[11] The treaty also states that the exploration of outer space shall be done to benefit all countries and that space shall be free for exploration and use by all the states.

The treaty explicitly forbids any government from claiming a celestial body such as the Moon or a planet.[12] Article II of the treaty states that "outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means." However, the state that launches a space object retains jurisdiction and control over that object.[13] The state is also liable for damages caused by its space object.[14]

Being primarily an arms-control treaty for the peaceful use of outer space, it offers insufficient and ambiguous regulations to newer space activities such as lunar and asteroid mining.[8][10][15] It therefore remains under contention whether the extraction of resources falls within the prohibitive language of appropriation or whether the use encompasses the commercial use and exploitation.[16] Seeking clearer guidelines, private U.S. companies lobbied the U.S. government, and space mining was legalized in 2015 by introducing the US Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act of 2015.[17] Similar national legislation to legalize the appropriation of extraterrestrial resources are now being introduced by other countries, including Luxembourg, Japan, China, India, and Russia.[8][15][18][19] This has created some controversy regarding legal claims over the mining of celestial bodies for profit.[15][16]

Responsibility for activities in space

Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty deals with international responsibility, stating that "the activities of non-governmental entities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall require authorization and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party to the Treaty" and that States Parties shall bear international responsibility for national space activities whether carried out by governmental or non-governmental entities.

As a result of discussions arising from Project West Ford in 1963, a consultation clause was included in Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty: "A State Party to the Treaty which has reason to believe that an activity or experiment planned by another State Party in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, would cause potentially harmful interference with activities in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, may request consultation concerning the activity or experiment."[20][21]

Follow-ups

The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) coordinates[23] these treaties and other questions of space jurisdiction.

List of parties

The Outer Space Treaty was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union on 27 January 1967, and entered into force on 10 October 1967. As of June 2020, 110 countries are parties to the treaty, while another 23 have signed the treaty but have not completed ratification.[1]

Multiple dates indicate the different days in which states submitted their signature or deposition, which varied by location. This location is noted by: (L) for London, (M) for Moscow, and (W) for Washington, DC. Also indicated is whether the state became a party by way of signing the treaty and subsequent ratification, by accession to the treaty after it had closed for signature, or by succession of states after separation from some other party to the treaty.

State[1][2][3][4] Signed Deposited Method
 Afghanistan
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 30 Jan 1967 (M)
  • 17 Mar 1988 (L, M)
  • 21 Mar 1988 (W)
Ratification
 Algeria 27 Jan 1992 (W) Accession
 Antigua and Barbuda
  • 16 Nov 1988 (W)
  • 26 Dec 1988 (M)
  • 26 Jan 1989 (L)
Succession from  United Kingdom
 Argentina
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 18 Apr 1967 (M)
26 Mar 1969 (M, W) Ratification
 Armenia 28 Mar 2018 (M) Accession
 Australia 27 Jan 1967 (W) 10 Oct 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Austria 20 Feb 1967 (L, M, W) 26 Feb 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Azerbaijan 9 Sep 2015 (L) Accession
 Bahamas
  • 11 Aug 1976 (L)
  • 13 Aug 1976 (W)
  • 30 Aug 1976 (M)
Succession from  United Kingdom
 Bahrain 7 Aug 2019 (M) Accession
 Bangladesh
  • 14 Jan 1986 (L)
  • 17 Jan 1986 (W)
  • 24 Jan 1986 (M)
Accession
 Barbados 12 Sep 1968 (W) Accession
 Belarus 10 Feb 1967 (M) 31 Oct 1967 (M) Ratification
  • 27 Jan 1967 (L, M)
  • 2 Feb 1967 (W)
  • 30 Mar 1973 (W)
  • 31 Mar 1973 (L, M)
Ratification
 Benin
  • 19 Jun 1986 (M)
  • 2 Jul 1986 (L)
  • 7 Jul 1986 (W)
Accession
 Brazil
  • 30 Jan 1967 (M)
  • 2 Feb 1967 (L, W)
5 Mar 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Bulgaria 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W)
  • 28 Mar 1967 (M)
  • 11 Apr 1967 (W)
  • 19 Apr 1967 (L)
Ratification
 Burkina Faso 3 Mar 1967 (W) 18 Jun 1968 (W) Ratification
 Canada 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 10 Oct 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Chile
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 3 Feb 1967 (L)
  • 20 Feb 1967 (M)
8 Oct 1981 (W) Ratification
 China
  • 30 Dec 1983 (W)
  • 6 Jan 1984 (M)
  • 12 Jan 1984 (L)
Accession
 Cuba 3 Jun 1977 (M) Accession
 Cyprus
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 15 Feb 1967 (M)
  • 16 Feb 1967 (L)
  • 5 Jul 1972 (L, W)
  • 20 Sep 1972 (M)
Ratification
 Czech Republic
  • 1 Jan 1993 (M, W)
  • 29 Sep 1993 (L)
Succession from  Czechoslovakia
 Denmark 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 10 Oct 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Dominican Republic 27 Jan 1967 (W) 21 Nov 1968 (W) Ratification
 Ecuador
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 16 May 1967 (L)
  • 7 Jun 1967 (M)
7 Mar 1969 (W) Ratification
 Egypt 27 Jan 1967 (M, W)
  • 10 Oct 1967 (W)
  • 23 Jan 1968 (M)
Ratification
 El Salvador 27 Jan 1967 (W) 15 Jan 1969 (W) Ratification
 Equatorial Guinea 16 Jan 1989 (M) Accession
 Estonia 19 Apr 2010 (M) Accession
 Fiji
  • 18 Jul 1972 (W)
  • 14 Aug 1972 (L)
  • 29 Aug 1972 (M)
Succession from  United Kingdom
 Finland 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) Jul 12, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
 France 25 Sep 1967 (L, M, W) 5 Aug 1970 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Germany 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 10 Feb 1971 (L, W) Ratification
 Greece 27 Jan 1967 (W) 19 Jan 1971 (L) Ratification
 Guinea-Bissau 20 Aug 1976 (M) Accession
 Hungary 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 26 Jun 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Iceland 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 5 Feb 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
 India 3 Mar 1967 (L, M, W) 18 Jan 1982 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Indonesia
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 30 Jan 1967 (M)
  • 14 Feb 1967 (L)
25 Jun 2002 (L) Ratification
 Iraq
  • 27 Feb 1967 (L, W)
  • 9 Mar 1967 (M)
  • 4 Dec 1968 (M)
  • 23 Sep 1969 (L)
Ratification
 Ireland 27 Jan 1967 (L, W)
  • 17 Jul 1968 (W)
  • 19 Jul 1968 (L)
Ratification
 Israel 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W)
  • 18 Feb 1977 (W)
  • 1 Mar 1977 (L)
  • 4 Apr 1977 (M)
Ratification
 Italy 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 4 May 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Jamaica 29 Jun 1967 (L, M, W)
  • 6 Aug 1970 (W)
  • 10 Aug 1970 (L)
  • 21 Aug 1970 (M)
Ratification
 Japan 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 10 Oct 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Kazakhstan 11 Jun 1998 (M) Accession
 Kenya 19 Jan 1984 (L) Accession
 North Korea 5 Mar 2009 (M) Accession
 South Korea 27 Jan 1967 (W) 13 Oct 1967 (W) Ratification
 Kuwait
  • 7 Jun 1972 (W)
  • 20 Jun 1972 (L)
  • 4 Jul 1972 (M)
Accession
 Laos
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 30 Jan 1967 (L)
  • 2 Feb 1967 (M)
  • 27 Nov 1972 (M)
  • 29 Nov 1972 (W)
  • 15 Jan 1973 (L)
Ratification
 Lebanon 23 Feb 1967 (L, M, W)
  • 31 Mar 1969 (L, M)
  • 30 Jun 1969 (W)
Ratification
 Libya 3 Jul 1968 (W) Accession
 Lithuania 25 Mar 2013 (W) Accession
 Luxembourg
  • 27 Jan 1967 (M, W)
  • 31 Jan 1967 (L)
17 Jan 2006 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Madagascar 22 Aug 1968 (W) Accession
 Mali 11 Jun 1968 (M) Accession
 Malta 22 May 2017 (L) Accession
 Mauritius
  • 7 Apr 1969 (W)
  • 21 Apr 1969 (L)
  • 13 May 1969 (M)
Succession from  United Kingdom
 Mexico 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 31 Jan 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Mongolia 27 Jan 1967 (M) 10 Oct 1967 (M) Ratification
 Morocco
  • 21 Dec 1967 (L, M)
  • 22 Dec 1967 (W)
Accession
 Myanmar 22 May 1967 (L, M, W) 18 Mar 1970 (L, M, W) Ratification
   Nepal
  • 3 Feb 1967 (M, W)
  • 6 Feb 1967 (L)
  • 10 Oct 1967 (L)
  • 16 Oct 1967 (M)
  • 22 Nov 1967 (W)
Ratification
 Netherlands 10 Feb 1967 (L, M, W) 10 Oct 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
 New Zealand 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 31 May 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Nicaragua
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 13 Feb 1967 (L)
  • 30 Jun 2017 (W)
  • 10 Aug 2017 (M)
  • 14 Aug 2017 (L)
Ratification
 Niger 1 Feb 1967 (W)
  • 17 Apr 1967 (L)
  • 3 May 1967 (W)
Ratification
 Nigeria 14 Nov 1967 (L) Accession
 Norway 3 Feb 1967 (L, M, W) 1 Jul 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Pakistan 12 Sep 1967 (L, M, W) 8 Apr 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Papua New Guinea
  • 27 Oct 1980 (L)
  • 13 Nov 1980 (M)
  • 16 Mar 1981 (W)
Succession from  Australia
 Paraguay 22 Dec 2016 (L) Accession
 Peru 30 Jun 1967 (W)
  • 28 Feb 1979 (M)
  • 1 Mar 1979 (L)
  • 21 Mar 1979 (W)
Ratification
 Poland 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 30 Jan 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Portugal 29 May 1996 (L) Accession
 Qatar 13 Mar 2012 (W) Accession
 Romania 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 9 Apr 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Russia 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 10 Oct 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification as the  Soviet Union
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13 May 1999 (L) Succession from  United Kingdom
 San Marino
  • 21 Apr 1967 (W)
  • 24 Apr 1967 (L)
  • 6 Jun 1967 (M)
  • 29 Oct 1968 (W)
  • 21 Nov 1968 (M)
  • 3 Feb 1969 (L)
Ratification
 Saudi Arabia 17 Dec 1976 (W) Accession
 Seychelles 5 Jan 1978 (L) Accession
 Sierra Leone
  • 27 Jan 1967 (L, M)
  • 16 May 1967 (W)
  • 13 Jul 1967 (M)
  • 14 Jul 1967 (W)
  • 25 Oct 1967 (L)
Ratification
 Singapore 10 Sep 1976 (L, M, W) Accession
 Slovakia
  • 1 Jan 1993 (M, W)
  • 17 May 1993 (L)
Succession from  Czechoslovakia
 Slovenia 8 Feb 2019 (L) Accession
 South Africa 1 Mar 1967 (W)
  • 30 Sep 1968 (W)
  • 8 Oct 1968 (L)
  • 14 Nov 1968 (M)
Ratification
 Spain
  • 27 Nov 1968 (L)
  • 7 Dec 1968 (W)
Accession
 Sri Lanka 10 Mar 1967 (L) 18 Nov 1986 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Sweden 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 11 Oct 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Switzerland
  • 27 Jan 1967 (L, W)
  • 30 Jan 1967 (M)
18 Dec 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Syria 19 Nov 1968 (M) Accession
 Thailand 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W)
  • 5 Sep 1968 (L)
  • 9 Sep 1968 (M)
  • 10 Sep 1968 (W)
Ratification
 Togo 27 Jan 1967 (W) 26 Jun 1989 (W) Ratification
 Tonga
  • 22 Jun 1971 (M)
  • 7 Jul 1971 (L, W)
Succession from  United Kingdom
 Tunisia
  • 27 Jan 1967 (L, W)
  • 15 Feb 1967 (M)
  • 28 Mar 1968 (L)
  • 4 Apr 1968 (M)
  • 17 Apr 1968 (W)
Ratification
 Turkey 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 27 Mar 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Uganda 24 Apr 1968 (W) Accession
 Ukraine Feb 10, 1967 (M) Oct 31, 1967 (M) Ratification
 United Arab Emirates 4 Oct 2000 (W) Accession
 United Kingdom 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 10 Oct 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
 United States 27 Jan 1967 (L, M, W) 10 Oct 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Uruguay
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 30 Jan 1967 (M)
31 Aug 1970 (W) Ratification
 Venezuela 27 Jan 1967 (W) 3 Mar 1970 (W) Ratification
 Vietnam 20 Jun 1980 (M) Accession
 Yemen 1 Jun 1979 (M) Accession
 Zambia
  • 20 Aug 1973 (W)
  • 21 Aug 1973 (M)
  • 28 Aug 1973 (L)
Accession

Partially recognized state abiding by treaty

The Republic of China (Taiwan), which is currently recognized by 14 UN member states, ratified the treaty prior to the United Nations General Assembly's vote to transfer China's seat to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971. When the PRC subsequently ratified the treaty, they described the Republic of China's (ROC) ratification as "illegal". The ROC has committed itself to continue to adhere to the requirements of the treaty, and the United States has declared that it still considers the ROC to be "bound by its obligations".[5]

State Signed Deposited Method
 Republic of China 27 Jan 1967 24 Jul 1970 Ratification

States that have signed but not ratified

Twenty-three states have signed but not ratified the treaty.

State Signed
 Bolivia 27 Jan 1967 (W)
 Botswana 27 Jan 1967 (W)
 Burundi 27 Jan 1967 (W)
 Cameroon 27 Jan 1967 (W)
 Central African Republic 27 Jan 1967 (W)
 Colombia 27 Jan 1967 (W)
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 29 Apr 1967 (M)
  • 4 May 1967 (L)
 Ethiopia
  • 27 Jan 1967 (L, W)
  • 10 Feb 1967 (M)
 Gambia 2 Jun 1967 (L)
 Ghana
  • 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  • 15 Feb 1967 (M)
  • 3 Mar 1967 (L)
 Guyana 3 Feb 1967 (W)
 Haiti 27 Jan 1967 (W)
  Holy See 5 Apr 1967 (L)
 Honduras 27 Jan 1967 (W)
 Iran 27 Jan 1967 (L)
 Jordan 2 Feb 1967 (W)
 Lesotho 27 Jan 1967 (W)
 Malaysia
  • 20 Feb 1967 (W)
  • 21 Feb 1967 (L)
  • 3 May 1967 (M)
 Panama 27 Jan 1967 (W)
 Philippines
  • 27 Jan 1967 (L, W)
  • 29 Apr 1967 (M)
 Rwanda 27 Jan 1967 (W)
 Somalia 2 Feb 1967 (W)
 Trinidad and Tobago
  • 24 Jul 1967 (L)
  • 17 Aug 1967 (M)
  • 28 Sep 1967 (W)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
  2. ^ a b "TREATY ON PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE ACTIVITIES OF STATES IN THE EXPLORATION AND USE OF OUTER SPACE, INCLUDING THE MOON AND OTHER CELESTIAL BODIES". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
    "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies [London version]". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  3. ^ a b "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies". United States Department of State. 30 June 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  4. ^ a b "Договор о принципах деятельности государств по исследованию и использованию космического пространства, включая Луну и другие небесные тела" (in Russian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  5. ^ a b "China: Accession to Outer Space Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  6. ^ Shakouri Hassanabadi, Babak (30 July 2018). "Space Force and international space law". The Space Review. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  7. ^ Irish, Adam (13 September 2018). "The Legality of a U.S. Space Force". OpinioJuris. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  8. ^ a b c If space is ‘the province of mankind’, who owns its resources? Senjuti Mallick and Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan. The Observer Research Foundation. 24 January 2019. Quote 1: "The Outer Space Treaty (OST) of 1967, considered the global foundation of the outer space legal regime, […] has been insufficient and ambiguous in providing clear regulations to newer space activities such as asteroid mining." *Quote2: "Although the OST does not explicitly mention "mining" activities, under Article II, outer space including the Moon and other celestial bodies are "not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty" through use, occupation or any other means."
  9. ^ Space Law: Is asteroid mining legal?. Wired. 1 May 2012.
  10. ^ a b Who Owns Space? US Asteroid-Mining Act Is Dangerous And Potentially Illegal. IFL. Accessed on 9 November 2019. Quote 1: "The act represents a full-frontal attack on settled principles of space law which are based on two basic principles: the right of states to scientific exploration of outer space and its celestial bodies and the prevention of unilateral and unbriddled commercial exploitation of outer-space resources. These principles are found in agreements including the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 and the Moon Agreement of 1979." *Quote 2: "Understanding the legality of asteroid mining starts with the 1967 Outer Space Treaty. Some might argue the treaty bans all space property rights, citing Article II."
  11. ^ Bourbonniere, M.; Lee, R. J. (2007). "Legality of the Deployment of Conventional Weapons in Earth Orbit: Balancing Space Law and the Law of Armed Conflict". European Journal of International Law. 18 (5): 873. doi:10.1093/ejil/chm051.
  12. ^ Frakes, Jennifer (2003). "The Common Heritage of Mankind Principle and the Deep Seabed, Outer Space, and Antarctica: Will Developed and Developing Nations Reach a Compromise?". Wisconsin International Law Journal (21 ed.): 409.
  13. ^ Outer Space Treaty of 1967#Article VIII  – via Wikisource.
  14. ^ Wikisource:Outer Space Treaty of 1967#Article VII
  15. ^ a b c Davies, Rob (6 February 2016). "Asteroid mining could be space's new frontier: the problem is doing it legally". The Guardian.
  16. ^ a b Koch, Jonathan Sydney (2008). "Institutional Framework for the Province of all Mankind: Lessons from the International Seabed Authority for the Governance of Commercial Space Mining". Astropolitics. 16 (1): 1–27. doi:10.1080/14777622.2017.1381824. S2CID 149116769.
  17. ^ "U.S. Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act". Act No. H.R.2262 of 5 December 2015. 114th Congress (2015-2016) Sponsor: Rep. McCarthy, Kevin.
  18. ^ Ridderhof, R. (18 December 2015). "Space Mining and (U.S.) Space Law". Peace Palace Library. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  19. ^ "Law Provides New Regulatory Framework for Space Commerce | RegBlog". www.regblog.org. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  20. ^ Terrill Jr., Delbert R. (May 1999), Project West Ford, "The Air Force Role in Developing International Outer Space Law" (PDF), Air Force History and Museums:63–67
  21. ^ Wikisource:Outer Space Treaty of 1967#Article IX
  22. ^ Status of international agreements relating to activities in outer space as at 1 January 2008 United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, 2008
  23. ^ Beyond UNISPACE: It's time for the Moon Treaty. Dennis C. O'Brien. Pace Review. 21 January 2019.


Further reading

  • Annette Froehlich, et al.: A Fresh View on the Outer Space Treaty. Springer, Vienna 2018, ISBN 978-3-319-70433-3.

External links

10 October 1963

The Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty comes into effect.

The Partial Test Ban Treaty is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground. It is also abbreviated as the Limited Test Ban Treaty and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, though the latter may also refer to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, which succeeded the PTBT for ratifying parties.

Negotiations initially focused on a comprehensive ban, but this was abandoned due to technical questions surrounding the detection of underground tests and Soviet concerns over the intrusiveness of proposed verification methods. The impetus for the test ban was provided by rising public anxiety over the magnitude of nuclear tests, particularly tests of new thermonuclear weapons, and the resulting nuclear fallout. A test ban was also seen as a means of slowing nuclear proliferation and the nuclear arms race. Though the PTBT did not halt proliferation or the arms race, its enactment did coincide with a substantial decline in the concentration of radioactive particles in the atmosphere.

The PTBT was signed by the governments of the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States in Moscow on 5 August 1963 before being opened for signature by other countries. The treaty formally went into effect on 10 October 1963. Since then, 123 other states have become party to the treaty. Ten states have signed but not ratified the treaty.

10 October 2010

The Netherlands Antilles gets dissolved as a country.

annewz

The Netherlands Antilles was an autonomous Caribbean country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It was dissolved on 10 October 2010.

After dissolution, the “BES islands” of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba became special municipalities of the Netherlands proper, while Curaçao and Sint Maarten became constituent countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, along the lines of Aruba, which separated from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986.

he idea of the Netherlands Antilles as a country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands never enjoyed the full support of all islands, and political relations between islands were often strained. Geographically, the Leeward Antilles islands of Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire, and the Leeward Islands of Saba, Sint Eustatius and Sint Maarten lie almost 1,000 kilometres apart. Culturally, the Leeward Antilles have deep connections with the South American mainland, especially Venezuela, and its population speaks a Portuguese-Dutch creole language called Papiamento; the other three islands are part of the English-speaking Caribbean.

When the new constitutional relationship between the Netherlands and its former West Indian colonies was enshrined in the Kingdom Charter of 1954, the colonial administrative division of the Netherlands Antilles, which was derived from the colony of Curaçao and Dependencies and grouped all six Caribbean islands together under one administration, was taken for granted. Despite the fact that Aruban calls for secession from the Netherlands Antilles originated in the 1930s, the governments of the Netherlands and the Netherlands Antilles did everything in their power to keep the six islands together. The Netherlands did this so as to make sure that the Netherlands Antilles could become independent as soon as possible, a call that became increasingly louder in the Netherlands after the Willemstad riots of 1969 in Curaçao. The government of the Netherlands Antilles feared that the whole Netherlands Antilles would disintegrate if one of the islands seceded; Antillean Prime Minister Juancho Evertsz once famously remarked that “six minus one equals zero”.

10 October 1964

bn-ex820_olympi_g_20141009085036

The 1964 Summer Olympics open in Tokyo, Japan.

The 1964 Olympics were the first held in Japan and in Asia.Hosting the 1964 Olympic Games was hugely significant for Japan as it returned to the global stage as a peaceful, economically confident nation. It was also a massive undertaking, with some estimates suggesting Tokyo spent the equivalent of its national budget on a major building program that transformed the city’s infrastructure–a far cry from plans for the nest 2020 summer games.The 1964 Olympics were also the last to use a traditional cinder track for the track events. A smooth synthetic all-weather track was used for the first time at the 1968 Olympics and at every Games thereafter.