10 August 1557

The Battle of St. Quentin in which the Spanish have a victory over the French in the Italian War of 1551–59.

The Battle of Saint-Quentin of 1557 was fought at Saint-Quentin in Picardy, during the Italian War of 1551–1559. The Spanish, which is to say the international forces of Philip II’s Spanish Empire, who had regained the support of the English whose Mary I of England he had married, won a significant victory over the French at Saint-Quentin, in northern France.

The battle took place on the Feast Day of St. Lawrence 10 August. Spain, now under the rule of Philip II, was allied with England following Philip’s marriage to the queen of England, Mary I. Mary had declared war on France, 7 June 1557.

At the Battle of St. Quentin the French forces under Constable Anne de Montmorency were overwhelmed, and Montmorency was captured by the forces under the command of the Duke Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy and the Count of Egmont in an alliance with English troops, and the French were defeated. During the fighting the Saint-Quentin collegiate church was badly damaged by fire.

After the victory over the French at St. Quentin, “the sight of the battlefield gave Philip a permanent distaste for war”; he declined to pursue his advantage, withdrawing to the Spanish Netherlands to the north, where he had been the Governor since 1555. The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis ended the war two years later.

10 August 1990

The Magellan space probe gets to Venus.

magellan2

The Magellan spacecraft was the first planetary explorer to be launched by a space shuttle when it was carried aloft by the shuttle Atlantis from Kennedy Space Center in Florida on May 4, 1989. Atlantis took Magellan into low Earth orbit, where it was released from the shuttle’s cargo bay and fired by a solid-fuel motor called the Inertial Upper Stage on its way to Venus. Magellan looped around the Sun one-and-a-half times before arriving at Venus on August 10, 1990. A solid-fuel motor on the spacecraft then fired, placing Magellan into a near-polar elliptical orbit around Venus.

The spacecraft carried a sophisticated imaging radar, which was used to make the most highly detailed map of Venus ever captured during its four years in orbit around Venus from 1990 to 1994. After concluding its radar mapping, Magellan also made global maps of Venus’s gravity field. Flight controllers then tested a new maneuvering technique called aerobraking, which uses a planet’s atmosphere to slow or steer a spacecraft. The spacecraft made a dramatic plunge into the thick, hot Venusian atmosphere on October 12, 1994, and was crushed by the pressure of Venus’s atmosphere. Magellan’s signal was lost at 10:02 Universal Time, 3:02 a.m. Pacific Daylight Time that day.

The Magellan mission was divided up into “cycles” with each cycle lasting 243 days,the time necessary for Venus to rotate once under the Magellan orbit.

In all, the highly successful imaging radar mapped more than 98 percent of the planet’s surface and collected high-resolution gravity data of Venus. The lessons learned from Magellan’s aerodynamic dive into the Venusian atmosphere will be applied to future planetary missions.