13 October 1972

Aeroflot Flight 217 crashes outside Moscow, killing 174.

Aeroflot Flight 217

Aeroflot Flight 217
Ilyushin Il-62, Aeroflot AN0723959.jpg
An Aeroflot Ilyushin Il-62, similar to the crashed aircraft
Accident
Date13 October 1972 (1972-10-13)
SummaryUndetermined (possible crew incapacitation, lightning strike, or mechanical failure)
SiteNear Sheremetyevo International Airport
Aircraft
Aircraft typeIlyushin Il-62
OperatorAeroflot
RegistrationCCCP-86671
Flight originOrly Airport
StopoverShosseynaya Airport
DestinationSheremetyevo International Airport
Passengers164
Crew10
Fatalities174
Survivors0

Aeroflot Flight 217 was a non-scheduled international passenger flight from Orly Airport in Paris to Sheremetyevo International Airport in Moscow, with a stopover at Shosseynaya Airport (now Pulkovo Airport) in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg). On 13 October 1972, the Ilyushin Il-62 airliner operating the flight crashed on approach to Sheremetyevo, with the loss of all 164 passengers and crew of 10. The fatalities include 118 Russians, 38 Chileans, 6 Algerians, one East German, and one Australian.[1] At the time, it was the world's deadliest aviation disaster, until it was surpassed by the Kano air disaster in 1973.[2] As of 2019, the accident remains the second-deadliest one involving an Il-62, after LOT Flight 5055, and the second-deadliest on Russian soil, after Aeroflot Flight 3352.[3][4][5]

Crash

Shortly before the expected landing, the plane was flying at the altitude of 1200 m and received the ATC instructions to descend to 400 m. The crew confirmed and started to descend, but later there was no action to return to the horizontal flight. The plane passed the 400 m mark with 20 m/s vertical velocity, no expected report to ATC and engines still running at low thrust. It crashed shortly afterwards, with landing gear up, spoilers retracted and horizontal speed about 620 km/h.[6]

Investigation

The cause of the crash could not be determined. Investigators did believe the most probable cause was the 'psycho-physiological incapacitation of the crew for reasons unknown'.[7] Somewhere at the 500 – 600 m. elevation, 30 – 25 seconds before impact, the pilots either have been incapacitated or lost control of the plane.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Leddington, Roger (16 October 1972). "Death toll at 176 in Russian crash". Nashua Telegraph. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
  3. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 62 CCCP-86671 Moskva-Sheremetyevo Airport (SVO)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  4. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Ilyushin 62M SP-LBG Warszawa-Okecie Airport (WAW)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  5. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Tupolev 154B-1 CCCP-85243 Omsk Airport (OMS)". aviation-safety.net. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  6. ^ a b Катастрофа Ил-62 ЦУМВС в районе озера Нерское (борт СССР-86671), 13 октября 1972. airdisaster.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  7. ^ Gero, David (1996). Aviation Disasters Second Edition. Patrick Stephens Limited. p. 110.

External links

Coordinates: 56°4′50″N 37°24′36″E / 56.08056°N 37.41000°E / 56.08056; 37.41000

12 October 1810

The citizens of Munich hold the first Oktoberfest.

Oktoberfest

Coordinates: 48°7′53″N 11°32′57″E / 48.13139°N 11.54917°E / 48.13139; 11.54917

Oktoberfest
O'zapft is! Münchens 5 Jahreszeit hat begonnen - O'zapft is! Munich 5 season, the Oktoberfest has begun (9855483374).jpg
Observed byMunich, Germany
TypeNational
CelebrationsParades, food, music
2018 date22 September
2019 date21 September
2020 date19 September
FrequencyAnnual
Related toOktoberfest celebrations

Oktoberfest (German pronunciation: [ɔkˈtoːbɐˌfɛst]) is the world's largest Volksfest (beer festival and travelling funfair). Held annually in Munich, Bavaria, Germany, it is a 16- to 18-day folk festival running from mid or late September to the first Sunday in October, with more than six million people from around the world attending the event every year. Locally, it is often called the Wiesn, after the colloquial name for the fairgrounds, Theresa's meadows (Theresienwiese). The Oktoberfest is an important part of Bavarian culture, having been held since the year 1810. Other cities across the world also hold Oktoberfest celebrations that are modeled after the original Munich event.

During the event, large quantities of Oktoberfest Beer are consumed: during the 16-day festival in 2013, for example, 7.7 million litres (66,000 US bbl; 1,700,000 imp gal) were served.[1] Visitors also enjoy numerous attractions, such as amusement rides, sidestalls, and games. There is also a wide variety of traditional foods available.

The Munich Oktoberfest originally took place in the 16-day period leading up to the first Sunday in October. In 1994, this longstanding schedule was modified in response to German reunification. As such, if the first Sunday in October falls on the 1st or the 2nd, then the festival would run until 3 October (German Unity Day). Thus, the festival now runs for 17 days when the first Sunday is 2 October and 18 days when it is 1 October. In 2010, the festival lasted until the first Monday in October (4 October), to mark the event's bicentennial.

History

Horse race at the Oktoberfest in Munich, 1823
Portrait of a girl wearing a dirndl dress

Kronprinz Ludwig (1786–1868), later King Ludwig I (reign: 1825–1848), married Princess Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen on 12 October 1810. The citizens of Munich were invited to attend the festivities held on the fields in front of the city gates to celebrate the royal event. The fields were named Theresienwiese ("Theresa's Meadow") in honour of the Crown Princess, and have kept that name ever since, although the locals have since abbreviated the name simply to the "Wiesn".[2] Horse races, in the tradition of the 15th-century Scharlachrennen (Scarlet Race at Karlstor), were held on 18 October to honor the newlyweds. It is widely understood that Andreas Michael Dall'Armi, a Major in the National Guard, proposed the idea. However, the origins of the horse races, and Oktoberfest itself, may have stemmed from proposals offered by Franz Baumgartner, a coachman and Sergeant in the National Guard. The precise origins of the festival and horse races remain a matter of controversy, however, the decision to repeat the horse races, spectacle, and celebrations in 1811 launched what is now the annual Oktoberfest tradition.

The fairground, once outside the city, was chosen due to its natural suitability. The Sendlinger Hill (today Theresienhohe) was used as a grandstand for 40,000 race spectators. The festival grounds remained undeveloped except for the king's tent. The tastings of "Traiteurs" and other wine and beer took place above the visitors in the stands on the hill. Before the race started, a performance was held in homage of the bridegroom and of the royal family in the form of a train of 16 pairs of children dressed in Wittelsbach costumes, and costumes from the then nine Bavarian townships and other regions. This was followed by the punishing race with 30 horses on an 11,200-foot (3,400 meters) long racetrack, and concluded with the singing of a student choir. The first horse to cross the finish line belonged to Franz Baumgartner (one of the purported festival initiators). Horse racing champion and Minister of State Maximilian von Montgelas presented Baumgartner with his gold medal.[3]

Transformation into a public festival

19th century

In 1811, a show was added to promote Bavarian agriculture. In 1813, the festival was canceled due to the involvement of Bavaria in the Napoleonic Wars, after which the Oktoberfest grew from year to year. The horse races were accompanied by tree climbing, bowling alleys, and swings and other attractions. In 1818, carnival booths appeared; the main prizes awarded were of silver, porcelain, and jewelry. The city fathers assumed responsibility for festival management in 1819, and it was decided that Oktoberfest become an annual event. In 1832, the date was moved some weeks later, as a Greek delegation came. It inspired them for the Zappas Olympics which became in 1896 the modern Olympic Games. Later, the Oktoberfest was lengthened and the date pushed forward because days are longer and warmer at the end of September. The horse race continued until 1960, and the agricultural show still exists today and is held every four years in the southern part of the festival grounds.

To honour the marriage of Prince Ludwig and Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen, a parade took place for the first time in 1810. Since 1850, the parade has become an annual event and an important component of the Oktoberfest. Eight thousand people—mostly from Bavaria—and dressed in traditional costumes walk from Maximilian Street through the centre of Munich to the Oktoberfest grounds. The march is led by the Münchner Kindl.

Bavaria statue above the Theresienwiese

Since 1850, the statue of Bavaria has watched over the Oktoberfest. This worldly Bavarian patron was first sketched by Leo von Klenze in a classic style and Ludwig Michael Schwanthaler romanticised and "Germanised" the draft.[citation needed] The statue was constructed by Johann Baptist Stiglmaier and Ferdinand von Miller.

In 1853, the Bavarian Ruhmeshalle was completed. In 1854, the festival was cancelled after 3,000 residents of Munich including the queen consort died during a cholera epidemic. There was no Oktoberfest in 1866 because Bavaria was involved in the Austro-Prussian War. In 1870, the Franco-Prussian War again forced the cancellation of the festival. In 1873, the festival was cancelled due to yet another cholera epidemic. In 1880, electric light illuminated more than 400 booths and tents. In 1881, booths selling Bratwurst opened and the first beer was served in glass mugs in 1892.

At the end of the 19th century, a re-organization took place. Until then, there were games of skittles, large dance floors, and trees for climbing in the beer booths. Organizers wanted more room for guests and musicians which resulted in the booths becoming beer halls which are still used today.

In 1887, the parade of the Oktoberfest staff and breweries took place for the first time. This event showcases the splendidly decorated horse teams of the breweries and the bands that play in the festival tents. This event always takes place on the first Saturday of the Oktoberfest and serves as the official prelude to the Oktoberfest celebration.

20th century

At the 100th anniversary of Oktoberfest in 1910, an estimated 120,000 litres of beer were consumed. Three years later, the "Bräurosl" was founded, which at that time was the largest pavilion to have ever been built, accommodating approximately 12,000 people.

Due to World War I, Oktoberfest was temporarily suspended from 1914 to 1918. The two years after the war, in 1919 and 1920, Oktoberfest was replaced by the so-called "kleineres Herbstfest" (which can be translated as "smaller autumn celebration"), and in 1923 and 1924 the Oktoberfest was canceled due to hyper-inflation.

During National Socialism, Oktoberfest was used as part of Nazi propaganda.[citation needed] In 1933, Jews were forbidden to work on the Wiesn. Two years later, Oktoberfest's 125th anniversary was celebrated with all the frills. The main event was a big parade.

The slogan "proud city – cheerful country" was meant to show the alleged overcoming of differences between social classes, and can be seen as an example of the regime's consolidation of power. In 1938, after Hitler had annexed Austria and won the Sudetenland via the Munich Agreement, Oktoberfest was renamed to "Großdeutsches Volksfest" (Greater German folk festival), and as a showing of strength, the Nazi regime transported people from Sudetenland to the Wiesn by the score.[4]

During World War II, from 1939 to 1945, no Oktoberfest was celebrated. Following the war, from 1946 to 1948, Munich celebrated only the "Autumn Fest". The sale of proper Oktoberfest beer—2% stronger in gravity than normal beer—was not permitted; guests could only drink normal beer.

Since its foundation, there have been 24 years in which Oktoberfest was not celebrated.[5]

Beginning in 1950, the festival has always been opened with the same traditional procedure: At noon, a 12-gun salute is followed by the tapping of the first keg of Oktoberfest beer by the Mayor of Munich with the proclamation "O'zapft is!" ("It's tapped!" in the Austro-Bavarian dialect). The Mayor then gives the first litre of beer to the Minister-President of the State of Bavaria. The first mayor to tap a keg was Thomas Wimmer.

Gamsbärte at the entry of the Oktoberfest restaurateurs, 2008

Before the festival officially starts, parades are held with the traditional marksmen's clubs, beer-tent waitresses, and landlords participating. Actually, there are two different parades which both end at the Theresienwiese. They start around 9:45 a.m. to 10.50 am.[6]

During Oktoberfest, some locals wear Bavarian hats (Tirolerhüte), which contain a tuft of chamois hair (Gamsbart). Historically, in Bavaria chamois hair was highly valued and prized. The more tufts of chamois hair on one's hat, the wealthier one was considered to be. Due to modern technology, this tradition has declined with the appearance of chamois hair imitations on the market.[citation needed]

For medical treatment of visitors, the Bavarian branch of the German Red Cross operates an aid facility and provides emergency medical care on the festival grounds, staffed with around 100 volunteer medics and doctors per day.[7]

They serve together with special detachments of Munich police, the fire department and other municipal authorities in the service centre at the Behördenhof (authorities' court), a large building specially built for the Oktoberfest at the east side of the Theresienwiese, just behind the tents. There is also a station for lost & found children, a lost property office, a security point for women and other public services.[citation needed]

Since the 1970s, local German gay organizations have organized "Gay Days" at Oktoberfest, which since the 21st century always begin in the Bräurosl tent on the first Sunday.[8]

1980 Oktoberfest bomb blast

A pipe bomb was set off in a dustbin near the toilets at the main entrance on 26 September 1980 at 22:19. The bomb consisted of an empty fire extinguisher filled with 1.39 kilograms of TNT and mortar shells. Thirteen people were killed and over 225 were injured, 68 seriously.

This was the second-deadliest terrorist attack in the history of Germany after the Munich massacre. Governmental authorities initiated numerous official inquires, purporting that a right-wing extremist, Gundolf Köhler, from Donaueschingen, a social outcast who was killed in the explosion, was the perpetrator. However, this account is strongly disputed by various groups.[9]


Oktoberfest today

Music entertainment at the Oktoberfest, 2015

To keep the Oktoberfest, and especially the beer tents, amicable for the elderly and families, the concept of the "quiet Oktoberfest" was developed in 2005. Until 6:00 pm, the orchestras in the tents only play quiet brass music, for example traditional folk music. Only after that may Schlager pop or electric music be played, which had led to excess violence in earlier years.[10] The music played in the afternoon is limited to 85 decibels. With these rules, the organisers of the Oktoberfest were able to curb[dubious ] the tumultuous party mentality and preserve the traditional beer-tent atmosphere.

In 2005 Germany's last travelling enterprise amusement ride, the Mondlift, returned to the Oktoberfest.

Starting in 2008, a new Bavarian law was passed to ban smoking in all enclosed spaces open to the public. Because of problems enforcing the anti-smoking law in the big tents, an exception was granted to the Oktoberfest in 2008, although the sale of tobacco was not allowed. After heavy losses in the 2008 local elections, with the smoking ban being a big issue in political debates, the state's ruling party implemented general exemptions to beer tents and small pubs.

The change in regulations was aimed in particular to benefit the large tents of the Oktoberfest:[11] So, smoking in the tents is still legal, but the tents usually have non-smoking areas.[12] The sale of tobacco in the tents is now legal, but is widely boycotted by mutual agreement. However, in early 2010, a referendum held in Bavaria as a result of a popular initiative re-instituted the original, strict, smoking ban of 2008; thus, no beer will be sold to people caught smoking in the tents.[13]

The blanket smoking ban did not take effect until 2011, but all tents instituted the smoking ban in 2010 to do a "dry run" to identify any unforeseeable issues.[14]

Celebrating 200 years of Oktoberfest in 2010

The year 2010 marked the 200th anniversary of the Oktoberfest. For the anniversary, a horse race in historical costumes was held on opening day. A so-called historische Wiesn (historical Oktoberfest) took place, starting one day earlier than usual on the southern part of the festival grounds. A specially brewed beer (solely available at the tents of the historical Oktoberfest), horse races, and a museum tent gave visitors an impression of how the event felt two centuries ago.

In 2013, 6.4 million people visited Oktoberfest, and visitors were served 6.7 million litres of beer.[15]

Oide Wiesn

On the occasion of the 200th anniversary in 2010 a so-called Historisches Oktoberfest (Historical Oktoberfest) was designed on the site of the Central Agricultural Festival at the south end of the Theresienwiese. It opened one day before the official Oktoberfest with the traditional keg tapping by the Lord Mayor.

Main entrance to the Historical Oktoberfest

The comprehensive five acres of fenced grounds presented historic rides, beer tents and other historical attractions such as a Steckerlfisch grilling, a chain swing and a cotton candy stand. Included in the price of admission, an animal tent and the racecourse could be visited next to the museum.

The animal tent included, among other things, a petting zoo, and was managed by the Hellabrunn Zoo and the Bavarian Farmers Association. The Munich Stadtmuseum took over the design of the museum tent. The Oktoberfest anniversary was accompanied by an artistic and cultural program, in which for example the Biermösl Blosn (local entertainers) performed.

The bands in the relatively small Herzkasperl Festzelt – offering 850 seats – had to do without electrical amplification.[16]

The fest-tent name derives from a famous stage character of the actor Jörg Hube, who died in 2009.[17]

The six main Munich breweries Augustiner, Hacker-Pschorr, Hofbräu, Löwenbräu, Paulaner and Spaten presented a special exclusively brewed dark beer, which was made after a historic recipe from the early 19th century.

Folk dancers performing at the Historisches Oktoberfest

The beer mugs in the beer tents did not have the company logo of the breweries, but rather the inscription "Munich beer". Unlike the usual Oktoberfest, the Historic Wiesn closed at 8 pm. Instead of the 300,000 guests estimated by the city council, well over half a million visitors came. The festival site had to be temporarily closed several times due to overcrowding.

According to the Munich City Council Decision on 16 October 2012, the entry fee for the Historical Oktoberfest, now called Oide Wiesn (bavarian for old fairground), in 2013 was to be three euros again. For the first time a re-entry was possible with the tickets. The historic rides in 2013 required a 1 Euro fee.

Other changes made at that Munich City Council meeting were that the musicians' tent increased the number of indoor seats from 1000 to 1,500. Outside tent seating increased from 800 to 1,000. They also supported the Showman Foundation with a contribution of €200,000, so it could run a museum tent, a velodrome, as well as a children's program.[18] Also in 2013, the total festival area was enlarged and attractive entrances were added.

Lastly, according to a City Council decision, there will be an Oide Wiesn again in 2015 before the Central Agricultural Exhibition claims the location again on the Theresienwiese in 2016.

Highlights

Coachmen in costume

Entry of the restaurateurs and breweries

The Hacker-Pschorr Brewery horse team

The story of the entry of the Oktoberfest restaurateurs and breweries for the opening of the Oktoberfest began in 1887, when the then manager, Hans Steyrer, first marched from his meadow to the Tegernseer Landstraße with his staff, a brass band and a load of beer to the Theresienwiese.

In its current form, the parade has taken place since 1935, where all the breweries first took part. Since then, the parade is led by the Münchner Kindl, followed by the incumbent mayor of Munich in the Schottenhammel family carriage since 1950. This is followed by the decorated horse carriages and floats of the breweries and the carriages of the other restaurateurs and showmen. The music bands from the beer tents accompany the parade.[19]

Beer barrel tapping

After the parade of the restaurateurs on carriages from downtown to the festival grounds, at exactly 12:00 clock the lord mayor opens the first beer barrel in the Schottenhammel tent. With the initial pass and the exclamation "O'zapft is!" ("It's tapped!") the Oktoberfest is declared as opened.

Twelve gunshots are then fired on the stairway of Ruhmeshalle. This is the signal for the other restaurateurs to start with the serving of beer.[20] Traditionally, the Bavarian Minister-President is served the first litre of beer. Then in the other tents, the first barrels are tapped and beer is served to the visitors.

Every year, visitors eagerly await to see how many strokes the mayor needs to use before the first beer flows. Bets are even made. The best performance is still two strokes (Christian Ude, 2005, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013; Dieter Reiter, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019)[21], and there was also 19 strokes required (Thomas Wimmer, 1950).

Costume and riflemen parade

In honor of the silver wedding anniversary of King Ludwig I of Bavaria and Princess Therese, a traditional costume parade took place in 1835 for the first time. In 1895, the Bavarian novelist Maximilian Schmidt organized another parade with 1,400 participants in 150 traditional costume groups.[22]

Participants in the 2013 costume and riflemen parade

Since 1950, this parade is organized annually and has become one of the highlights of the Oktoberfest and one of the world's largest parades of its kind. On the first festival Sunday, 8000 participants march in the parade in their historic festival costumes from the Maximilianeum on a seven kilometer stretch to the festival grounds.

This parade is also led by the Münchner Kindl; followed by notables of the city council and the city administration and the state of Bavaria, usually the minister-president and his wife, traditional costume and rifle clubs, musical bands, marching bands, flag-wavers and about 40 carriages with decorated horses and carts. The clubs and groups come mostly out of Bavaria, but also from other German states, Austria, Switzerland, Northern Italy and other European countries.

Beers

A waitress with Hacker-Pschorr, one of the traditional beers allowed to be served at Oktoberfest. She wears a dirndl, a traditional women's dress of Bavaria.

Only beer conforming to the Reinheitsgebot, and brewed within the city limits of Munich, can be served at the Munich Oktoberfest.

Beers meeting these criteria are designated Oktoberfest Beer.[23][24]

The breweries that can produce Oktoberfest beer under the aforementioned criteria are:[25]

Oktoberfest Beer is a registered trademark by the Club of Munich Brewers, which consists of the above six breweries.[26]

Facts and data

Size

The Oktoberfest fairground (Theresienwiese) in Munich, aerial view

The Oktoberfest is known as the largest Volksfest (folk festival) in the World.[27]

In 1999 there were six and a half million visitors[28] to the 42 hectare Theresienwiese.

– 72% of the people are from Bavaria.[29]

– 15% of visitors come from foreign countries like the surrounding EU countries and other non-European countries including the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and East Asia.[30]

Besides the Oktoberfest, there are other public festivals that take place at the same location. In April/May it's the Munich Frühlingsfest (spring festival) and Tollwood Festival in December with 650,000 visitors.

After the Oktoberfest the next largest public fairs in Germany are the Cannstatter Volksfest in Stuttgart with about 4.5 million visitors each year, the Cranger Kirmes in Herne (Wanne-Eickel) (the largest fair in Northrhine-Westphalia) with 4.4 million visitors, the Rheinkirmes in Düsseldorf (called largest fair on the Rhine), and the Freimarkt in Bremen (the biggest fair in northern Germany) with over 4 million visitors per year each.

Also noteworthy is on the one hand the Schützenfest Hannover, the world's largest marksmen's Fun Fair in Hannover with over 1 million visitors per year and on the other hand the Kiel Week, the world's biggest sailing event and Volksfest in Kiel, with about 3 million visitors.

Dates

In recent years, the Oktoberfest runs for 16 days with the last day being the first Sunday in October. However, if day 16 falls before 3 October (German Unity Day), then the festival will continue until the 3rd. (see table below)

Year Dates Special Features
2000 16 Sep – 3 Oct 18 days, with ZLF*
2001 22 Sep – 7 Oct
2002 21 Sep – 6 Oct
2003 20 Sep – 5 Oct
2004 18 Sep – 3 Oct with ZLF*
2005 17 Sep – 3 Oct 17 days
2006 16 Sep – 3 Oct 18 days
2007 22 Sep – 7 Oct
2008 20 Sep – 5 Oct 175th Oktoberfest (with ZLF*)
2009 19 Sep – 4 Oct
2010 18 Sep – 4 Oct 200th Anniversary (with ZLF*)
2011 17 Sep – 3 Oct 17 days
2012 22 Sep – 7 Oct with ZLF*
2013 21 Sep – 6 Oct
2014 20 Sep – 5 Oct
2015 19 Sep – 4 Oct
2016 17 Sep – 3 Oct 17 days
2017 16 Sep – 3 Oct 18 days
2018 22 Sep – 7 Oct
2019 21 Sep – 6 Oct
2020 19 Sep – 4 Oct

* Bayerisches Zentral-Landwirtschaftsfest (Bavarian Central Agriculture Fair)

Security at the Oktoberfest

Police video surveillance

Technical accidents have rarely occurred throughout Oktoberfest history. The rides are extensively tested in advance, and the examination is performed by the cableways and temporary structures department of today's TÜV SÜD.

On 30 September 1996, there was a collision on the Euro Star roller coaster, which injured 30, and was caused by a worn safety brake that went unnoticed during inspection. The Munich prosecutor tried to accuse the engineer, from TÜV Munich, of negligent injury, but the proceedings did not come to a conclusion.[31]

To reduce the number of thefts, fights, and sexual assault cases during Oktoberfest, the protection measures for visitors have improved in recent years. For example, in 2003 the action Sichere Wiesn für Mädchen und Frauen (Safe Oktoberfest for Girls and Women) was launched.

The authorities court

In 2004, a new service center was placed in the authorities court, in which the police, the Munich Fire Department, medical services, and a department of district administration is located. During the Oktoberfest, a police station specifically for the festival is installed, and can be reached with the emergency number 5003220.

Due to the numerous Italian visitors to the Oktoberfest, since 2005 officers from Bolzano, Italy are also present. For decades now, the Bavarian Red Cross has been responsible for the medical service at the Oktoberfest.

Additional medical services are located in the Fischer Vroni tent (Aicher Ambulance), and the Munich U-Bahn has commissioned additional backups in the rapid transit station Theresienwiese provided by the Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe. In the authorities court, an ambulance and miniature hospital, complete with operating theater, are readily available. During the Oktoberfest, additional emergency vehicles are on the alert at the control centers, and extra staff is on hand in case they are needed.

In 2010, as a "measure to public safety", a dog and animal ban was put into place. 2012 brought the banning of glass bottles after the increase in the number of injuries and cuts.

The safety concepts of the event have been modified and adapted continuously over the past decades:

  • After the bombing in 1980, the main entrance of the Oktoberfest was redesigned in 1981.
  • In 2008, the Theresienwiese was closed off to the public during the construction of the Oktoberfest.
  • In 2009, road blocks were raised, and access controls during the festival, due to the perceived threat of attacks by Islamists, were increased.
  • 2010 brought the implementation of advances to the security plan, including three lockdown rings around the Theresienwiese as well as access control and flight bans over the festival grounds.[32]
  • In addition, 52 two-metre (6 ft 7 in) high concrete bollards were placed in the access roads and pedestrian entrances to prevent Vehicle-ramming attacks.
  • In 2011, the security measures were once again increased, this time with 170 partially retractable bollards also designed to prevent forcible access to the festival grounds with a vehicle.[33]
  • The Bavariaring is closed off, to allow security forces adequate space to react. The police can quickly divert the crowds, if needed, through radio communication, as well as close down train stations.[34]
  • Following the 2016 Munich shooting, a retractable security fence was added to the security concept. Previously, 350 metres (1,150 ft) of the Oktoberfest were still unfenced.
  • Up to 450 security guards will stand at the 13 official entrances and check all incoming guests. Also, backpacks and bags with a volume of more than 3 litres (0.66 imp gal; 0.79 US gal) are no longer allowed on the festival grounds.
  • In addition, the front exit of the subway station Theresienwiese has been closed off.[35]

Energy supply

Oktoberfest 2003 seen at night from the Ferris wheel

The Oktoberfest is powered via 43 kilometers of cable and 18 partially underground transformer stations. The Oktoberfest's power consumption totals approximately 2.7 million kilowatt hours, not including assembly and dismantling of the attractions. This amounts to about 13% of the daily electrical needs of the City of Munich. A large marquee requires an average of 400 kilowatts, and 300 kilowatts is required for bigger rides.

To supply the tents with natural gas, a four-kilometer long network of gas lines was built. The gas consumption amounts to 180,000 cubic meters for the kitchens of various catering establishments, and 20,000 cubic meters to heat the beer gardens. Most festival tents and rides use green electricity from Stadtwerke München to reduce pollution.

Because even a short power outage could lead to panic, all power supplies have redundancy and are fed separately. Even the lights of the individual marquees are supplied from two different substations. Despite all the precautions, on 25 September 2007, several hours of power failure occurred after a cable channel had been flooded due to heavy rains.

Since the power outage occurred in the morning, there were service shortages in the catering areas, but no panic resulted.[36]

To ensure sufficient capacity of cellular networks, each year several mobile masts are set up in the lawn areas surrounding the festival.

Transportation

Theresienwiese, the closest U-Bahn station to the Oktoberfest

The Münchner Verkehrsgesellschaft reports transporting almost four million visitors, to and from, the festival grounds each Oktoberfest. Especially at night, the U- and S-Bahn trains are full. The underground station, Theresienwiese, has trains arriving at rush hour in three-minute intervals. The station occasionally needs to be closed due to overcrowding after the closure of the beer tents. To ensure smooth operation and safety of passengers, the Münchner Verkehrsgesellschaft and the Deutsche Bahn have increased their security personnel. People are also encouraged to use the nearby stations Goetheplatz, Schwanthalerhöhe and Hackerbrücke (the latter of the S-Bahn) or walk the short distance from the main railway station on foot.

There are significant negative effects pertaining to traffic. Since numerous festival goers make their way home by car despite having consumed alcohol, the Bavarian State Police carries out large-scale DUI controls. The city ring roads and highways around Munich are periodically blocked to allow only one lane of through traffic, which leads to massive traffic congestion.

Especially during the middle weekend of the festival, many Italians arrive with caravans (this weekend is therefore referred to by the residents of Munich as "the Italian's weekend").[37]

In response, the government imposes camping bans in many parts of the city. At the same time, special parking outside the city is established, which can be reached by public transportation. Large parking areas are available, for example, close to the Allianz Arena. Nevertheless, the parking situation around the festival grounds is critical. As a consequence, the effort for controls and towing services is substantial.

2010, in coordination with the new security concept, taxi stands were relocated. They are now found outside of the security ring further away from the fairground.

Trash and toilets

Nearly 1,000 tons of trash result annually from the Oktoberfest. The mountains of trash are hauled away and the ways cleanly washed down each morning. The cleaning is paid for in part by the city of Munich and in part by the sponsors.[citation needed]

In 2004 the queues outside the toilets became so long that the police had to regulate access. To keep traffic moving through the toilets, men headed for the toilets were directed first to the urinals (giant enclosed grates) if they only needed to urinate. Consequently, the number of toilets was increased by 20% in 2005. Approximately 1,800 toilets and urinals are available today.[citation needed]

Many guests visit the quiet stalls to use their mobile phones. For this reason, there were plans in 2005 to install a Faraday cage around the toilets or to use Mobile phone jammers to prevent telephoning with those devices. Jamming devices are, however, illegal in Germany, and Faraday cages made of copper would have been too expensive, so these ambitious plans were dropped, and signs were placed instead, warning toilet users not to use cellular phones in the stalls.[citation needed] More recently, amplifying live music in the toilets has led to them no longer representing a quiet retreat for telephoning.

Tents

There are currently fourteen large tents and twenty small tents at the Oktoberfest. The tents are wooden[38] non-permanent structures which are constructed for and only used during the festival. The beer (or wine) served in each is in the accompanying table.[39]

Name Brewery Seating
inside outside
Large Tents
Marstall Spaten-Franziskaner-Bräu 3,200 1,000
Armbrustschützenzelt Paulaner 5,839 1,600
Hofbräu-Festzelt Hofbräu München 6,896 3,622
Hacker-Festzelt Hacker-Pschorr 6,900 2,400
Schottenhamel Spaten-Franziskaner-Bräu 6,000 4,000
Winzerer Fähndl Paulaner 8,450 2,450
Schützen-Festhalle Löwenbräu 4,442 0
Käfer Wiesn-Schänke Paulaner 1,000 1,900
Weinzelt Nymphenburger Sekt 1,300 600
Paulaner Weißbier
Löwenbräu-Festhalle Löwenbräu 5,700 2,800
Bräurosl Hacker-Pschorr 6,000 2,200
Augustiner-Festhalle Augustiner Bräu 6,000 2,500
Ochsenbraterei Spaten 5,900 1,500
Fischer-Vroni Augustiner 2,695 700
Small Tents
Able's Kalbs-Kuchl Spaten 300 0
Ammer Hühner & Entenbraterei Augustiner 450 450
Bodo's Cafezelt Exotic Cocktails 450 0
Café Kaiserschmarrn Cocktail bar 400 0
Café Mohrenkopf XXL- Cocktails 420 0
Feisingers Ka's und Weinstubn Wine & Wheat Beer 92 90
Glöckle Wirt Spaten 140 0
Heimer Hendl- und Entenbratere Paulaner 400 0
Heinz Wurst- Und Hühnerbraterei Paulaner 360 0
Hochreiters Haxnbraterei Löwenbräu 250 0
Münchner Knödelei Paulaner 300 90
Poschners Hühner- Und Entenbraterei Hacker-Pschorr 350 0
Schiebl's Kaffeehaferl Irish Coffee 100 0
Wiesn Guglhupf Café-Dreh-Bar Mix Bar 60 0
Wildmoser Hühnerbraterei Hacker-Pschorr 320 0
Wildstuben Augustiner 271 0
Wirtshaus im Schichtl 120 0
Zum Stiftl Paulaner 360 0
Zur Bratwurst Augustiner 160 0

Large Tents

  • Marstall – One of the larger tents, it's the first tent that many visitors see at the fest. Traditionally, in the evening, the Oktoberfest band "Münchner Zwietracht" plays all the Oktoberfest classics.[40]
  • Armbrustschützenzelt – Translates as the "Crossbowman's Tent", a competition that has been a part of the Oktoberfest since 1895.
  • Hofbräu-Festzelt – The counterpart to the famous Hofbräuhaus, this tent is especially popular with Americans, Australians and New Zealanders.
  • Hacker-Festzelt – One of the largest tents on the Wiesn, they have a rock band that plays during the evening break of the brass band. This tent is marketing itself as Himmel der Bayern (Heaven of the Bavarians).
  • Schottenhamel – Reckoned to be the most important tent at the Oktoberfest, mainly because it is located at the beginning. On the first Saturday of the event, no beer is allowed to be served until the Mayor of Munich (currently Dieter Reiter) taps the first keg, at exactly high noon.[41] Only then can the other tents begin to serve beer. The tent is very popular among younger people. A substantial part of the tent is guaranteed to traditional Studentenverbindungen (a particular form of student fraternities) and outfitted with their distinctive colors and coats of arms.
  • Winzerer Fähndl – Literally translates as "Winzerers little flag" and refers to the name of an old crossbowmen's guild, itself referring to a miltitary unit for the Thirty Year's War: "Fähnlein" being an ancient 16th/17th century German word for the equivalent of a company/battalion of ca. 400 mercenary soldiers. was the famous bavarian captain of such a unit. This tent is noted for its huge tower, with a Maß of Paulaner beer sitting atop it.
  • Schützen-Festhalle – This is a mid-sized tent. Situated under the Bavaria statue, the current tent was newly built in 2004.
  • Käfer Wiesn-Schänke – The smallest of the large tents at the Oktoberfest, it is frequented by celebrities, and is known for its especially good – and expensive – food. In contrast to the other tents (which must close by 11 pm), it is open until 12:30 am, and it can be very difficult to gain admittance.
  • Weinzelt – Translates as "wine tent". This tent offers a selection of more than 15 wines, as well as Weißbier.
  • Löwenbräu-Festhalle – Above the entrance is a 4.50-meter (15 foot) high lion who occasionally drinks from his beer. This is overshadowed by yet another tower where an even larger drinking lion sits.
  • Bräurosl (Hacker-Pschorr) – Translates as "brewers Rosemary". Named after the daughter of the original brewery owner (Pschorr), this tent has the usual brass band and yodeler. On the first Sunday of the festival, this tent hosts the hugely popular gay & lesbian party, Rosa Wiesn.
  • Augustiner-Festhalle – Considered by many locals to be the best tent, due to the fact it sells the favourite local brew, Augustiner, from individually tapped wooden kegs rather than stainless steel vats used by the other tents.
  • Ochsenbraterei – True to its name, this tent offers a great variety of dishes.
  • Fischer-Vroni – Translates as "Fishers Veronika". Another of the smaller tents. Fisch is the German word for fish and this tent carries a huge selection on its menu. The main dish is Steckerlfisch, which is grilled outside of the tent.

Small Tents[42]

  • Able's Kalbs-Kuchl – Resembling a large Bavarian hut, the "calf kitchen" is traditional and inviting yet still has a lively party atmosphere which Oktoberfest fans crave.
  • Ammer Hühner & Entenbraterei – In 1885, poultry dealer Joseph Ammer was allowed to construct his small booth at the Oktoberfest, creating the world's first chicken roastery. Duck is offered as well.
  • Bodo's Cafezelt – Don't come to Bodo's looking for beer. Instead you'll find, exotic cocktails, Prosecco, champagne, coffee, donuts, ice cream, pastry, and strudel variations of all kinds.
  • Café Kaiserschmarrn – Beautifully created by Rischart, the Café holds a daily commemoration of the occasion of the first Oktoberfest – the wedding of Ludwig I and Therese of Saxony.
  • Café Mohrenkopf – Since 1950 Café Mohrenkopf has been baking cakes and pies fresh daily in the Oktoberfest tent.
  • Feisingers Ka's und Weinstubn – Cheese and everything that complements it is the specialty of the house in this unique tent.
  • Glöckle Wirt – A visual treat, decorated with oil paintings, antique instruments and cooking utensils, the Glöckle Wirt offers its visitors an authentic Oktoberfest experience in a warm, welcoming atmosphere.
  • Heimer Hendl- und Entenbraterei – Very popular among the locals, Heimer's is a family-friendly tent where authentic Oktoberfest tradition is timeless.
  • Heinz Wurst- Und Hühnerbraterei – Since 1906, the Heinz sausage and chicken grill has been a fixture on the Wiesn, specializing in authentic Oktoberfest tradition.
  • Hochreiters Haxnbraterei – Quality is paramount in Hochreiter's tent, where their BBQ experts prepare mouth-watering pork knuckles in the only Haxenbraterei on the Oktoberfest.
  • Münchner Knödelei – The dumpling is an icon of Bavarian cuisine, and "preserving and spreading the dumpling culture" is the motto of this smaller tent.
  • Poschners Hühner- Und Entenbraterei – Poschner's famous roasted chicken and duck have been a tradition on the Wiesn for four generations.
  • Schiebl's Kaffeehaferl – With seating for about 100, Schiebl's comfy coffeehouse tent is a friendly meeting place for the whole family. – Haferl is the bavarian term for a (coffee, tea...) mug or pot.
  • Wiesn Guglhupf Café-Dreh-Bar – A Guglhupf is a German cake, like an English bundt cake, and this slowly moving carousel bar is easy to spot because it's shaped like one.
  • Wildmoser Hühnerbraterei – Owned by the family Wildmoser since 1981, this small tent has been adopted and popularized by the Munich locals.
  • Wildstuben – The newest tent at Oktoberfest, you'll appreciate the intricate details of the woodwork and the homey hunting-lodge ambiance.
  • Wirtshaus im Schichtl – "The Schichtl is as essential as beer, radish and chicken." former mayor Christian Ude once wrote: "An Oktoberfest without Schichtl is inconceivable.".
  • Zum Stiftl – famous for its traditional duck and roasted chicken dishes, cozy atmosphere, and daily entertainment.
  • Zur Bratwurst – Debuting in 2007, the Hochreiter family has brought back the former Bratwurstglöckl in the spirit of good old Munich Oktoberfest.

Other information

Construction of the marquees
  • Experienced waiters need an average of only one and a half seconds to fill a Maß.[43]
  • Letters, which are placed in the Oktoberfest mailboxes receive a special stamp from the post office.[44]
  • One attraction, which does not exist at other festivals, is the flea circus. It has been an attraction at the Wiesn since 1948 and a "team" of about 60 fleas provide for the entertainment especially for the children.[45]
  • After the attacks on 11 September 2001, in the same year, the traditional beer tapping was omitted, instead there was a contemplative celebration in Schottenhamel tent.[46]
  • Since 2009, the Theresienwiese is closed off during the construction and dismantling of the festival. The city of Munich wants to prevent any accident to visitors at the construction site that the city would be accountable for.[47]
  • In 2015, the festival officially served 7.3 million litres (62,000 US bbl) of beer; for perspective, that is enough to fill nearly three (2.9) Olympic-size swimming pools.[48]
  • One famous song in a beer tent is "Ein Prosit der Gemütlichkeit" which means translated "A toast to cheer and good times". The band leader plays this song several times to invite the guests to toast and drink.[49]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "Oktoberfest Beer Consumption".
  2. ^ "Oktoberfestbier". German Beer Institute. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  3. ^ "Das erste Oktoberfest". wiesnkini.de (in German). Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  4. ^ Tobias Lill (25 September 2008). "Wie Hitler das Oktoberfest stahl". wiesnkini.de (in German). Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  5. ^ Julia Meyer. "Das Münchner Oktoberfest" (in German). München-Lese. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  6. ^ "Parade of the landlords". oktoberfestlederhosen.com.
  7. ^ "Herzlich Willkommen beim Münchner Roten Kreuz". Bayerisches Rotes Kreuz. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  8. ^ The Guardian: Kate Connolly, "Gay times at Munich's Oktoberfest," September 22, 2011, accessed 27 January 2012.
  9. ^ Ganser, Daniele. "Nato-Geheimarmeen und ihr Terror" (PDF) (in German). danieleganser.ch.
  10. ^ "Rules for Oktoberfest jeered". www.houblon.net. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
  11. ^ "Up in Smoke: Bavarian Politicians Want to Relax Smoking Ban". Spiegel Online International. 6 March 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  12. ^ "Smoking at the Oktoberfest". oktoberfest.de. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  13. ^ "Oktoberfest 2010 – Raucher sollen kein Bier kriegen". Spiegel Online (in German). 29 July 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  14. ^ "Life After the Smoking Ban – Bacteria To Fight Beer Stench at Oktoberfest". Spiegel Online. 9 October 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  15. ^ "A History". oktoberfestbeerfestivals.com. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  16. ^ "Infos zur Oidn Wiesn". Oktoberfest.de (in German). Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  17. ^ "Das Herzkasperl-Festzelt". Oktoberfest.de (in German). Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  18. ^ Silke Lode (16 October 2012). "Oide Wiesn, junge Kultur" (in German). Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  19. ^ "Einzug der Wirte". Wiesnkini.de (in German). Retrieved 12 October 2015.
  20. ^ Beate Wild, Maria Berr. "Drei Schläge zum Glück" (in German). Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
  21. ^ News.de-Redaktion. "Oktoberfest 2019 News-Ticker aktuell: Millionen Besucher strömen auf das traditionelle Gelage". News.de. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  22. ^ Schmidt, Maximilian (1902). Meine Wanderung durch 70 Jahre. Zweiter Teil (in German). Reutlingen: Enßlin & Laiblin. pp. 247–260.
  23. ^ "Oktoberfest". Spaten. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  24. ^ "10 Things you didn't know about Oktoberfest". Costume Crazy. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  25. ^ "It's all about the beer...". Oktoberfest.de.
  26. ^ "Oktoberfest". Spaten. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  27. ^ "How to enjoy Oktoberfest like a local". USA Today. 5 September 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
  28. ^ "Realbeer.com: Beer News: Oktoberfest visitors set records". realbeer.com.
  29. ^ "Informationen zum Oktoberfest" (in German). muenchen.de.
  30. ^ "Oktoberfest Economics" (Press release). muenchen.de.
  31. ^ Daniel Aschoff (15 July 2008). "Der Eurostar ist jetzt ein Russe" (in German). Abendzeitung. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  32. ^ "Flugverbot über dem Oktoberfest" (in German). Süddeutsche Zeitung. 17 May 2010. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  33. ^ Stefan Dorner (16 March 2010). "170 Poller sollen die Wiesn schützen" (in German). tz München. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  34. ^ S. Lode, S. Wimmer (14 March 2011). "Es gibt nie eine hundertprozentige Sicherheit" (in German). Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  35. ^ S. Menrad, Jasmin (12 September 2016). "Mobiler Rollzaun: Der Wiesn-Käfig steht!" (in German). Abendzeitung. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  36. ^ "Dauerregen: Umsatz-Killer und Stromausfall" (in German). Augsburger Allgemeine. 26 September 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  37. ^ "The Italian Weekend – Oktoberfest, ti amo!". Oktoberfest.de. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  38. ^ "Oktoberfest construction – Bavaria's biggest building project". Building Radar.
  39. ^ "Beer Tents". The Oktoberfest Website.
  40. ^ "The Marstall".
  41. ^ "Anzapfen, the opening ritual of Oktoberfest" (in German). Wiesnkini. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  42. ^ "Oktoberfest Tents". OktoberfestPackages.com.
  43. ^ "O'zapft is – Kurioses um das Oktoberfest". Uniturm.de (in German). 17 September 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  44. ^ "Oktoberfest fun facts". State of Bavaria Quebec Office. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  45. ^ "Flohzirkus". Wiesenkini.de (in German). Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  46. ^ Karin Truscheit (21 September 2013). "Kraft allein reicht nicht" (in German). Frankfurter Allgemeine. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  47. ^ "Aufbau des Oktoberfests: Die Theresienwiese wird zur Baustelle". Oktoberfest.de (in German). Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  48. ^ "History of Oktoberfest – How It Began in Munich Germany". Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  49. ^ "Octoberfest Customs". Retrieved 29 August 2016.

External links

11 October 1991

Anita Hill delivers her televised testimony concerning sexual harassment during the Clarence Thomas Supreme Court nomination

Anita Hill

Anita Hill
Anita Hill by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Hill in February 2018
Born
Anita Faye Hill

(1956-07-30) July 30, 1956 (age 63)[1]
ResidenceMassachusetts[2]
NationalityAmerican
EducationAttorney
Alma materOklahoma State University (BS)
Yale Law School (JD)
OccupationEducator, Professor, Lawyer, Author, Activist
Years active1983–present
EmployerBrandeis University
Known forCivil and Women's rights activism
Board member ofBoard of Trustees, Southern Vermont College
AwardsFletcher Foundation Fellowship;
Louis P. and Evelyn Smith First Amendment Award

Anita Faye Hill (born July 30, 1956) is an American lawyer and academic. She is a university professor of social policy, law, and women's studies at Brandeis University and a faculty member of the university's Heller School for Social Policy and Management.[3] She became a national figure in 1991 when she accused U.S. Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas, her supervisor at the United States Department of Education and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, of sexual harassment.[4]

Early life

Anita Hill was born to a family of farmers in Lone Tree, Oklahoma, the youngest of Albert and Erma Hill's 13 children.[4][5] Her family came from Arkansas, where her maternal grandfather, Henry Eliot, and all of her great-grandparents had been born into slavery.[6] Hill was raised in the Baptist faith.[4]

After graduating from , Oklahoma, she enrolled at Oklahoma State University and received a bachelor's degree in psychology with honors in 1977.[4][5] She went on to Yale Law School, obtaining her Juris Doctor degree with honors in 1980.[4][7]

She was admitted to the District of Columbia Bar in 1980 and began her law career as an associate with the Washington, D.C. firm of Wald, Harkrader & Ross. In 1981, she became an attorney-adviser to Clarence Thomas, who was then the Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights. When Thomas became chairman of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) in 1982, Hill went along to serve as his assistant, leaving the job in 1983.[8]

Hill then became an assistant professor at the Evangelical Christian O. W. Coburn School of Law at Oral Roberts University where she taught from 1983 to 1986.[9] In 1986, she joined the faculty at the University of Oklahoma College of Law where she taught commercial law and contracts.[10][11]

Allegations of sexual harassment against Clarence Thomas

In 1991, President George H. W. Bush nominated Clarence Thomas, a federal Circuit Judge, to succeed retiring Associate Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall. Senate hearings on his confirmation were initially completed[12] with Thomas's good character being presented as a primary qualification for the high court because he had only been a judge for slightly more than one year.[13] There had been little organized opposition to Thomas' nomination, and his confirmation seemed assured[13] until a report of a private interview of Hill by the FBI was leaked to the press.[12][14] The hearings were then reopened, and Hill was called to publicly testify.[12][14] Hill said on 11 October 1991 in televised hearings that Thomas had sexually harassed her while he was her supervisor at the Department of Education and the EEOC.[15] When questioned on why she followed Thomas to the second job after he had already allegedly harassed her, she said working in a reputable position within the civil rights field had been her ambition. The position was appealing enough to inhibit her from going back into private practice with her previous firm. She said that she only realized later in her life that this ambitious venture was a poor judgment and also explained that "at that time, it appeared that the sexual overtures ... had ended."[5][16]

According to Hill, Thomas asked her out socially many times during her two years of employment as his assistant,[7] and, after she declined his requests, he used work situations to discuss sexual subjects.[5][7] "He spoke about ... such matters as women having sex with animals and films showing group sex or rape scenes," she said, adding that on several occasions Thomas graphically described "his own sexual prowess" and the details of his anatomy.[5] Hill also recounted an instance in which Thomas examined a can of Coke on his desk and asked, "Who has put pubic hair on my Coke?"[5] During the hearing, Republican Senator Orrin Hatch implied that "Hill was working in tandem with 'slick lawyers' and interest groups bent on destroying Thomas' chances to join the court." Thomas said he had considered Hill a friend whom he had helped at every turn, so when accusations of harassment came from her they were particularly hurtful and he said, "I lost the belief that if I did my best, all would work out."

Four female witnesses reportedly waited in the wings to support Hill's credibility, but they were not called,[14][17] due to what the Los Angeles Times described as a private, compromise deal between Republicans and the Senate Judiciary Committee Chair, Democrat Joe Biden.[18]

Hill agreed to take a polygraph test. While senators and other authorities noted that polygraph results cannot be relied upon and are inadmissible in courts, Hill's results did support her statements.[19] Thomas did not take a polygraph test. He made a vehement and complete denial, saying that he was being subjected to a "high-tech lynching for uppity blacks" by white liberals who were seeking to block a black conservative from taking a seat on the Supreme Court.[20][21] After extensive debate, the United States Senate confirmed Thomas to the Supreme Court by a vote of 52–48, the narrowest margin since the 19th century.[17][22]

Thomas' supporters questioned Hill's credibility, claiming she was delusional or had been spurned, leading her to seek revenge.[14] They cited the time delay of ten years between the alleged behavior by Thomas and Hill's accusations, and noted that Hill had followed Thomas to a second job and later had personal contacts with Thomas, including giving him a ride to an airport—behavior which they said would be inexplicable if Hill's allegations were true.[7][10][14][23] Hill countered that she had come forward because she felt an obligation to share information on the character and actions of a person who was being considered for the Supreme Court.[14] She testified that after leaving the EEOC, she had had two "inconsequential" phone conversations with Thomas, and had seen him personally on two occasions, once to get a job reference and the second time when he made a public appearance in Oklahoma where she was teaching.[5]

Doubts about the veracity of Hill's 1991 testimony persisted long after Thomas took his seat on the Court. They were furthered by American Spectator writer David Brock in his 1993 book The Real Anita Hill,[17] though he later recanted the claims he had made, described in his book as "character assassination," and apologized to Hill.[24][25] After interviewing a number of women who alleged that Thomas had frequently subjected them to sexually explicit remarks, Wall Street Journal reporters Jane Mayer and Jill Abramson wrote Strange Justice: The Selling of Clarence Thomas, a book which concluded that Thomas had lied during his confirmation process.[22][26] Richard Lacayo in his 1994 review of the book for Time magazine remarked, however, that "Their book doesn't quite nail that conclusion."[17] In 2007, Kevin Merida, a coauthor of another book on Thomas, remarked that what happened between Thomas and Hill was "ultimately unknowable" by others, but that it was clear that "one of them lied, period."[27][28] Writing in 2007, Neil Lewis of The New York Times remarked that, "To this day, each side in the epic he-said, she-said dispute has its unmovable believers."[29]

In 2007, Thomas published his autobiography, My Grandfather's Son, in which he revisited the controversy, calling Hill his "most traitorous adversary" and saying that pro-choice liberals, who feared that he would vote to overturn Roe v. Wade if he were seated on the Supreme Court, used the scandal against him.[29] He described Hill as touchy and apt to overreact, and her work at the EEOC as mediocre.[29][30] He acknowledged that three other former EEOC employees had backed Hill's story, but said they had all left the agency on bad terms.[30] He also wrote that Hill "was a left-winger who'd never expressed any religious sentiments whatsoever ... and the only reason why she'd held a job in the Reagan administration was because I'd given it to her."[31] Hill denied the accusations in an op-ed in The New York Times saying she would not "stand by silently and allow [Justice Thomas], in his anger, to reinvent me."[2][32]

In October 2010, Thomas's wife Virginia, a conservative activist, left a voicemail at Hill's office asking that Hill apologize for her 1991 testimony. Hill initially believed the call was a hoax and referred the matter to the Brandeis University campus police who alerted the FBI.[21][33] After being informed that the call was indeed from Virginia Thomas, Hill told the media that she did not believe the message was meant to be conciliatory and said, "I testified truthfully about my experience and I stand by that testimony."[21] Virginia Thomas responded that the call had been intended as an "olive branch".[21]

Effects

Shortly after the Thomas confirmation hearings, President George H. W. Bush dropped his opposition to a bill that gave harassment victims the right to seek federal damage awards, back pay, and reinstatement, and the law was passed by Congress.[34][35] One year later, harassment complaints filed with the EEOC were up 50 percent and public opinion had shifted in Hill's favor.[35] Private companies also started training programs to deter sexual harassment.[34] When journalist Cinny Kennard asked Hill in 1991 if she would testify against Thomas all over again, Hill answered, "I'm not sure if I could have lived with myself if I had answered those questions any differently."[36]

The manner in which the Senate Judiciary Committee challenged and dismissed Hill's accusations of sexual harassment angered female politicians and lawyers.[37] According to D.C. Congressional Delegate Eleanor Holmes Norton, Hill's treatment by the panel was a contributing factor to the large number of women elected to Congress in 1992. "Women clearly went to the polls with the notion in mind that you had to have more women in Congress," she said.[2] In their anthology, All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men, but Some of Us Are Brave, editors Gloria T. Hull, Patricia Bell-Scott, and Barbara Smith described black feminists mobilizing "a remarkable national response to the Anita Hill–Clarence Thomas controversy.[38]

In 1992, a feminist group began a nationwide fundraising campaign and then obtained matching state funds to endow a professorship at the University of Oklahoma College of Law in honor of Hill.[11][39] Conservative Oklahoma state legislators reacted by demanding Hill's resignation from the university, then introducing a bill to prohibit the university from accepting donations from out-of-state residents, and finally attempting to pass legislation to close down the law school.[11] Elmer Zinn Million, a local activist, compared Hill to Lee Harvey Oswald, the assassin of President Kennedy.[11][39] Certain officials at the university attempted to revoke Hill's tenure.[40] After five years of pressure, Hill resigned.[11] The University of Oklahoma Law School defunded the Anita F. Hill professorship in May 1999, without the position having ever been filled.[41]

On 25 April 2019, the 2020 US presidential campaign team for Joe Biden disclosed that he had called Ms. Hill to express "his regret for what she endured" 28 years ago, when, as the chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, he presided over the confirmation hearings in which she accused Clarence Thomas, President George Bush's nominee to the Supreme Court, of sexual harassment. Ms. Hill said the call from Mr. Biden left her feeling deeply unsatisfied.[42][43]

Later career

Hill in 2014 speaking at Harvard Law School

Hill continued to teach at the University of Oklahoma, though she spent two years as a visiting professor in California. She resigned her post in October 1996 and finished her final semester of teaching there.[44] In her final semester, she taught a law school seminar on civil rights. An endowed chair was created in her name, but was later defunded without ever having been filled.[41]

Hill accepted a position as a visiting scholar at the Institute for the Study of Social Change at University of California, Berkeley in January 1997,[45] but soon joined the faculty of Brandeis University—first at the Women's Studies Program, later moving to the Heller School for Social Policy and Management. In 2011, she also took a counsel position with the Civil Rights & Employment Practice group of the plaintiffs' law firm Cohen Milstein Sellers & Toll.[9]

Over the years, Hill has provided commentary on gender and race issues on national television programs, including 60 Minutes, Face the Nation, and Meet the Press.[4][9] She has been a speaker on the topic of commercial law as well as race and women's rights.[9] She is also the author of articles that have been published in The New York Times and Newsweek[4][9] and has contributed to many scholarly and legal publications in the areas of international commercial law, bankruptcy, and civil rights.[9][46]

In 1995, Hill co-edited Race, Gender and Power in America: The Legacy of the Hill-Thomas Hearings with Emma Coleman Jordan.[4][47] In 1997 Hill published her autobiography, Speaking Truth to Power,[48] in which she chronicled her role in the Clarence Thomas confirmation controversy[4][6] and wrote that creating a better society had been a motivating force in her life.[49] She contributed the piece "The Nature of the Beast: Sexual Harassment" to the 2003 anthology Sisterhood Is Forever: The Women's Anthology for a New Millennium, edited by Robin Morgan.[50] In 2011, Hill published her second book, Reimagining Equality: Stories of Gender, Race, and Finding Home, which focuses on the sub-prime lending crisis that resulted in the foreclosure of many homes owned by African-Americans.[14][51] She calls for a new understanding about the importance of a home and its place in the American Dream.[6] On March 26, 2015, the Brandeis Board of Trustees unanimously voted to recognize Hill with a promotion to Private University Professor of Social Policy, Law, and Women's Studies.[52]

On December 16, 2017, the Commission on Sexual Harassment and Advancing Equality in the Workplace was formed, selecting Hill to lead its charge against sexual harassment in the entertainment industry. The new initiative was spearheaded by co-chair of the Nike Foundation Maria Eitel, venture capitalist Freada Kapor Klein, Lucasfilm President Kathleen Kennedy and talent attorney Nina Shaw.[53]

In September 2018, Hill wrote an op-ed in The New York Times regarding sexual assault allegations made by Christine Blasey Ford during the Brett Kavanaugh Supreme Court nomination.[54] On November 8, 2018, Anita Hill spoke at the USC Dornsife's event, "From Social Movement to Social Impact: Putting an End to Sexual Harassment in the Workplace".[55][56]

In popular culture

Written works

External video
Booknotes interview with Hill on Speaking Truth to Power, November 23, 1997, C-SPAN (58:21)

On October 20, 1998, Anita Hill published the book Speaking Truth to Power. Throughout much of the book she gives details on her side of the sexual harassment controversy, and her professional relationship with Clarence Thomas. Aside from that, she also provides a glimpse of what her personal life was like all the way from her childhood days growing up in Oklahoma to her position as a law professor.[48][page needed]

In 2011, Hill's second book, Reimagining Equality: Stories of Gender, Race, and Finding Home was published.[64] She discusses the relationship between the home and the American Dream. She also exposes the inequalities within gender and race and home ownership. She argues that inclusive democracy is more important than debates about legal rights. She uses her own history and history of other African American women such as Nannie Helen Burroughs, in order to strengthen her argument for reimagining equality altogether.

In 1994, she wrote a tribute to Thurgood Marshall, the first African American Supreme Court Justice who preceded Clarence Thomas, titled A Tribute to Thurgood Marshall: A Man Who Broke with Tradition on Issues of Race and Gender.[65] She notes Thurgood's contributions to the principles of equality as a judge and how his work has affected the lives of African Americans, specifically African American women.

Anita Hill became a proponent for women's rights and feminism. This can be seen through the chapter she wrote in the book Women and leadership: the state of play and strategies for change.[66] She wrote about women judges and why, in her opinion, they play such a large role in balancing the judicial system. She argues that since women and men have different life experiences, ways of thinking, and histories, both are needed for a balanced court system. She writes that in order for the best law system to be created in the United States, all people need the ability to be represented.

Awards and recognition

Hill received the American Bar Association's Commission on Women in the Profession's "Women of Achievement" award in 1992.[67] In 2005, Hill was selected as a Fletcher Foundation Fellow. In 2008 she was awarded the Louis P. and Evelyn Smith First Amendment Award[68] by the Ford Hall Forum. She also serves on the Board of Trustees for Southern Vermont College in Bennington, Vermont.[69] Her opening statement to the Senate Judiciary Committee in 1991 is listed as No. 69 in American Rhetoric's Top 100 Speeches of the 20th Century (listed by rank).[70][71] She was inducted into the Oklahoma Women's Hall of Fame in 1993.[72] On January 7, 2017, Hill was inducted as an honorary member of Zeta Phi Beta sorority at their National Executive Board Meeting in Dallas, Texas.[73] The following year, Hill was awarded an honorary LLM degree by Wesleyan University.[74] The Wing's Washington, D.C. location has a phone booth dedicated to Hill.[75]

See also

References

  1. ^ Anita Hill (2011). Speaking Truth to Power. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 53. ISBN 9780307779663.
  2. ^ a b c Krissah Thompson (October 6, 2011). "For Anita Hill, the Clarence Thomas hearings haven't really ended". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
  3. ^ "Faculty and Researchers, Anita Hill". Brandeis University. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Hill, Anita F. (1956–)". Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. Oklahoma Historical Society. Archived from the original on October 13, 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "Hearings Before the Senate Committee on the Judiciary on The Nomination of Clarence Thomas to be Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, Hill, Anita F. Testimony and prepared statement" (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. October 11–13, 1991. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 7, 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
  6. ^ a b c "Anita Hill's book on gender, race and home creating a stir", "BrandeisNOW", September 30, 2011.
  7. ^ a b c d Roberto Suro (October 8, 1991). "The Thomas Nomination; A Law Professor Defends Integrity". The New York Times. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
  8. ^ "Anita Hill". Encyclopedia Britannica. October 2, 2018. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Attorneys: Anita F. Hill, Of Counsel". Cohen Milstein. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  10. ^ a b Suro, Roberto (October 9, 1991). "The Thomas Nomination - Woman at Center of Furor Seeks Quiet of Law Classes". The New York Times. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
  11. ^ a b c d e Jo Thomas (November 13, 1996). "Anita Hill Plans to Leave Teaching Post in Oklahoma". The New York Times. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
  12. ^ a b c Joel Siegel (October 24, 2011). "Clarence Thomas-Anita Hill Supreme Court Confirmation Hearing 'Empowered Women' and Panel Member Arlen Specter Still Amazed by Reactions". ABC News.
  13. ^ a b Jeffrey Toobin (September 18, 2007). The Nine: Inside the Secret World of the Supreme Court. Doubleday. pp. 30–32. ISBN 978-0-385-51640-2.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Cynthia Gordy (October 18, 2011). "Anita Hill Defends Her Legacy". The Root. Archived from the original on November 1, 2011. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  15. ^ "Anita Hill's Testimony and Other Key Moments From the Clarence Thomas Hearings". Retrieved October 11, 2018.
  16. ^ "Anita Hill - Opening Statement" (PDF). American Rhetoric. October 11, 1991. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2018. Retrieved April 18, 2016.
  17. ^ a b c d Richard Lacayo (November 14, 1994). "Strange Justice: A Book on Clarence Thomas". Time. Archived from the original on November 4, 2010. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
  18. ^ Douglas Frantz; Sam Fulwood III (October 17, 1991). "Senators' Private Deal Kept '2nd Woman' Off TV: Thomas: Democrats feared Republican attacks on Angela Wright's public testimony. Biden's handling of the hearing is criticized". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
  19. ^ Martin Tolchin (October 14, 1991). "The Thomas Nomination; Hill Said To Pass A Polygraph". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
  20. ^ "Hearing of the Senate Judiciary Committee on the Nomination of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court, Testimony of Clarence Thomas, October 11, 1991". Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on September 13, 2013. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  21. ^ a b c d Jess Bravin (October 20, 2010). "Justice's Wife Seeks Apology From His Accuser". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
  22. ^ a b Margaret Carlson (July 9, 2001). "Smearing Anita Hill: A Writer Confesses". Time. Archived from the original on November 24, 2010. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
  23. ^ "The Thomas Nomination; Questions to Those Who Corroborated Hill Account". The New York Times. October 29, 1991. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
  24. ^ Alex Kuczynski; William Glaberson (June 27, 2001). "Book Author Says He Lied in His Attacks on Anita Hill in Bid to Aid Justice Thomas". The New York Times. Retrieved October 14, 2011.
  25. ^ By 2004, Brock had made a political about-face from conservative to liberal and founded the progressive media watchdog organization Media Matters for America
  26. ^ Jill Abramson; Jane Mayer (1994). Strange Justice: The Selling of Clarence Thomas. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-63318-2.
  27. ^ Michael Scherer (October 20, 2010). "'Good Morning Anita Hill, It's Ginni Thomas'". Time. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
  28. ^ Kevin Merida and Michael A. Fletcher (April 23, 2007). "Live Q & A - Books:Supreme Discomfort". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 25, 2011.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  29. ^ a b c Neil A. Lewis (September 30, 2007). "In New Book, Justice Thomas Weighs In on Former Accuser". The New York Times. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
  30. ^ a b Associated Press staff (September 28, 2007). "16 years later, Thomas fires back at Anita Hill". MSNBC.com. Associated Press. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
  31. ^ Clarence Thomas (October 2007). My Grandfather's Son. Harper Perennial. p. 250. ISBN 978-0-06-056555-8. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
  32. ^ Anita F. Hill (October 2, 2007). "The Smear This Time". The New York Times. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
  33. ^ Savage, Charlie (October 19, 2010). "Clarence Thomas's Wife Asks Anita Hill for Apology". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 11, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
  34. ^ a b "Sexual Harassment 20 Years Later". The New York Times. October 21, 2011. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
  35. ^ a b Jill Smolowe (October 19, 1992). "Anita Hill's Legacy". Time. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  36. ^ Kennard, Cinny (October 13, 2011). "Twenty Years Later: Covering the Anita Hill Story". HuffPost. Retrieved February 6, 2015. In Norman that Oct. 15 night, I asked Hill if she would do it all over again. 'I'm not sure if I could have lived with myself if I had answered those questions any differently,' she replied.
  37. ^ Maureen Dowd (October 8, 1991). "The Thomas Nomination: The Senate and Sexism; Panel's Handling of Harassment Allegation Renews Questions About an All-Male Club". The New York Times. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  38. ^ Gloria T. Hull (Ed.), Patricia Bell Scott (Ed.), Barbara Smith (Ed.) (2000). But Some Of Us Are Brave: All the Women Are White, All the Blacks Are Men: Black Women's Studies. Feminist Press at CUNY. p. xvi.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  39. ^ a b Jessica Seigel (May 3, 1993). "Fund, book Spark New Anita Hill Controversy". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  40. ^ Anita Hill (October 12, 2011). "The Stories I Carry With Me". Time. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
  41. ^ a b Killackey, Jim (May 8, 1999). "OU Scraps Anita Hill Law Professorship". The Oklahoman.
  42. ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay; Hulse, Carl (April 25, 2019). "Joe Biden Expresses Regret to Anita Hill, but She Says 'I'm Sorry' Is Not Enough". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
  43. ^ CNN, Caroline Kelly. "Joe Biden and Anita Hill finally spoke. She says he doesn't understand the damaged he caused". CNN. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
  44. ^ Thomas, Jo (November 13, 1996). "Anita Hill Plans to Leave Teaching Post in Oklahoma". The New York Times. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  45. ^ "Anita Hill to be visiting scholar at UC Berkeley during spring 1997 to work on book, give seminars". The Regents of the University of California. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
  46. ^ "Biography of Anita Hill". All American Speakers. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
  47. ^ Anita F. Hill, (Ed), and Emma Coleman Jordan (Ed.) (October 1995). Race, Gender and Power in America: The Legacy of the Hill-Thomas Hearings. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-508774-1.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  48. ^ a b Anita Hill (September 17, 1997). Speaking Truth to Power. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-47625-6.
  49. ^ "Then & Now: Anita Hill". CNN.com. June 19, 2005. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
  50. ^ "Library Resource Finder: Table of Contents for: Sisterhood is forever : the women's anth". Vufind.carli.illinois.edu. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
  51. ^ Anita Hill (October 4, 2011). Reimagining Equality: Stories of Gender, Race, and Finding Home. Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-1437-0.
  52. ^ BrandeisNow, "Anita Hill named University Professor" April 15, 2015
  53. ^ Washington Post: "Anita Hill chosen to lead Hollywood sexual harassment commission" by Ellen McCarthy December 16, 2017
  54. ^ Hill, Anita (September 18, 2018). "Anita Hill: How to Get the Kavanaugh Hearings Right". The New York Times. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  55. ^ "Anita Hill: Joe Biden 'Hasn't Apologized to Me' for Handling of Thomas Hearings". TheWrap. November 8, 2018. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
  56. ^ "From social movement to social impact: Putting an end to sexual harassment in the workplace". annenberg.usc.edu. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
  57. ^ The Internet Movie Database, The Strange Case of Clarence and Anita, retrieved May 7, 2019
  58. ^ Pareles, Jon (July 19, 1992). "RECORDINGS VIEW; Sonic Youth Admits An Outside World, Only to Confront It". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
  59. ^ Courrier, Kevin; Green, Susan (November 20, 1999). Law & Order: The Unofficial Companion – Updated and Expanded – Kevin Courrier, Susan Green – Google Books. ISBN 9781580631082. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  60. ^ "Banned in Oklahoma ..." bannedinoklahoma.handtruckproductions.com. June 9, 2004.
  61. ^ "Anita (2013)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
  62. ^ Film Festivals and Indie Films (January 16, 2014). "Anita Official Trailer 1 (2014) – Documentary HD". YouTube. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
  63. ^ "Kerry Washington to Star as Anita Hill in HBO Movie 'Confirmation' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. March 12, 2015.
  64. ^ Hill, Anita (2011). Reimagining Equality: Stories of Gender, Race, and Finding Home. Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press. ISBN 9780807014370.
  65. ^ Hill, Anita F. (1994). "A tribute to Thurgood Marshall: a man who broke with tradition on issues of race and gender.(Symposium: The Life and Jurisprudence of Justice Thurgood Marshall)". Oklahoma Law Review – via heinonline.
  66. ^ Hill, Anita (2007). "What Difference Will Women Judges Make? Looking Once More at the "Woman Question"". Women and Leadership: The State of Play and Strategies for Change. 1: 1–29.
  67. ^ "ABA SALUTES ANITA HILL".
  68. ^ "First Amendment Award History". Ford Hall Forum at Suffolk University. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  69. ^ "Board of Trustees". Southern Vermont College. Archived from the original on October 20, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  70. ^ Michael E. Eidenmuller (February 13, 2009). "Top 100 Speeches of the 20th Century by Rank". American Rhetoric. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  71. ^ Michael E. Eidenmuller (October 11, 1991). "Anita Hill – Opening Statement to Senate Judiciary Committee on the USSC Nomination of Clarence Thomas". American Rhetoric. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  72. ^ "Oklahoma Women's Hall of Fame Inductees by Year". library.okstate.edu. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  73. ^ "Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Incorporated (Official)". www.facebook.com.
  74. ^ Ormseth, Matthew (May 27, 2018). "Anita Hill, Tapped to Replace Keynote Speaker Accused of Sexual Misconduct, Warns Wesleyan Graduates of "Uncertain Times" Ahead". Hartford Courant. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  75. ^ Gstalter, Morgan (October 9, 2018). "Women's co-working network gives nod to Christine Blasey Ford at new space". The Hill. Retrieved October 15, 2018.

External links

10 October 1967

The Outer Space Treaty comes into force.

Outer Space Treaty

Outer Space Treaty
French: Traité de l'espace
Russian: Договор о космосе
Spanish: Tratado sobre el espacio ultraterrestre
Chinese: 外层空间条约
Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies
{{{image_alt}}}
  Parties
  Signatories
  Non-parties
Signed27 January 1967
LocationLondon, Moscow and Washington, D.C.
Effective10 October 1967
Condition5 ratifications, including the depositary Governments
Parties109[1][2][3][4]
DepositaryGovernments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America
LanguagesEnglish, French, Russian, Spanish and Chinese
Outer Space Treaty of 1967 at Wikisource

The Outer Space Treaty, formally the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, is a treaty that forms the basis of international space law. The treaty was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union on 27 January 1967, and entered into force on 10 October 1967. As of June 2019, 109 countries are parties to the treaty, while another 23 have signed the treaty but have not completed ratification.[1] In addition, Taiwan, which is currently recognized by 14 UN member states, ratified the treaty prior to the United Nations General Assembly's vote to transfer China's seat to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971.[5]

Among the Outer Space Treaty's main points are that it prohibits the placing of nuclear weapons in space, it limits the use of the Moon and all other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes only, and establishes that space shall be free for exploration and use by all nations, but that no nation may claim sovereignty of outer space or any celestial body. The Outer Space Treaty does not ban military activities within space, military space forces, or the weaponization of space, with the exception of the placement of weapons of mass destruction in space.[6][7]

Key points

The Outer Space Treaty represents the basic legal framework of international space law. Among its principles, it bars states party to the treaty from placing weapons of mass destruction in Earth orbit, installing them on the Moon or any other celestial body, or otherwise stationing them in outer space. It exclusively limits the use of the Moon and other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes and expressly prohibits their use for testing weapons of any kind, conducting military maneuvers, or establishing military bases, installations, and fortifications (Article IV). However, the treaty does not prohibit the placement of conventional weapons in orbit and thus some highly destructive attack strategies such as kinetic bombardment are still potentially allowable.[8] The treaty also states that the exploration of outer space shall be done to benefit all countries and that space shall be free for exploration and use by all the states.

The treaty explicitly forbids any government to claim a celestial resource such as the Moon or a planet.[9] Article II of the treaty states that "outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means." However, the State that launches a space object retains jurisdiction and control over that object.[10] The State is also liable for damages caused by its space object.[11]

Responsibility for activities in space

Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty deals with international responsibility, stating that "the activities of non-governmental entities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall require authorization and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party to the Treaty" and that States Parties shall bear international responsibility for national space activities whether carried out by governmental or non-governmental entities.

As a result of discussions arising from Project West Ford in 1963, a consultation clause was included in Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty: "A State Party to the Treaty which has reason to believe that an activity or experiment planned by another State Party in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, would cause potentially harmful interference with activities in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, may request consultation concerning the activity or experiment."[12][13]

Follow-ups

The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) oversees[citation needed] these treaties and other questions of space jurisdiction.

Status

List of parties

The Outer Space Treaty was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union on 27 January 1967, and entered into force on 10 October 1967. As of June 2019, 109 countries are parties to the treaty, while another 23 have signed the treaty but have not completed ratification.[1]

Multiple dates indicate the different days in which states submitted their signature or deposition, which varied by location. This location is noted by: (L) for London, (M) for Moscow, and (W) for Washington, DC. Also indicated is whether the state became a party by way of signing the treaty and subsequent ratification, by accession to the treaty after it had closed for signature, or by succession of states after separation from some other party to the treaty.

State[1][2][3][4] Signed Deposited Method
 Afghanistan Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Jan 30, 1967 (M)
Mar 17, 1988 (L, M)
Mar 21, 1988 (W)
Ratification
 Algeria Jan 27, 1992 (W) Accession
 Antigua and Barbuda Nov 16, 1988 (W)
Dec 26, 1988 (M)
Jan 26, 1989 (L)
Succession from  United Kingdom
 Argentina Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Apr 18, 1967 (M)
Mar 26, 1969 (M, W) Ratification
 Armenia Mar 28, 2018 (M) Accession
 Australia Jan 27, 1967 (W) Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Austria Feb 20, 1967 (L, M, W) Feb 26, 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Azerbaijan Sep 9, 2015 (L) Accession
 Bahamas Aug 11, 1976 (L)
Aug 13, 1976 (W)
Aug 30, 1976 (M)
Succession from  United Kingdom
 Bangladesh Jan 14, 1986 (L)
Jan 17, 1986 (W)
Jan 24, 1986 (M)
Accession
 Barbados Sep 12, 1968 (W) Accession
 Belarus Feb 10, 1967 (M) Oct 31, 1967 (M) Ratification
 Belgium Jan 27, 1967 (L, M)
Feb 2, 1967 (W)
Mar 30, 1973 (W)
Mar 31, 1973 (L, M)
Ratification
 Benin Jun 19, 1986 (M)
Jul 2, 1986 (L)
Jul 7, 1986 (W)
Accession
 Brazil Jan 30, 1967 (M)
Feb 2, 1967 (L, W)
Mar 5, 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Bulgaria Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Mar 28, 1967 (M)
Apr 11, 1967 (W)
Apr 19, 1967 (L)
Ratification
 Burkina Faso Mar 3, 1967 (W) Jun 18, 1968 (W) Ratification
 Canada Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Chile Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Feb 3, 1967 (L)
Feb 20, 1967 (M)
Oct 8, 1981 (W) Ratification
 China Dec 30, 1983 (W)
Jan 6, 1984 (M)
Jan 12, 1984 (L)
Accession
 Cuba Jun 3, 1977 (M) Accession
 Cyprus Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Feb 15, 1967 (M)
Feb 16, 1967 (L)
Jul 5, 1972 (L, W)
Sep 20, 1972 (M)
Ratification
 Czech Republic Jan 1, 1993 (M, W)
Sep 29, 1993 (L)
Succession from  Czechoslovakia
 Denmark Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Dominican Republic Jan 27, 1967 (W) Nov 21, 1968 (W) Ratification
 Ecuador Jan 27, 1967 (W)
May 16, 1967 (L)
Jun 7, 1967 (M)
Mar 7, 1969 (W) Ratification
 Egypt Jan 27, 1967 (M, W) Oct 10, 1967 (W)
Jan 23, 1968 (M)
Ratification
 El Salvador Jan 27, 1967 (W) Jan 15, 1969 (W) Ratification
 Equatorial Guinea Jan 16, 1989 (M) Accession
 Estonia Apr 19, 2010 (M) Accession
 Fiji Jul 18, 1972 (W)
Aug 14, 1972 (L)
Aug 29, 1972 (M)
Succession from  United Kingdom
 Finland Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Jul 12, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
 France Sep 25, 1967 (L, M, W) Aug 5, 1970 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Germany Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Feb 10, 1971 (L, W) Ratification
 Greece Jan 27, 1967 (W) Jan 19, 1971 (L) Ratification
 Guinea-Bissau Aug 20, 1976 (M) Accession
 Hungary Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Jun 26, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Iceland Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Feb 5, 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
 India Mar 3, 1967 (L, M, W) Jan 18, 1982 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Indonesia Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Jan 30, 1967 (M)
Feb 14, 1967 (L)
Jun 25, 2002 (L) Ratification
 Iraq Feb 27, 1967 (L, W)
Mar 9, 1967 (M)
Dec 4, 1968 (M)
Sep 23, 1969 (L)
Ratification
 Ireland Jan 27, 1967 (L, W) Jul 17, 1968 (W)
Jul 19, 1968 (L)
Ratification
 Israel Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Feb 18, 1977 (W)
Mar 1, 1977 (L)
Apr 4, 1977 (M)
Ratification
 Italy Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) May 4, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Jamaica Jun 29, 1967 (L, M, W) Aug 6, 1970 (W)
Aug 10, 1970 (L)
Aug 21, 1970 (M)
Ratification
 Japan Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Kazakhstan Jun 11, 1998 (M) Accession
 Kenya Jan 19, 1984 (L) Accession
 North Korea Mar 5, 2009 (M) Accession
 South Korea Jan 27, 1967 (W) Oct 13, 1967 (W) Ratification
 Kuwait Jun 7, 1972 (W)
Jun 20, 1972 (L)
Jul 4, 1972 (M)
Accession
 Laos Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Jan 30, 1967 (L)
Feb 2, 1967 (M)
Nov 27, 1972 (M)
Nov 29, 1972 (W)
Jan 15, 1973 (L)
Ratification
 Lebanon Feb 23, 1967 (L, M, W) Mar 31, 1969 (L, M)
Jun 30, 1969 (W)
Ratification
 Libya Jul 3, 1968 (W) Accession
 Lithuania Mar 25, 2013 (W) Accession
 Luxembourg Jan 27, 1967 (M, W)
Jan 31, 1967 (L)
Jan 17, 2006 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Madagascar Aug 22, 1968 (W) Accession
 Mali Jun 11, 1968 (M) Accession
 Malta May 22, 2017 (L) Accession
 Mauritius Apr 7, 1969 (W)
Apr 21, 1969 (L)
May 13, 1969 (M)
Succession from  United Kingdom
 Mexico Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Jan 31, 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Mongolia Jan 27, 1967 (M) Oct 10, 1967 (M) Ratification
 Morocco Dec 21, 1967 (L, M)
Dec 22, 1967 (W)
Accession
 Myanmar May 22, 1967 (L, M, W) Mar 18, 1970 (L, M, W) Ratification
   Nepal Feb 3, 1967 (M, W)
Feb 6, 1967 (L)
Oct 10, 1967 (L)
Oct 16, 1967 (M)
Nov 22, 1967 (W)
Ratification
 Netherlands Feb 10, 1967 (L, M, W) Oct 10, 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
 New Zealand Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) May 31, 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Nicaragua Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Feb 13, 1967 (L)
Jun 30, 2017 (W)
Aug 10, 2017 (M)
Aug 14, 2017 (L)
Ratification
 Niger Feb 1, 1967 (W) Apr 17, 1967 (L)
May 3, 1967 (W)
Ratification
 Nigeria Nov 14, 1967 (L) Accession
 Norway Feb 3, 1967 (L, M, W) Jul 1, 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Pakistan Sep 12, 1967 (L, M, W) Apr 8, 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Papua New Guinea Oct 27, 1980 (L)
Nov 13, 1980 (M)
Mar 16, 1981 (W)
Succession from  Australia
 Paraguay Dec 22, 2016 (L) Accession
 Peru Jun 30, 1967 (W) Feb 28, 1979 (M)
Mar 1, 1979 (L)
Mar 21, 1979 (W)
Ratification
 Poland Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Jan 30, 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Portugal May 29, 1996 (L) Accession
 Qatar Mar 13, 2012 (W) Accession
 Romania Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Apr 9, 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Russia Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification as the  Soviet Union
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines May 13, 1999 (L) Succession from  United Kingdom
 San Marino Apr 21, 1967 (W)
Apr 24, 1967 (L)
Jun 6, 1967 (M)
Oct 29, 1968 (W)
Nov 21, 1968 (M)
Feb 3, 1969 (L)
Ratification
 Saudi Arabia Dec 17, 1976 (W) Accession
 Seychelles Jan 5, 1978 (L) Accession
 Sierra Leone Jan 27, 1967 (L, M)
May 16, 1967 (W)
Jul 13, 1967 (M)
Jul 14, 1967 (W)
Oct 25, 1967 (L)
Ratification
 Singapore Sep 10, 1976 (L, M, W) Accession
 Slovakia Jan 1, 1993 (M, W)
May 17, 1993 (L)
Succession from  Czechoslovakia
 Slovenia Feb 8, 2019 (L) Accession
 South Africa Mar 1, 1967 (W) Sep 30, 1968 (W)
Oct 8, 1968 (L)
Nov 14, 1968 (M)
Ratification
 Spain Nov 27, 1968 (L)
Dec 7, 1968 (W)
Accession
 Sri Lanka Mar 10, 1967 (L) Nov 18, 1986 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Sweden Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Oct 11, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
  Switzerland Jan 27, 1967 (L, W)
Jan 30, 1967 (M)
Dec 18, 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Syria Nov 19, 1968 (M) Accession
 Thailand Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Sep 5, 1968 (L)
Sep 9, 1968 (M)
Sep 10, 1968 (W)
Ratification
 Togo Jan 27, 1967 (W) Jun 26, 1989 (W) Ratification
 Tonga Jun 22, 1971 (M)
Jul 7, 1971 (L, W)
Succession from  United Kingdom
 Tunisia Jan 27, 1967 (L, W)
Feb 15, 1967 (M)
Mar 28, 1968 (L)
Apr 4, 1968 (M)
Apr 17, 1968 (W)
Ratification
 Turkey Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Mar 27, 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Uganda Apr 24, 1968 (W) Accession
 Ukraine Feb 10, 1967 (M) Oct 31, 1967 (M) Ratification
 United Arab Emirates Oct 4, 2000 (W) Accession
 United Kingdom Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
 United States Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification
 Uruguay Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Jan 30, 1967 (M)
Aug 31, 1970 (W) Ratification
 Venezuela Jan 27, 1967 (W) Mar 3, 1970 (W) Ratification
 Vietnam Jun 20, 1980 (M) Accession
 Yemen Jun 1, 1979 (M) Accession
 Zambia Aug 20, 1973 (W)
Aug 21, 1973 (M)
Aug 28, 1973 (L)
Accession

Partially recognized state abiding by treaty

The Republic of China (Taiwan), which is currently recognized by 14 UN member states, ratified the treaty prior to the United Nations General Assembly's vote to transfer China's seat to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971. When the PRC subsequently ratified the treaty, they described the Republic of China's (ROC) ratification as "illegal". The ROC has committed itself to continue to adhere to the requirements of the treaty, and the United States has declared that it still considers the ROC to be "bound by its obligations".[5]

State Signed Deposited Method
 Republic of China 27 Jan 1967 24 Jul 1970 Ratification

States that have signed but not ratified

Twenty-three states have signed but not ratified the treaty.

State Signed
 Bolivia Jan 27, 1967 (W)
 Botswana Jan 27, 1967 (W)
 Burundi Jan 27, 1967 (W)
 Cameroon Jan 27, 1967 (W)
 Central African Republic Jan 27, 1967 (W)
 Colombia Jan 27, 1967 (W)
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Apr 29, 1967 (M)
May 4, 1967 (L)
 Ethiopia Jan 27, 1967 (L, W)
Feb 10, 1967 (M)
 Gambia Jun 2, 1967 (L)
 Ghana Jan 27, 1967 (W)
Feb 15, 1967 (M)
Mar 3, 1967 (L)
 Guyana Feb 3, 1967 (W)
 Haiti Jan 27, 1967 (W)
  Holy See Apr 5, 1967 (L)
 Honduras Jan 27, 1967 (W)
 Iran Jan 27, 1967 (L)
 Jordan Feb 2, 1967 (W)
 Lesotho Jan 27, 1967 (W)
 Malaysia Feb 20, 1967 (W)
Feb 21, 1967 (L)
May 3, 1967 (M)
 Panama Jan 27, 1967 (W)
 Philippines Jan 27, 1967 (L, W)
Apr 29, 1967 (M)
 Rwanda Jan 27, 1967 (W)
 Somalia Feb 2, 1967 (W)
 Trinidad and Tobago Jul 24, 1967 (L)
Aug 17, 1967 (M)
Sep 28, 1967 (W)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
  2. ^ a b "TREATY ON PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE ACTIVITIES OF STATES IN THE EXPLORATION AND USE OF OUTER SPACE, INCLUDING THE MOON AND OTHER CELESTIAL BODIES". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
    "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies [London version]". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  3. ^ a b "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and other Celestial Bodies". United States Department of State. 30 June 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  4. ^ a b "Договор о принципах деятельности государств по исследованию и использованию космического пространства, включая Луну и другие небесные тела" (in Russian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  5. ^ a b "China: Accession to Outer Space Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  6. ^ Shakouri Hassanabadi, Babak (30 July 2018). "Space Force and international space law". The Space Review. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  7. ^ Irish, Adam (13 September 2018). "The Legality of a U.S. Space Force". OpinioJuris. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  8. ^ Bourbonniere, M; Lee, R. J (2007). "Legality of the Deployment of Conventional Weapons in Earth Orbit: Balancing Space Law and the Law of Armed Conflict". European Journal of International Law. 18 (5): 873. doi:10.1093/ejil/chm051.
  9. ^ Jennifer Frakes, (2003) The Common Heritage of Mankind Principle and the Deep Seabed, Outer Space, and Antarctica: Will Developed and Developing Nations Reach a Compromise? Wiscoscin International Law Journal, 21, at 409
  10. ^ Wikisource:Outer Space Treaty of 1967#Article VIII
  11. ^ Wikisource:Outer Space Treaty of 1967#Article VII
  12. ^ Terrill Jr., Delbert R. (May 1999), Project West Ford, "The Air Force Role in Developing International Outer Space Law" (PDF), Air Force History and Museums:63–67
  13. ^ Wikisource:Outer Space Treaty of 1967#Article IX
  14. ^ Status of international agreements relating to activities in outer space as at 1 January 2008 United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, 2008

Further reading

  • Annette Froehlich, et al.: A Fresh View on the Outer Space Treaty. Springer, Vienna 2018, ISBN 978-3-319-70433-3.

External links

9 October 1950

The Goyang Geumjeong Cave massacre in Korea begins.

Goyang Geumjeong Cave massacre

Goyang Geumjeong Cave massacre
Gyeonggi map.png
LocationSouth Korea
Date9 October 1950 – 31 October 1950[1]
TargetIndividuals and their family members for being suspected of being communists or communist sympathizers[2]
Attack type
Massacre
Deaths150[2] or over 153[3][4]
PerpetratorsSouth Korean Police[2]
Goyang Geunjeong cave, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea

The Goyang Geumjeong Cave massacre (Korean: 고양 금정굴 민간인 학살[1][4] Hanja: 高陽衿井窟民間人虐殺[1][4] Goyang Geunjeong Cave civilian massacre[1][4]) was a massacre of over 153 unarmed civilians conducted between 9 October 1950 and 31 October 1950 by police in Goyang, Gyeonggi-do district of South Korea.[1][4][5] After the victory of the Second Battle of Seoul, South Korean authorities arrested and summarily executed several individuals along with their families on suspicion of sympathizing with North Korea.[4] The killings in Goyang coincided with the Namyangju Massacre in nearby Namyangju.[6]

In 1995 the bodies of the 153 victims were excavated by their families.[7] In June 2006 the Truth and Reconciliation Commission demanded that the South Korean government apologize and erect a monument for the victims.[7] However, the government did not show any intention of following through on the TRCK recommendation.[7] In 2007 the Truth and Reconciliation Commission again demanded that the government apologize, provide compensation, and erect a memorial for the victims; however, the government still refused.[8][9][5] The Truth and Reconciliation Commission also clarified most of the victims, including 8 teenagers and 7 women, had no relation to rebels.[5]

On November 28, 2011, the Seoul central court ordered the South Korean government to apologize, pay reparations and fund a memorial to the victims' families.[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Hwang Chun-hwa (2011-11-29). "고양 금정굴 민간인 학살…법원 "유족에 국가배상을"". Hankyoreh. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
  2. ^ a b c "Goyang Geumjeong Cave Massacre memorial service". Hankyoreh. February 9, 2010. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
  3. ^ In 2007 the Truth and Reconciliation Commission clarified the number of victims was 153. -Hankyoreh 2011-11-29
  4. ^ a b c d e f "'고양 금정굴 민간인 학살사건' 유족에게 1억원 국가 배상 판결 "헌법에 보장된 기본권인 신체의 자유와 적법절차에 따라 재판받을 권리 등 침해"". CBS. 2011-11-28. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
  5. ^ a b c Song Gyeong-hwa (2010-07-05). "'금정굴 학살사건' 국가상대 소송". Hankyoreh. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
  6. ^ Charles J. Hanley (December 6, 2008). "Children 'executed' in 1950 South Korean killings". San Diego Union-Tribune. Associated Press. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
  7. ^ a b c Park Gyeong-man (2011-09-19). "고양 금정굴 민간인 학살…법원 "유족에 국가배상을"". Hankyoreh. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
  8. ^ "'고양 금정굴 사건' 유족에 1억 배상". Dong-a Ilbo; Yonhap News Agency. 2011-11-29. Archived from the original on 2014-03-07. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
  9. ^ "'고양 금정굴 사건' 유족에 1억 배상". Chosun Ilbo. 2011-11-29. Retrieved 2011-11-29.

External links

8 October 1982

Poland bans Solidarity and all other trade unions.

Solidarity (Polish trade union)

Solidarity
Solidarity (Polish trade union) (logo).png
Full nameIndependent Self-governing Trade Union "Solidarity"
Native nameNiezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy "Solidarność"
Founded17 September 1980; 39 years ago (1980-09-17)[1]
MembersAlmost 10 million at the end of the first year; over 400,000 in 2011[2] (680,000 in 2010)[3]
AffiliationITUC, ETUC, TUAC
Key peopleAnna Walentynowicz, Lech Wałęsa
Office locationGdańsk, Poland
CountryPoland
WebsiteSolidarnosc.org.pl (in English)

Solidarity (Polish: Solidarność, pronounced [sɔlʲiˈdarnɔɕtɕ] (About this soundlisten); full name: Independent Self-governing Labour Union "Solidarity"Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy "Solidarność" [ɲezaˈlɛʐnɨ samɔˈʐɔndnɨ ˈzvjɔ̃zɛk zavɔˈdɔvɨ sɔlʲiˈdarnɔɕtɕ]) is a Polish labour union that was founded on 17 September 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa.[1] It was the first trade union in a Warsaw Pact country that was not controlled by a communist party. Its membership peaked at 10 million members at its September 1981 Congress,[2][3] which constituted one third of the total working-age population of Poland.[4]

In the 1980s, Solidarity was a broad anti-bureaucratic social movement, using the methods of civil resistance to advance the causes of workers' rights and social change.[5] The government attempted to destroy the union by imposing martial law in Poland, which lasted from December 1981 to July 1983 and was followed by several years of political repression from 8 October 1982, but in the end it was forced to negotiate with Solidarity. In the union's clandestine years, Pope John Paul II and the United States provided significant financial support, estimated to be as much as US$50 million.[6]

The round table talks between the government and the Solidarity-led opposition led to semi-free elections in 1989. By the end of August, a Solidarity-led coalition government was formed. In December 1990, Wałęsa was elected President of Poland. Since then, Solidarity has become a more traditional liberal trade union. Its membership had dropped to 680,000 by 2010[3] and 400,000 by 2011.[2]

History

In the 1970s Poland's government raised food prices while wages were stagnant. This and other stresses led to protests in 1976 and a subsequent government crackdown on dissent. The KOR, the ROPCIO and other groups began to form underground networks to monitor and oppose the government's behavior. Labour unions formed an important part of this network.[7] In 1979, the Polish economy shrank for the first time since World War II, by 2 percent. Foreign debt reached around $18 billion by 1980.[8]

Anna Walentynowicz was fired from the Gdańsk Shipyard on 7 August 1980, five months before she was due to retire, for participation in the illegal trade union. This management decision enraged the workers of the shipyard, who staged a strike action on 14 August defending Anna Walentynowicz and demanding her return. She and Alina Pienkowska transformed a strike over bread and butter issues into a solidarity strike in sympathy with strikes on other establishments.

Solidarity emerged on 31 August 1980 at the Gdańsk Shipyard when the communist government of Poland signed the agreement allowing for its existence. On 17 September 1980, over twenty Inter-factory Founding Committees of free trade unions merged at the congress into one national organization NSZZ Solidarity.[4] It officially registered on 10 November 1980.[9]

Lech Wałęsa and others formed a broad anti-Soviet social movement ranging from people associated with the Catholic Church[10] to members of the anti-Soviet left. Solidarity advocated non-violence in its members' activities.[11][12][self-published source] In September 1981, Solidarity's first national congress elected Wałęsa as a president[9] and adopted a republican program, the "Self-governing Republic".[13] The government attempted to destroy the union with the martial law of 1981 and several years of repression, but in the end it had to start negotiating with the union.

Roundtable Talks between the government and Solidarity-led opposition led to semi-free elections in 1989. By the end of August a Solidarity-led coalition government was formed, and in December Tadeusz Mazowiecki was elected Prime Minister. Since 1989, Solidarity has become a more traditional trade union, and had relatively little impact on the political scene of Poland in the early 1990s. A political arm founded in 1996 as Solidarity Electoral Action (AWS) won the parliamentary election in 1997, but lost the following 2001 election. Currently, as a political party Solidarity has little influence on modern Polish politics.

CIA covert support

In the year leading up to martial law, Reagan Administration policies supported the Solidarity movement, waging a public relations campaign to deter what the Carter administration had seen as "an imminent move by large Soviet military forces into Poland."[14] Michael Reisman from Yale Law School named operations in Poland as one of the covert regime change actions of the CIA during the Cold War.[15] Colonel Ryszard Kukliński, a senior officer on the Polish General Staff was secretly sending reports to CIA officer David Forden.[16] The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) transferred around $2 million yearly in cash to Solidarity, for a total of $10 million over five years. There were no direct links between the CIA and Solidarnosc, and all money was channeled through third parties.[17] CIA officers were barred from meeting Solidarity leaders, and the CIA's contacts with Solidarnosc activists were weaker than those of the AFL-CIO, which raised $300,000 from its members, which were used to provide material and cash directly to Solidarity, with no control of Solidarity's use of it. The U.S. Congress authorized the National Endowment for Democracy to promote democracy, and the NED allocated $10 million to Solidarity.[18]

When the Polish government launched martial law in December 1981, however, Solidarity was not alerted. Potential explanations for this vary; some believe that the CIA was caught off guard, while others suggest that American policy-makers viewed an internal crackdown as preferable to an "inevitable Soviet intervention."[19] CIA support for Solidarity included money, equipment and training, which was coordinated by Special Operations.[20] Henry Hyde, U.S. House intelligence committee member, stated that the USA provided "supplies and technical assistance in terms of clandestine newspapers, broadcasting, propaganda, money, organizational help and advice".[21] Initial funds for covert actions by CIA were $2 million, but soon after authorization were increased and by 1985 CIA successfully infiltrated Poland.[22]

Catholic social teaching

30-years of Solidarity mural in Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski (priest Jerzy Popiełuszko in foreground)

In Sollicitudo rei socialis, a major document of Catholic Social Teaching, Pope John Paul II identifies the concept of solidarity with the poor and marginalized as a constitutive element of the Gospel and human participation in the common good. The Roman Catholic Church, under the leadership of Pope John Paul II, was a very powerful supporter of the union and was greatly responsible for its success. Wałęsa, who himself publicly displayed Catholic piety, confirmed the Pope's influence, saying: "The Holy Father, through his meetings, demonstrated how numerous we were. He told us not to be afraid."[23]

In addition, the priest Jerzy Popiełuszko, who regularly gave sermons to the striking workers, was eventually killed by the Communist regime for his association with Solidarity. Polish workers themselves were closely associated with the Church, which can be seen in the photographs taken during strikes in the 1980s. On the walls of several factories, portraits of the Virgin Mary or John Paul II were visible.

In 2017, Solidarity backed a proposal to instate blue laws that would prohibit Sunday shopping, a move supported by Polish bishops.[24] A 2018 new Polish law banning almost all trade on Sundays has taken effect, with large supermarkets and most other retailers closed for the first time since liberal shopping laws were introduced in the 1990s. The Law and Justice party passed the legislation with the support of Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki.[25][26][27][28]

Secular philosophical underpinnings

Although Leszek Kołakowski's works were officially banned in Poland, and he lived outside the country from the late 1960s, the philosopher's ideas nonetheless exerted an influence on the Solidarity movement. Underground copies of his books and essays shaped the opinions of the Polish intellectual opposition. His 1971 essay Theses on Hope and Hopelessness, which suggested that self-organized social groups could gradually expand the spheres of civil society in a totalitarian state, helped inspire the dissident movements of the 1970s that led to the creation of Solidarity and provided a philosophical underpinning for the movement.

Kołakowski later described Solidarity as "perhaps [the] closest to the working class revolution" that Karl Marx had predicted in the mid-1800s. Ironically, however, Solidarity featured many elements contrary to socialism as conceived by Marx: "[workers organized] against the exploiters, that is to say, the state. And this solitary example of a working class revolution (if even this may be counted) was directed against a socialist state, and carried out under the sign of the cross, with the blessing of the Pope."[29]

Influence abroad

The logo of Solidarność painted on an overturned Soviet era T-55 in Prague in 1990
Students in Scotland collect signatures for a petition in support of Solidarity in 1981
Solidarity, ETUC Demonstration—Budapest 2011

The survival of Solidarity was an unprecedented event not only in Poland, a satellite state of the USSR ruled (in practice) by a one-party Communist regime, but the whole of the Eastern bloc. It meant a break in the hard-line stance of the communist Polish United Workers' Party, which had bloodily ended a 1970 protest with machine gun fire (killing over thirty and injuring over 1,000), and the broader Soviet communist regime in the Eastern Bloc, which had quelled both the 1956 Hungarian Uprising and the 1968 Prague Spring with Soviet-led invasions.

Solidarity's influence led to the intensification and spread of anti-communist ideals and movements throughout the countries of the Eastern Bloc, weakening their communist governments. As a result of the Round Table Agreement between the Polish government and the Solidarity-led opposition, elections were held in Poland on 4 June 1989, in which the opposition were allowed to field candidates against the Communist Party—the first free elections in any Soviet bloc country. A new upper chamber (the Senate) was created in the Polish parliament and all of its 100 seats were contestable in the election, as well as one third of the seats in the more important lower chamber (the Sejm). Solidarity won 99 of the 100 Senate seats and all 161 contestable seats in the Sejm—a victory that also triggered a chain reaction across the Soviet Union's satellite states, leading to almost entirely peaceful anti-communist revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe[10] known as the Revolutions of 1989 (Jesień Ludów or Wiosna Obywatelów), which ended in the overthrow of each Moscow-imposed regime, and ultimately to the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s.

Given the union's support from many western governments, relations with trade unions in capitalist countries could be complicated. For example, during the UK miners' strike of 1984–85, Wałęsa said that "The miners should fight, but with common sense—not with destruction" and said of Margaret Thatcher "With such a wise and brave woman, Britain will find a solution to the strike." However, David Jastrzębski, the president of Upper Silesia Solidarity, voiced his support of the striking miners: "Neither the British government's mounted police charges nor its truncheon blows, any more than the Polish junta's tanks or rifle fire, can break our common will to struggle for a better future for the working class."[30] This was despite the fact that Arthur Scargill, president of the British National Union of Mineworkers had been highly critical of Solidarity, condemning it as an "anti-socialist organization which desires the overthrow of a socialist state".[31]

In late 2008, several democratic opposition groups in the Russian Federation formed a Solidarity movement.[32]

In the United States, the American Solidarity Party (formerly the Christian Democratic Party USA), a Christian democratic political party, attributes its namesake to Solidarity.[33]

In a 2011 essay "The Jacobin Spirit" in the American magazine Jacobin, philosopher Slavoj Zizek called Solidarnosc' one of the "free spaces at a distance from state power" that used "defensive violence" to protect itself from state control. The notion of "defensive violence" runs in the vein of ideas postulated by Alain Badiou.[34]

Organization

The union was officially founded on 17 September 1980,[1] the union's supreme powers were vested in a legislative body, the Convention of Delegates (Zjazd Delegatów). The executive branch was the National Coordinating Commission (Krajowa Komisja Porozumiewawcza), later renamed the National Commission (Komisja Krajowa). The Union had a regional structure, comprising 38 regions (region) and two districts (okręg). At its highest, the Union had over 10 million members, which became the largest union membership in the world. During the communist era the 38 regional delegates were arrested and jailed when martial law came into effect on 13 December 1981 under General Wojciech Jaruzelski. After a one-year prison term the high-ranking members of the union were offered one way trips to any country accepting them (including Canada, the United States, and nations in the Middle East).

Solidarity was organized as an industrial union, or more specifically according to the One Big Union principle, along the lines of the Industrial Workers of the World and the Spanish Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (workers in every trade were organized by region, rather than by craft).[35]

In 2010, Solidarity had more than 400,000 members.[2] National Commission of Independent Self-Governing Trade Union is located in Gdańsk and is composed of Delegates from Regional General Congresses.

Regional structure

Solidarity is divided into 37 regions, and the territorial structure to a large degree reflects the shape of Polish voivodeships, established in 1975 and annulled in 1998 (see: Administrative division of People's Republic of Poland). The regions are:

Network of key factories

The network of Solidarity branches of the key factories of Poland was created on 14 April 1981 in Gdańsk. It was made of representatives of seventeen factories; each stood for the most important factory of every voivodeship of the pre-1975 Poland (see: Administrative division of People's Republic of Poland). However, there were two exceptions. There was no representative of the Koszalin Voivodeship, and the Katowice Voivodeship was represented by two factories:

Voivodeship Represented by
Gdańsk Vladimir Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk
Szczecin Szczecin Shipyard
Poznań H. Cegielski - Poznań S.A.
Bydgoszcz Rail Vehicles Repair Shop
Zielona Góra Rolling Stock and Steel Works Zastal in Zielona Góra
Katowice Wujek Coal Mine in Katowice
The Spare Parts Factory Zgoda in Świętochłowice
Koszalin No representative
Kraków Vladimir Lenin Steelworks in Nowa Huta
Wrocław Rail Carriage Factory Pafawag in Wrocław
Rzeszów Factory of Communication Equipment WSK in Rzeszów
Białystok Cotton Works Fasty in Białystok
Kielce Ball Bearings Factory Iskra in Kielce
Olsztyn Tire Company Stomil in Olsztyn
Lublin Factory of Communication Equipment PZL in Świdnik
Łódź Julian Marchlewski Cotton Works in Łódź
Warsaw Ursus Factory in Warsaw
Opole Malapanew Steelworks in Ozimek

Chairmen

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Guardian newspaper report Retrieved 22 June 2009
  2. ^ a b c d (in Polish) 30 lat po Sierpniu'80: "Solidarność zakładnikiem własnej historii" Archived 29 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 7 June 2011
  3. ^ a b c (in Polish) Duda za Śniadka? by Maciej Sandecki and Marek Wąs, Gazeta Wyborcza of 24 August 2010
  4. ^ a b (in Polish) „Solidarność" a systemowe przekształcenia Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej Archived 7 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 7 June 2011
  5. ^ Aleksander Smolar, '"Self-limiting Revolution": Poland 1970–89', in Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford University Press, 2009, ISBN 978-0-19-955201-6, pp. 127–43.
  6. ^ Tony Judt (2005). Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945. The Penguin Press. p. 589.
  7. ^ KOR: a history of the Workers’ Defense Committee in Poland, 1976–1981. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1985. ISBN 0-520-05243-9.
  8. ^ From Solidarity to Martial Law: The Polish Crisis of 1980-1981 : A Documentary History by Andrzej Paczkowski, Malcolm Byrne. Central European University Press, Budapest 2007. p. xxix
  9. ^ a b (in Polish) Solidarność, wielopłaszczyznowy ruch na rzecz demokratyzacji i głębokich reform ustrojowych PRL Retrieved on 7 June 2011
  10. ^ a b Steger, Manfred B (January 2004). Judging Nonviolence: The Dispute Between Realists and Idealists (ebook). Routledge (UK). p. 114. ISBN 0-415-93397-8. Retrieved 9 July 2006.
  11. ^ Paul Wehr; Guy Burgess; Heidi Burgess, eds. (February 1993). Justice Without Violence (ebook). Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 28. ISBN 1-55587-491-6. Retrieved 6 July 2006.
  12. ^ Cavanaugh-O'Keefe, John (January 2001). Emmanuel, Solidarity: God's Act, Our Response (ebook). Xlibris Corporation. p. 68. ISBN 0-7388-3864-0. Retrieved 6 July 2006.[dead link]
  13. ^ Piotr Gliński, The Self-governing Republic in the Third Republic, "Polish Sociological Review", 2006, no.1
  14. ^ MacEachin, Douglas J. (2000). US Intelligence and the Polish Crisis: 1980–1981. cia.gov. Center for the Study of Intelligence. ISBN 9781929667062. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  15. ^ Arsanjani, Mahnoush H.; Cogan, Jacob, eds. (2010). Looking to the Future: Essays on International Law in Honor of W. Michael Reisman. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 102. ISBN 9789004173613. Retrieved 13 June 2019 – via Google Books.
  16. ^ Davies, Richard T. (2004). "The CIA and the Polish Crisis of 1980–1981". Journal of Cold War Studies. 6 (3): 120–123.
  17. ^ Gregory F. Domber (2008). Supporting the Revolution: America, Democracy, and the End of the Cold War in Poland, 1981—1989. ProQuest. p. 199., revised as Domber 2014, p. 110 [1].
  18. ^ Domber, Gregory F. (28 August 2014), What Putin Misunderstands about American Power, University of California Press Blog, University of North Carolina Press
  19. ^ MacEachin, Douglas J. "US Intelligence and the Polish Crisis 1980–1981." CIA. June 28, 2008.
  20. ^ Cover Story: The Holy Alliance By Carl Bernstein Sunday, June 24, 2001
  21. ^ Branding Democracy: U.S. Regime Change in Post-Soviet Eastern Europe Gerald Sussman, page 128
  22. ^ Executive Secrets: Covert Action and the Presidency William J. Daugherty. page 201-203
  23. ^ Repa, Jan (12 August 2005). "Analysis: Solidarity's legacy". BBC News. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  24. ^ "Polish bishops for total ban on Sunday shopping". BBC. 23 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  25. ^ https://www.usnews.com/news/business/articles/2018-03-11/most-stores-shut-in-poland-as-sunday-trade-ban-takes-effect
  26. ^ "Stores shut across Poland as Sunday shopping ban takes effect".
  27. ^ "Sunday trading ban comes into effect in Poland". 11 March 2018.
  28. ^ "Stores closed as Poland phases out Sunday shopping".
  29. ^ Leszek Kołakowski. What Is Left of Socialism. First Things, October 2002
  30. ^ "Workers unite, east and west!". Workers' Liberty. Alliance for Workers' Liberty. 8 October 2009. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  31. ^ McKinlay, John (8 September 1983). "Scargill angers unions with Solidarity attack". The Glasgow Herald. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  32. ^ Kasparov starts new Russian opposition movement. The Associated Press. 13 December 2008.[dead link]
  33. ^ Gehrz, Chris (16 August 2016). "Could the U.S. Finally Get a Significant Christian Democratic Party?". Patheos. Retrieved 16 August 2016. The nominees of the American Solidarity Party (ASP), which takes its name from the Polish movement of the late Cold War and calls itself "the only active Christian Democratic party in the United States."
  34. ^ "The Jacobin Spirit".
  35. ^ (in Polish) Solidarność NSZZ in WIEM Encyklopedia. Last accessed on 10 October 2006

Further reading

  • Domber, Gregory G. (2016). Empowering Revolution: America, Poland, and the End of the Cold War. Dodd Mead. ISBN 978-1469629810.
  • Eringer, Robert (1982). Strike for Freedom: The Story of Lech Wałęsa and Polish Solidarity. The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-396-08065-0.
  • Goddeeris, Idesbald (2002). The Polish Revolution: Solidarity. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09568-6.
  • Garton Ash, Timothy (2012). Solidarity with Solidarity: Western European Trade Unions and the Polish Crisis, 1980–1982. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0739150719.
  • Kaminski, Marek M. (2004). Games Prisoners Play. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11721-7.
  • Kenney, Patrick (2003). A Carnival of Revolution : Central Europe 1989. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-11627-X.
  • Kenney, Patrick (2006). The Burdens of Freedom. Zed Books Ltd. ISBN 1-84277-662-2.
  • Kubik, Jan (1994). The Power of Symbols Against the Symbols of Power: The rise of Solidarity and the fall of state socialism in Poland. The Pennsylvania State University. ISBN 0-271-01084-3.
  • Ledger, Robert. "From Solidarity to 'Shock Therapy'. British Foreign Policy Towards Poland Under the Thatcher Government, 1980–1990." Contemporary British History 30#1 (2016): 99-118.
  • Matynia, Elzbieta (2009). Performative Democracy. Paradigm. ISBN 1594516561.
  • Osa, Maryjane (2003). Solidarity and Contention: Networks of Polish Opposition. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-3874-8.
  • Ost, David (2005). The Defeat of Solidarity: Anger and Politics in Postcommunist Europe (ebook). Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-4318-0.
  • Penn, Shana (2005). Solidarity's Secret : The Women Who Defeated Communism in Poland. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-11385-2.
  • Perdue, William D. (1995). Paradox of Change: The Rise and Fall of Solidarity in the New Poland. Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-95295-9.
  • Pope John Paul II, Sollicitudo rei socialis, on Vatican website
  • Staniszkis, Jadwiga (1984). Poland's Self-Limiting Revolution. Princeton University Press.
  • Smolar, Aleksander, '"Self-limiting Revolution": Poland 1970–89', in Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-19-955201-6.[2].
  • Szporer, Michael (2014). Solidarity: The Great Workers Strike of 1980. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0739192801.
  • Weigel, George (1992). The Final Revolution: The Resistance Church and the Collapse of Communism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516664-7.

External links

7 October 1996

Fox News Channel begins broadcasting.

Fox News

Fox News
Fox News Channel logo.svg
LaunchedOctober 7, 1996; 23 years ago (1996-10-07)
Owned byFox Corporation
Picture format720p HDTV
(downscaled to letterboxed 480i for the SDTV feed)
SloganFair and balanced
Most watched. Most trusted.
Real news. Real honest opinion.
We report. You decide.
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Broadcast areaUnited States
Headquarters1211 Avenue of the Americas
New York City, NY, U.S. 10036
Sister channel(s)Fox Business Network
Fox Broadcasting Company
Websitewww.foxnews.com
Availability
Satellite
DirecTVChannel 360 (SD/HD)
Dish NetworkChannel 205 (SD/HD)
Bell TV (Canada)Channel 507
Shaw Direct (Canada)Channel 154
Channel 503
Foxtel (Australia)Channel 604
SKY TV (New Zealand)Channel 088
Sky ItaliaChannel 514
Digital+Channel 77
StarHubChannel 702
MEO (Portugal)Channel 208
Cignal (Philippines)Channel 131
OSNChannel 411
beINChannel 147 (HD)
Oi TV (Brazil)Channel 184
Movistar TV (Chile)Channel 734
G Sat (Philippines)Channel 50
Cable
Available on most US providersChannel slots vary on each operator
Cablevisión (Argentina)Channel 552 (Digital)
Macau Cable TV (Macau)Channel 816
Cable TV Hong Kong (Hong Kong)Channel 123
Movistar TV (Peru)Channel 548
SkyCable (Philippines)Channel 138
Izzi Telecom (Mexico)Channel 180
Satellite radio
SiriusChannel 114
XMChannel 115
IPTV
Verizon FiOSChannel 118 (SD)
Channel 618 (HD)
Bell Fibe TV (Canada)Channel 507
VMedia (Canada)Channel 181
Optik TVChannel 811 (HD; East)
Channel 9811 (SD; West)
now TV
(Hong Kong)
Channel 318
Streaming media
FoxNewsGo.comWatch live
(United States)
fuboTVLive Stream
PlayStation VueInternet Protocol television

Fox News (officially Fox News Channel and abbreviated FNC) is an American conservative[1][2] pay television news channel. It is owned by the Fox News Group, which itself was owned by News Corporation from 1996–2013, 21st Century Fox from 2013–2019, and Fox Corporation since 2019. The channel broadcasts primarily from studios at 1211 Avenue of the Americas in New York City. Fox News is provided in 86 countries or overseas territories worldwide,[3] with international broadcasts featuring Fox Extra segments during ad breaks.

The channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch to appeal to a conservative audience, hiring former Republican Party media consultant and CNBC executive Roger Ailes as its founding CEO.[4][5] It launched on October 7, 1996, to 17 million cable subscribers.[6] Fox News grew during the late 1990s and 2000s to become the dominant subscription news network in the U.S.[7] As of February 2015, approximately 94,700,000 US households (81.4% of television subscribers) receive Fox News.[8] Murdoch is the current executive chairman and Suzanne Scott is the CEO.[9][10]

Fox News has been described as practicing biased reporting in favor of the Republican Party, the George W. Bush and Donald Trump administrations, and conservative causes while slandering the Democratic Party and spreading harmful propaganda intended to negatively affect its members' electoral performances.[11][12][13][14] Critics have cited the channel as detrimental to the integrity of news overall.[15][16] Fox News employees have said that news reporting operates independently of its opinion and commentary programming, and have denied bias in news reporting, while former employees have said that Fox ordered them to "slant the news in favor of conservatives".[17] During Trump's presidency, observers have noted a pronounced tendency of Fox News to serve as a "mouthpiece" for the administration, providing "propaganda" and a "feedback loop" for Trump, with one presidential scholar stating, "it’s the closest we’ve come to having state TV."[18][19][20][21][22]

History

Roger Ailes and Rupert Murdoch established Fox News in 1996.

In May 1985, Australian publisher Rupert Murdoch announced he and American industrialist and philanthropist Marvin Davis intended to develop "a network of independent stations as a fourth marketing force" to compete directly with CBS, NBC, and ABC through the purchase of six television stations owned by Metromedia.[23] In July 1985, 20th Century Fox announced Murdoch had completed his purchase of 50% of Fox Filmed Entertainment, the parent company of 20th Century Fox Film Corporation.[24] A year later, 20th Century Fox earned $5.6 million in its fiscal third period ended May 31, 1986, in contrast to a loss of $55.8 million in the third period of the previous year.[25]

Subsequently, and prior to founding FNC, Murdoch had gained experience in the 24-hour news business when News Corporation's BSkyB subsidiary began Europe's first 24-hour news channel (Sky News) in the United Kingdom in 1989.[26] With the success of his fourth network efforts in the United States,[27] experience gained from Sky News and the turnaround of 20th Century Fox, Murdoch announced on January 31, 1996, that News Corp. would launch a 24-hour news channel on cable and satellite systems in the United States as part of a News Corp. "worldwide platform" for Fox programming: "The appetite for news – particularly news that explains to people how it affects them – is expanding enormously".[28]

In February 1996, after former U.S. Republican Party political strategist and NBC executive[29] Roger Ailes left cable television channel America's Talking (now MSNBC), Murdoch asked him to start Fox News Channel. Ailes demanded five months of 14-hour workdays and several weeks of rehearsal shows before its launch on October 7, 1996.[30]

At its debut 17 million households were able to watch FNC;[6] however, it was absent from the media markets of New York City and Los Angeles. Rolling news coverage during the day consisted of 20-minute single-topic shows such as Fox on Crime or Fox on Politics, surrounded by news headlines. Interviews featured facts at the bottom of the screen about the topic or the guest. The flagship newscast at the time was The Schneider Report, with Mike Schneider's fast-paced delivery of the news. During the evening, Fox featured opinion shows: The O'Reilly Report (later The O'Reilly Factor), The Crier Report (hosted by Catherine Crier) and Hannity & Colmes.

From the beginning, FNC has placed heavy emphasis on visual presentation. Graphics were designed to be colorful and gain attention; this helped the viewer to grasp the main points of what was being said, even if they could not hear the host (with on-screen text summarizing the position of the interviewer or speaker, and "bullet points" when a host was delivering commentary). Fox News also created the "Fox News Alert", which interrupted its regular programming when a breaking news story occurred.

Fox News Studios in 2009.

To accelerate its adoption by cable providers, Fox News paid systems up to $11 per subscriber to distribute the channel.[31] This contrasted with the normal practice, in which cable operators paid stations carriage fees for programming. When Time Warner bought Ted Turner's Turner Broadcasting System, a federal antitrust consent decree required Time Warner to carry a second all-news channel in addition to its own CNN on its cable systems. Time Warner selected MSNBC as the secondary news channel, not Fox News. Fox News claimed this violated an agreement (to carry Fox News). Citing its agreement to keep its U.S. headquarters and a large studio in New York City, News Corporation enlisted the help of Mayor Rudolph Giuliani's administration to pressure Time Warner Cable (one of the city's two cable providers) to transmit Fox News on a city-owned channel.[32] City officials threatened to take action affecting Time Warner's cable franchises in the city.[33]

During the September 11, 2001 attacks, Fox News was the first news organization to run a news ticker on the bottom of the screen to keep up with the flow of information that day. The ticker has remained, informing viewers about additional news which reporters may not mention on-screen and repeating news mentioned during a broadcast; it has proven popular with viewers.[34]

Outlets

Television news studio
FNC's newsroom, November 15, 2007.

FNC maintains an archive of most of its programs. This archive also includes Movietone News series of newsreels from its now Disney-owned namesake movie studio, 20th Century Fox. Licensing for the Fox News archive is handled by ITN Source, the archiving division of ITN.[35]

Television

FNC presents a variety of programming, with up to 15 hours of live broadcasting per day in addition to programming and content for the Fox Broadcasting Company. Most programs are broadcast from Fox News headquarters in New York City (at 1211 Avenue of the Americas), in its streetside studio on Sixth Avenue in the west wing of Rockefeller Center, sharing its headquarters with sister channel Fox Business Network. Fox News Channel has eight studios at its New York City headquarters that are used for its and Fox Business' programming: Studio B (used for Fox Business programming), Studio D (which has an area for studio audiences; and is used by The Greg Gutfeld Show, Fox and Friends First), Studio F (used for The Story with Martha MacCallum, The Five, and America's Election Headquarters, Fox and Friends, Outnumbered, Outnumbered Overtime, America's News HQ, Justice with Judge Jeanine) Studio G (which houses Fox Business shows), Studio H (Fox News Deck used for Shepard Smith Reporting and breaking news coverage), Studio J (used for America's Newsroom, Hannity and Justice with Judge Jeanine) Starting with 2018, Thursday Night Football will have its pregame show, Fox NFL Thursday originate from the Fox News studio.

The remaining programs (such as Tucker Carlson Tonight, Special Report with Bret Baier, The Ingraham Angle, Fox News @ Night, and editions of America's News HQ not broadcast from the New York City studios) are broadcast from Fox News's Washington, D.C. studios, located on Capitol Hill across from Union Station in a secured building shared by a number of other television networks (including NBC News and C-SPAN). Audio simulcasts of the channel are aired on XM Satellite Radio and Sirius Satellite Radio.

In an October 11, 2009, in a New York Times article, Fox said its hard-news programming runs from "9 a.m. to 4 p.m. and 6 to 8 p.m. on weekdays" and "[is] objective"; however, it makes no such claims for its other broadcasts, which primarily consist of editorial journalism and commentary.[36]

Fox News Channel began broadcasting in the 720p resolution format on May 1, 2008.[37] This format is available on all major cable and satellite providers.

The Fox News Group produces Fox News Sunday, which airs on Fox Broadcasting and re-airs on FNC. Fox News also produces occasional special event coverage that is broadcast on FBC.

Radio

With the growth of FNC, the company introduced a radio division, Fox News Radio, in 2003.[38] Syndicated throughout the United States, the division provides short newscasts and talk radio programs featuring personalities from the television and radio divisions. In 2006, the company also introduced Fox News Talk, a satellite radio station featuring programs syndicated by (and featuring) Fox News personalities.

Online

Introduced in December 1995,[39] the Fox News website features the latest coverage (including columns by FNC television, radio and online personalities). Video clips are also available on Foxnews.com and Foxbusiness.com. Fox News Latino is the version aimed at the Hispanic audience, although presented almost entirely in English, with a Spanish section.[40]

In September 2008, FNC joined other channels in introducing a live streaming segment to its website: The Strategy Room, designed to appeal to older viewers. It airs weekdays from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. and takes the form of an informal discussion, with running commentary on the news. Regular discussion programs include Business Hour, News With a View and God Talk.[41] In March 2009, The Fox Nation was launched as a website intended to encourage readers to post, commenting on the news.[42] Fox News Mobile is the portion of the FNC website dedicated to streaming news clips formatted for video-enabled mobile phones.[43]

Ratings and reception

In 2003, Fox News saw a large ratings jump during the early stages of the US invasion of Iraq. At the height of the conflict, according to some reports, Fox News had as much as a 300% increase in viewership (averaging 3.3 million viewers daily).[44] In 2004, Fox News' ratings for its broadcast of the Republican National Convention exceeded those of the three major broadcast networks. During President George W. Bush's address, Fox News attracted 7.3 million viewers nationally; NBC, ABC, and CBS had a viewership of 5.9 million, 5.1 million, and 5.0 million respectively.

Between late 2005 and early 2006, Fox News saw a brief decline in ratings. One was in the second quarter of 2006, when it lost viewers for every prime-time program compared with the previous quarter. The audience for the Special Report with Brit Hume, for example, dropped 19%. Several weeks later, in the wake of the 2006 North Korean missile test and the 2006 Lebanon War, Fox saw a surge in viewership and remained the #1-rated cable news channel.[45] Fox produced eight of the top ten most-watched nightly cable news shows, with The O'Reilly Factor and Hannity & Colmes finishing first and second respectively.[46]

FNC ranked #8 in viewership among all cable channels in 2006, and #6 in 2007.[47] The channel ranked #1 during the week of Barack Obama's election (November 3–9) in 2008, and reached the top spot again in January 2010 (during the week of the special Senate election in Massachusetts).[48] Comparing Fox to its 24-hour-news-channel competitors, in May 2010 the channel drew an average daily prime-time audience of 1.8 million viewers (versus 747,000 for MSNBC and 595,000 for CNN).[49]

In September 2009, the Pew Research Center published a report on the public view of national news organizations. In the report, 72 percent of polled Republican Fox viewers rated the channel as "favorable", while 43 percent of polled Democratic viewers and 55 percent of all polled viewers shared that opinion. However, Fox was given the highest "unfavorable" rating of all national outlets studied (25 percent of all polled viewers). The report went on to say, "partisan differences in views of Fox News have increased substantially since 2007".[50] A Public Policy Polling poll concluded in 2013 that perceptions of FNC had declined from 2010. 41% of polled voters said they trust it, down from 49% in 2010, while 46% said they distrust it, up from 37% in 2010. It was also called the "most trusted" network by 34% of those polled, more than had said the same of any other network.[51]

On the night of October 22, 2012, Fox set a record for its highest-rated telecast ever, with 11.5 million viewers for the third U.S. presidential debate.[52] In prime time the week before, Fox averaged almost 3.7 million viewers with a total day average of 1.66 million viewers.[53]

In prime time and total day ratings for the week of April 15 to 21, 2013, Fox News, propelled by its coverage of the Boston Marathon bombing, was the highest-ranked network on U.S. cable television, for the first time since August 2005, when Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast of the United States.[54] January 2014 marked Fox News's 145th consecutive month as the number one rated cable news channel. During that month, Fox News beat CNN and MSNBC combined in overall viewers in both prime time hours and the total day.[55] In the third quarter of 2014, the network was the most-watched cable channel during prime time hours.[56] During the final week of the campaign for the United States elections, 2014, Fox News had the highest ratings of any cable channel, news or otherwise. On election night itself, Fox News' coverage had higher ratings than that of any of the other five cable or network news sources among viewers between 25 and 54 years of age.[57] The network hosted the first prime-time GOP candidates' forum of the 2016 campaign on August 6. The debate reached a record-breaking 24 million viewers, by far the largest audience ever for any cable news event.[58]

In 2018 the network was rated by Nielsen as America's most watched cable network, averaging a record 2.4 million viewers between December and January 1.[59]

Demographics

As indicated by a New York Times article, based on Nielsen statistics, Fox appears to have a mostly aged demographic.[60] In 2008, in the 25–54 age group, Fox News had an average of 557,000 viewers, but dropped to 379,000 in 2013 while increasing its overall audience from 1.89 million in 2010 to 2.02 million in 2013. The median age of a prime-time viewer was 68 as of 2015.[61] A study done by the Pew Research Center found that around 60% of Fox News viewers identify as conservative.[62]

According to a 2013 Gallup poll, 94% of Fox viewers "Either identify as or lean Republican".[63]

Slogan

Fox News Channel originally used the slogan "Fair and Balanced", which was coined by network co-founder Roger Ailes while the network was being established. The New York Times described the slogan as being a "blunt signal that Fox News planned to counteract what Mr. Ailes and many others viewed as a liberal bias ingrained in television coverage by establishment news networks".[64][65]

In August 2003, Fox sued comedian Al Franken over his use of the slogan as a subtitle for his book, Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them: A Fair and Balanced Look at the Right, which is critical of Fox News Channel.[66] The lawsuit was dropped three days later, after Judge Denny Chin refused its request for an injunction. In his decision, Chin ruled the case was "wholly without merit, both factually and legally". He went on to suggest that Fox News' trademark on the phrase "fair and balanced" could be invalid.[67] In December 2003, FNC won a legal battle concerning the slogan, when AlterNet filed a cancellation petition with the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) to have FNC's trademark rescinded as inaccurate. AlterNet included Robert Greenwald's documentary film Outfoxed (2004) as supporting evidence in its case.[68] After losing early motions, AlterNet withdrew its petition; the USPTO dismissed the case.[69] In 2008, FNC used the slogan "We Report, You Decide", referring to "You Decide 2008" (FNC's original slogan for its coverage of election issues).

In August 2016, Fox News Channel began to quietly phase out the "Fair and Balanced" slogan in favor of "Most Watched, Most Trusted"; when these changes were reported in June 2017 by Gabriel Sherman (a writer who had written a biography on Ailes), a network executive said the change "has nothing to do with programming or editorial decisions". It was speculated by media outlets that Fox News Channel was wishing to distance itself from Ailes' tenure at the network.[64][65][70] In March 2018, the network introduced a new ad campaign, Real News. Real Honest Opinion. The ad campaign is intended to promote the network's opinion-based programming and counter perceptions surrounding "fake news".[71][72] Fox News still keeps both the "Fair & Balanced" and "Most Watched. Most Trusted." slogans.

Content

Benghazi attack and aftermath

Fox News provided extensive coverage of the 2012 Benghazi attack, which host Sean Hannity described in December 2012 as "the story that the mainstream media ignores" and "obviously, a cover-up. And we will get to the bottom of it."[73] Programming analysis by Media Matters found that during the twenty months following the Benghazi attacks, FNC ran 1,098 segments on the issue, including:[74]

  • 478 segments involving Susan Rice's September 16, 2012 Sunday news show appearances, during which she was falsely accused of lying
  • 382 segments on Special Report, the network's flagship news program
  • 281 segments alleging a "cover-up" by the Obama administration
  • 144 interviews of GOP members of Congress, but only five interviews of Democratic members of Congress and Obama administration officials
  • 120 comparisons to Iran-Contra, Watergate, and the actions of the Nixon administration
  • 100 segments falsely suggesting the administration issued a "stand-down order" to prevent a rescue operation in Benghazi

Over nearly four years after the Benghazi attack, there were ten official investigations, including six by Republican-controlled House committees. None of the investigations found any evidence of scandal, cover-up or lying by Obama administration officials.

On June 29, 2018, Fox News broadcast a segment by news anchor Bret Baier entitled "Whatever happened to the Benghazi investigation?" which repeated some of the accusations the network had previously made about Susan Rice and Hillary Clinton, but for which the women had been exonerated by the official investigations.[75]

Uranium One

From 2015 into 2018, Fox News broadcast extensive coverage of an alleged scandal surrounding the sale of Uranium One to Russian interests, which host Sean Hannity characterized as "one of the biggest scandals in American history".[76] The Fox News coverage extended throughout the programming day, with particular emphasis by Hannity.[77] The network promoted an ultimately unfounded narrative asserting that, as Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton personally approved the Uranium One sale in exchange for $145 million in bribes paid to the Clinton Foundation. Donald Trump repeated these allegations as a candidate and as president.[78][79][80] No evidence of wrongdoing by Clinton had been found after four years of allegations, an FBI investigation, and the 2017 appointment of a Federal attorney to evaluate the investigation. In November 2017, Fox News host Shepard Smith concisely debunked the alleged scandal, infuriating viewers who suggested he should work for CNN or MSNBC.[79] Hannity later called Smith "clueless," while Smith stated, "I get it, that some of our opinion programming is there strictly to be entertaining. I get that. I don't work there. I wouldn't work there."[81][82]

Pro-Republican and pro-Trump bias

Fox News Channel has been widely described as providing biased reporting in favor of conservative political positions,[11][12][83][84][85][86][87] the Republican Party[13][88][89] and President Donald Trump.[14][90][91][92][93] Political scientist Jonathan Bernstein described Fox News as an expanded part of the Republican Party.[13][89] Political scientists Matt Grossmann and David A. Hopkins write that Fox News has helped "Republicans communicate with their base and spread their ideas, and they have been effective in mobilizing voters to participate in midterm elections (as in 2010 and 2014)."[13] Prior to 2000, Fox News lacked an ideological tilt, and even had more Democrats watch the channel than Republicans.[94] During the 2004 presidential election, Fox News was markedly more hostile in its coverage of Democratic presidential nominee John Kerry, and distinguished itself among cable news outlets for heavy coverage of the Swift Boat smear campaign against Kerry.[95][96][97] During Obama's first term in office, Fox News helped launch and amplify the Tea Party movement, a conservative movement within the Republican party that organized protests against Obama and his policies.[11][87][98][99][100][101][102]

During the Republican primaries, Fox News was widely perceived as trying to prevent Trump from clinching the nomination.[83] However, under Trump's presidency, Fox News remade itself into his image, as nearly no criticism could be heard of Trump on Fox News' prime-time shows.[90][103] Even in Fox News' news reporting, the network dedicated far more coverage to Hillary Clinton-related stories, which critics say was intended to deflect attention from the investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 election.[103] Trump provided great access to Fox News during his presidency, giving 19 interviews to the channel while only 6 in total to other news channels by November 2017; The New York Times described Trump's Fox News interviews as "softball interviews" and some of the interviewers' interview styles as "fawning";[104] similarly, The Economist has described the network's coverage of Trump's presidency as "reliably fawning".[105] From 2015 to 2017, the Fox News prime-time line-up changed from one that was skeptical and questioning of Trump to a "Trump safe space, with a dose of Bannonist populism once considered on the fringe".[106] The Fox News website has also gotten more extreme in its rhetoric since the election of Donald Trump; according to Columbia's Tow Center for Digital Journalism, the Fox News website has "gone a little Breitbart" over time.[107] At the start of 2018, Fox News mostly ignored prominent scandals in the Trump administration which received ample coverage in other national media outlets, such as White House Staff Secretary Rob Porter's resignation amid domestic abuse allegations, the downgrading of Jared Kushner's security clearance and the existence of a non-disclosure agreement between Trump and the porn star Stormy Daniels.[108]

In March 2019, Jane Mayer reported in The New Yorker that Fox News.com reporter Diana Falzone had the story of the Stormy Daniels–Donald Trump scandal before the 2016 election, but that Fox News executive Ken LaCorte told her, "Good reporting, kiddo. But Rupert [Murdoch] wants Donald Trump to win. So just let it go," and the story was killed. LaCorte denied making the statement to Falzone, but conceded, "I was the person who made the call. I didn't run it upstairs to Roger Ailes or others...I didn't do it to protect Donald Trump," adding "[Falzone] had put up a story that just wasn't anywhere close to being something I was comfortable publishing." Nik Richie, who claimed to be one of the sources for the story, called LaCorte's account "complete bullshit", adding "Fox News was culpable. I voted for Trump, and I like Fox, but they did their own 'catch and kill' on the story to protect him."[18][109]

A 2008 study found Fox News gave disproportionate attention to polls suggesting low approval for President Bill Clinton.[110] A 2009 study found Fox News was less likely to pick up stories that reflected well on Democrats, and more likely to pick up stories that reflected well on Republicans.[111] A 2010 study comparing Fox News Channel's Special Report With Brit Hume and NBC's Nightly News coverage of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan during 2005 concluded "Fox News was much more sympathetic to the administration than NBC", suggesting "if scholars continue to find evidence of a partisan or ideological bias at FNC ... they should consider Fox as alternative, rather than mainstream, media".[112]

Research also suggests Fox News increases Republican vote shares and makes Republican politicians more partisan.[85][113][114][115] A 2007 study, using the introduction of Fox News into local markets (1996–2000) as an instrumental variable, found that in the 2000 presidential election "Republicans gained 0.4 to 0.7 percentage points in the towns that broadcast Fox News", suggesting "Fox News convinced 3 to 28 percent of its viewers to vote Republican, depending on the audience measure".[85] These results were confirmed by a 2015 study.[115] A 2014 study, using the same instrumental variable, found congressional "representatives become less supportive of President Clinton in districts where Fox News begins broadcasting than similar representatives in similar districts where Fox News was not broadcast."[114] A 2017 study, using channel positions as an instrumental variable, found "Fox News increases Republican vote shares by 0.3 points among viewers induced into watching 2.5 additional minutes per week by variation in position."[113] Another 2014 paper found Fox News viewing increased Republican vote shares among voters who identified as Republican or independent.[116]

Fox News publicly denies it is biased, with Murdoch and Ailes saying have included Murdoch's statement that Fox has "given room to both sides, whereas only one side had it before".[117] Fox News host Chris Wallace has said, "I think we are the counter-weight [to NBC News] ... they have a liberal agenda, and we tell the other side of the story."[118] In 2004, Robert Greenwald's documentary film Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch's War on Journalism argued Fox News had a conservative bias and featured clips from Fox News and internal memos from editorial vice president John Moody directing Fox News staff on how to report certain subjects.[119][120]

A leaked memo from Fox News vice president Bill Sammon to news staff at the height of the health care reform in the United States debate has been cited as an example of the pro-Republican Party bias of Fox News. His memo asked the staff to "use the term 'government-run health insurance,' or, when brevity is a concern, 'government option,' whenever possible". The memo was sent shortly after Republican pollster Frank Luntz advised Sean Hannity on his Fox show, "If you call it a public option, the American people are split. If you call it the government option, the public is overwhelmingly against it".[121]

Surveys suggest Fox News is widely perceived to be ideological. A 2009 Pew survey found Fox News is viewed as the most ideological channel in America, with 47 percent of those surveyed said Fox News is "mostly conservative", 14 percent said "mostly liberal" and 24 percent said "neither". In comparison, MSNBC had 36 percent identify it as "mostly liberal", 11 percent as "mostly conservative" and 27 percent as "neither". CNN had 37 percent describe it as "mostly liberal", 11 percent as "mostly conservative" and 33 percent as "neither".[122] A 2004 Pew Research Center survey found FNC was cited (unprompted) by 69 percent of national journalists as a conservative news organization.[123] A Rasmussen poll found 31 percent of Americans felt Fox News had a conservative bias, and 15 percent that it had a liberal bias. It found 36 percent believed Fox News delivers news with neither a conservative or liberal bias, compared with 37 percent who said NPR delivers news with no conservative or liberal bias and 32 percent who said the same of CNN.[124]

David Carr, media critic for The New York Times, praised the 2012 presidential election results coverage on Fox News for the network's response to Republican adviser and Fox News contributor Karl Rove challenging its call that Barack Obama would win Ohio and the election. Fox's prediction was correct. Carr wrote:

Over many months, Fox lulled its conservative base with agitprop: that President Obama was a clear failure, that a majority of Americans saw [Mitt] Romney as a good alternative in hard times, and that polls showing otherwise were politically motivated and not to be believed. But on Tuesday night, the people in charge of Fox News were confronted with a stark choice after it became clear that Mr. Romney had fallen short: was Fox, first and foremost, a place for advocacy or a place for news? In this moment, at least, Fox chose news.[125]

A May 2017 study conducted by Harvard University's Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy examined coverage of Trump's first 100 days in office by several major mainstream media outlets including Fox.[126] It found Trump received 80% negative coverage from the overall media, and received the least negative coverage on Fox – 52% negative and 48% positive.[127]

On March 14, 2017, Andrew Napolitano, a Fox News commentator, claimed on Fox & Friends that British intelligence agency GCHQ had wiretapped Donald Trump on behalf of Barack Obama during the 2016 United States presidential election.[128][129] On March 16, 2017, White House spokesman Sean Spicer repeated the claim.[128] When Trump was questioned about the claim at a news conference, he said "All we did was quote a certain very talented legal mind who was the one responsible for saying that on television. I didn't make an opinion on it."[130] On March 17, 2017, Shepard Smith, a Fox News anchor, admitted the network had no evidence that Trump was under surveillance. British officials said the White House was backing off the claim.[130] Napolitano was later suspended by Fox News for making the claim.[131]

In June 2018, Fox News executives instructed producers to head off inappropriate remarks made on the shows aired by the network by hosts and commentators.[132] The instructions came after a number of Fox News hosts and guests made incendiary comments about the Trump administration's policy of separating migrant children from their parents.[132] Fox News host Laura Ingraham had likened the child detention centers that the children were in to "summer camps". Guest Corey Lewandowski mocked the story of a 10-year-old child with Down syndrome being separated from her mother; the Fox News host did not address Lewandowski's statement.[132] Guest Ann Coulter falsely claimed that the separated children were "child actors"; the Fox News host did not challenge her claim.[132] In a segment on Trump's alleged use of racial dog whistles, one Fox News contributor told an African-American whom he was debating, "You're out of your cotton-picking mind."[132]

According to the 2016 book Asymmetric Politics by political scientists Matt Grossmann and David A. Hopkins, "Fox News tends to raise the profile of scandals and controversies involving Democrats that receive scant attention in other media, such as the relationship between Barack Obama and William Ayers ... Hillary Clinton's role in the fatal 2012 attacks on the American consulate in Benghazi, Libya; the gun-running scandal known as 'Fast and Furious'; the business practices of federal loan guarantee recipient Solyndra; the past activism of Obama White House operative Van Jones; the 2004 attacks on John Kerry by the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth; the controversial sermons of Obama's Chicago pastor Jeremiah Wright; the filming of undercover videos of supposed wrongdoing by the liberal activist group ACORN; and even the 'war on Christmas' supposedly waged every December by secular, multicultural liberals."[99]

In October 2018, Fox News ran laudatory coverage of a meeting between Trump-supporting rapper Kanye West and President Trump in the Oval Office. Fox News had previously run negative coverage of rappers and their involvement with Democratic politicians and causes, such as when Fox News ran headlines describing conscious hip-hop artist Common as "vile" and a "cop-killer rapper", and when Fox News ran negative coverage of Kanye West before he became a Trump supporter.[133]

On November 4, 2018, Trump's website, DonaldJTrump.com, announced in a press release that Fox News host Sean Hannity would make a "special guest appearance" with Trump at a midterm campaign rally the following night in Cape Girardeau, Missouri.[134] The following morning, Hannity tweeted "To be clear, I will not be on stage campaigning with the President."[135] Hannity appeared at the president's lectern on stage at the rally, immediately mocking the "fake news" at the back of the auditorium, Fox News reporters among them. Several Fox News employees expressed outrage at Hannity's actions, with one stating, "a new line was crossed."[136] Hannity later asserted that his action was not pre-planned, and Fox News stated it "does not condone any talent participating in campaign events".[137] Fox News host Jeanine Pirro also appeared on stage with Trump at the rally. The Trump press release was later removed from Trump's website.[134][138]

Fox News released a poll of registered voters, jointly conducted by two polling organizations, on June 16, 2019. The poll found some unfavorable results for Trump, notably that a record high 50% thought the Trump campaign had coordinated with the Russian government, and 50% thought he should be impeached — 43% saying he should also be removed from office — while 48% said they did not favor impeachment.[139][140] The next morning on Fox & Friends First, host Heather Childers twice misrepresented the poll results, stating "a new Fox News poll shows most voters don’t want impeachment" and "at least half of U.S. voters do not think President Trump should be impeached," while the on-screen display of the actual poll question was also incorrect. Later that morning on America's Newsroom, the on-screen display showed the correct poll question and results, but highlighted the 48% of respondents who opposed impeachment rather than the 50% who supported it (the latter being broken-out into two figures). As host Bill Hemmer drew guest Byron York's attention to the 48% opposed figure, they did not discuss the 50% support figure, while the on-screen chyron read, "Fox News Poll: 43% Support Trump's Impeachment and Removal, 48% Oppose."[141] Later that day, Trump tweeted "@FoxNews Polls are always bad for me...Something weird going on at Fox."[142]

Coverage of Russia investigation

On October 30, 2017, when special counsel Robert S. Mueller III indicted Paul Manafort and Rick Gates, and revealed George Papadopoulos had plead guilty (all of whom were involved in the Trump 2016 campaign), this was the focus of most media's coverage, except Fox News'.[143] Hosts and guests on Fox News called for Mueller to be fired.[143][144] Sean Hannity and Tucker Carlson focused their shows on unsubstantiated allegations that Clinton sold uranium to Russia in exchange for donations to the Clinton Foundation and on the Clinton campaign's role in funding the Donald Trump–Russia dossier.[143][145] Hannity asserted, "The very thing they are accusing President Trump of doing, they did it themselves."[143] During the segment, Hannity mistakenly referred to Clinton as President Clinton.[143][146] Fox News dedicated extensive coverage to the uranium story, which Democrats said was an attempt to distract from Mueller's intensifying investigation.[147][148] CNN described the coverage as "a tour de force in deflection and dismissal".[145] On October 31, CNN reported Fox News employees were dissatisfied with their outlet's coverage of the Russia investigation, with employees calling it an "embarrassment", "laughable" and saying it "does the viewer a huge disservice and further divides the country" and that it is "another blow to journalists at Fox who come in every day wanting to cover the news in a fair and objective way".[149][150]

When the investigation by special counsel Robert Mueller into Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election intensified in October 2017, the focus of Fox News coverage turned "what they see as the scandal and wrongdoing of President Trump's political opponents. In reports like these, Bill and Hillary Clinton are prominent and recurring characters because they are considered the real conspirators working with the Russians to undermine American democracy."[151] Paul Waldman of the Washington Post described the coverage as "No puppet. You're the puppet", saying it was a "careful, coordinated, and comprehensive strategy" to distract from Mueller's investigation.[152] German Lopes of Vox said Fox News' coverage has reached "levels of self-parody" as it dedicated coverage to low-key stories, such as a controversial Newsweek op-ed and hamburger emojis, while other networks had wall-to-wall coverage of Mueller's indictments.[153]

A FiveThirtyEight analysis of Russia-related media coverage in cable news found most mentions of Russia on Fox News were spoken in close proximity to "uranium" and "dossier".[154] On November 1, 2017, Vox analyzed the transcripts of Fox News, CNN and MSNBC, and found Fox News "was unable to talk about the Mueller investigation without bringing up Hillary Clinton", "talked significantly less about George Papadopoulos — the Trump campaign adviser whose plea deal with Mueller provides the most explicit evidence thus far that the campaign knew of the Russian government's efforts to help Trump — than its competitors", and "repeatedly called Mueller's credibility into question".[155]

In December 2017, Fox News escalated its attacks on the Mueller investigation, with hosts and guest commentators suggesting the investigation amounted to a coup.[156][157][158][159][160] Guest co-host Kevin Jackson referred to a right-wing conspiracy theory claiming Strzok's messages are evidence of a plot by FBI agents to assassinate Trump, a claim which the other Fox co-hosts quickly said is not supported by any credible evidence.[161][162] Fox News host Jeanine Pirro called the Mueller investigation team a "criminal cabal" and said the team ought to be arrested.[156] Other Fox News figures referred to the investigation as "corrupt", "crooked" and "illegitimate", and likened the FBI to the KGB, the Soviet-era spy organization that routinely tortured and summarily executed people.[157] Political scientists and scholars of coups described the Fox News rhetoric as scary and dangerous.[157] Experts on coups rejected that the Mueller investigation amounted to a coup; rather, the Fox News rhetoric was dangerous to democracy and mirrored the kind of rhetoric that occurs before purges.[157] A number of observers argued the Fox News rhetoric was intended to discredit the Mueller investigation and sway President Donald Trump to fire Mueller.[163]

In August 2018, Fox News was criticized for giving more prominent coverage of a murder committed by an undocumented immigrant than the convictions of Donald Trump's former campaign manager, Paul Manafort, and his long-term personal attorney, Michael Cohen.[164] At the same time, most other national mainstream media gave wall-to-wall coverage of the convictions.[165] Fox News hosts Dana Perrino and Jason Chaffetz argued that voters care far more about the murder than the convictions of the President's former top aides, and hosts Tucker Carlson and Sean Hannity downplayed the convictions.[166][164][167]

False claims about other media

CNN's Jake Tapper

In November 2017, in the immediate aftermath of the 2017 New York City truck attack wherein a terrorist shouted "Allahu Akbar", Fox News distorted a statement by Jake Tapper to make it appear as if he had said "Allahu Akbar" can be used under the most "beautiful circumstances".[168] Fox News omitted that Tapper had said the use of "Allahu Akbar" in the terrorist attack was not one of these beautiful circumstances.[168] A headline on FoxNews.com was preceded by a tag reading "OUTRAGEOUS".[168] The Fox News Twitter account distorted the statement even more, saying "Jake Tapper Says 'Allahu Akbar' Is 'Beautiful' Right After NYC Terror Attack" in a tweet that was later deleted.[168] Tapper chastised Fox News for choosing to "deliberately lie" and said "there was a time when one could tell the difference between Fox and the nutjobs at Infowars. It's getting tougher and tougher. Lies are lies."[168] Tapper had in 2009, while a White House correspondent for ABC News, come to the defense of Fox News when Obama criticized the network for not being a legitimate news organization.[169]

Fox News guest host Jason Chaffetz apologized to Tapper for misrepresenting his statement.[170] After Fox News had deleted the tweet, Sean Hannity repeated the misrepresentation and called Tapper "liberal fake news CNN's fake Jake Tapper" and mocked his ratings.[169][170]

The New York Times

In July 2017, a report by Fox & Friends falsely said The New York Times had disclosed intelligence in one of its stories and that this intelligence disclosure helped Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the leader of the Islamic State, to evade capture.[171] The report cited an inaccurate assertion by Gen. Tony Thomas, the head of the United States Special Operations Command, that a major newspaper had disclosed the intelligence.[171][172] Fox News said it was the New York Times, repeatedly running the chyron "NYT Foils U.S. Attempt To Take Out Al-Bahgdadi".[172] Pete Hegseth, one of the show's hosts, criticized the "failing New York Times".[172] President Donald Trump tweeted about the Fox & Friends report shortly after it first aired, saying "The Failing New York Times foiled U.S. attempt to kill the single most wanted terrorist, Al-Baghdadi. Their sick agenda over National Security."[171] Fox News later updated the story, but without apologizing to the New York Times or responding directly to the inaccuracies.[172]

In a Washington Post column, Erik Wemple said Chris Wallace had covered The New York Times story himself on Fox News Sunday. "Here's another case of the differing standards between Fox News's opinion operation", which has given "a state-run vibe on all matters related to Trump", compared to Fox News's news operation, which has provided "mostly sane coverage".[173]

Climate change

Fox News has widely been described as a major platform for climate change denial.[174][175][176][177] According to the fact-checking website Climate Feedback, Fox News is part of "a network of unreliable outlets for climate news."[175] A 2011 study found Fox News "takes a more dismissive tone toward climate change than CNN and MSNBC".[178] A 2008 study found Fox News emphasized the scientific uncertainty of climate change more than CNN, was less likely to say climate change was real, and more likely to interview climate change skeptics.[178] Leaked emails showed that Bill Sammon, the Fox News Washington managing editor, in 2009 instructed Fox News journalists to dispute the scientific consensus on climate change: "refrain from asserting that the planet has warmed (or cooled) in any given period without IMMEDIATELY pointing out that such theories are based upon data that critics have called into question."[179]

According to climate scientist Michael E. Mann, Fox News "has constructed an alternative universe where the laws of physics no longer apply, where the greenhouse effect is a myth, and where climate change is a hoax, the product of a massive conspiracy among scientists, who somehow have gotten the polar bears, glaciers, sea levels, superstorms, and megadroughts to play along."[176] According to James Lawrence Powell's 2011 study of the climate science denial movement, Fox News provides "the deniers with a platform to say whatever they like without fear of contradiction."[177] Fox News employs Steve Milloy, a prominent climate change denier with close financial and organizational ties to oil companies, as a contributor. In his columns about climate change for FoxNews.com, Fox News has failed to disclose his substantial funding from oil companies.[180]

In 2011, the hosts of Fox & Friends described climate change as "unproven science", a "disputed fact", and criticized the Department of Education for working together with Nickelodeon to teach children about climate change.[181] In 2001, Sean Hannity described the scientific consensus on climate change as "phony science from the left".[182] In 2004, he falsely alleged, "scientists still can't agree on whether the global warming is scientific fact or fiction".[182] In 2010, Hannity said the so-called "Climategate" – the leaking of e-mails by climate scientist that climate change skeptics claimed demonstrated scientific misconduct but which all subsequent enquiries have found no evidence of misconduct or wrongdoing – a "scandal" that "exposed global warming as a myth cooked up by alarmists".[183] Hannity frequently invites contrarian fringe scientists and critics of climate change to his shows.[184]

Shepard Smith has drawn attention for being one of few voices on Fox News to forcefully state that climate change is real, that human activities are a primary contributor to it and that there is a scientific consensus on the issue.[185][186] His acceptance of the scientific consensus on climate change has drawn criticism from Fox News viewers and conservatives.[187][188]

Murder of Seth Rich conspiracy

On May 16, 2017, a day when other news organizations were extensively covering Donald Trump's revelation of classified information to Russia,[189] Fox News ran a lead story about a private investigator's uncorroborated claims about the murder of Seth Rich, a DNC staffer.[190][191][192] The private investigator said he had uncovered evidence that Rich was in contact with Wikileaks and law enforcement were covering it up.[190] The killing of Rich has given rise to conspiracy theories in rightwing circles that Hillary Clinton and the Democratic Party had Seth Rich killed allegedly because he was the source of the DNC leaks.[190] U.S. intelligence agencies determined Russia was the source of the leaks.[193] In reporting the investigator's claims, the Fox News report reignited right-wing conspiracy theories about the killing.[190][192]

The Fox News story fell apart within hours.[194] Other news organizations quickly revealed the investigator was a Donald Trump supporter and had according to NBC News "developed a reputation for making outlandish claims, such as one appearance on Fox News in 2007 in which he warned that underground networks of pink pistol-toting lesbian gangs were raping young women."[190][195] The family of Seth Rich, the Washington, D.C. police department, the Washington, D.C. mayor's office, the FBI, and law enforcement sources familiar with the case, rebuked the investigator's claims.[190][191] The family said, "We are a family who is committed to facts, not fake evidence that surfaces every few months to fill the void and distract law enforcement and the general public from finding Seth's murderers."[190] The spokesperson for the family criticized Fox News for its reporting, alleging the outlet was motivated by a desire to deflect attention from the Trump-Russia story: "I think there's a very special place in hell for people that would use the memory of a murder victim in order to pursue a political agenda."[189] The family has called for retractions and apologies from Fox News for the inaccurate reporting.[195][196] Over the course of the day, Fox News altered the contents of the story and the headline, but did not issue corrections.[195][197] When CNN contacted the private investigator later that day, the investigator said he had no evidence that Rich had contacted Wikileaks.[192] The investigator claimed he only learned about the possible existence of the evidence from a Fox News reporter.[192] Fox News did not respond to inquiries by CNN, and the Washington Post.[191][192] Fox News later on 23 May, seven days after the story was published, retracted its original report, saying the original report did not meet its standards.[194][198]

Nicole Hemmer, assistant professor at the Miller Center of Public Affairs, wrote that the promotion of the conspiracy theory demonstrated how Fox News was "remaking itself in the image of fringe media in the age of Trump, blurring the lines between real and fake news."[199] Max Boot of the Council on Foreign Relations said while intent behind Fox News, as a counterweight to the liberal media was laudable, the culmination of those efforts have been to create an alternative news source that promotes hoaxes and myths, of which the promotion of the Seth Rich conspiracy is an example.[200] Fox News was also criticized by conservative outlets, such as the Weekly Standard,[201] National Review,[202][203] and conservative columnists, such as Jennifer Rubin,[204] Michael Gerson,[205] and John Podhoretz.[206]

Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville

Various Fox News hosts and contributors defended Trump's remarks that "many sides" were to blame for violence at a gathering of hundreds of white nationalists in Charlottesville, Virginia.[207][208] Some criticized Trump.[208][209] In a press conference on August 15, Trump used the term "alt-left" to describe counterprotesters at the white supremacist rally, a term which had been used in Fox News' coverage of the white supremacist rally.[207] Several of Trump's comments at the press conference mirrored those appearing earlier on Fox News.[210]

According to Dylan Byers of CNN, Fox News' coverage on the day of the press conference "was heavy with "whataboutism". The average Fox viewer was likely left with the impression that the media's criticism of Trump and leftist protestors' toppling of some Confederate statues were far greater threats to America than white supremacism or the president's apparent defense of bigotry."[209] Byers wrote, "it showed that if Fox News has a line when it comes to Trump's presidency, it was not crossed on Tuesday."[209]

Glenn Beck's comments about George Soros

During Glenn Beck's tenure at Fox News, he became one of the most high-profile proponents of conspiracy theories about George Soros, a Jewish Hungarian-American businessman and philanthropist known for his donations to American liberal political causes.[211] Beck regularly described Soros as a "puppet-master" and used common anti-Semitic tropes to refer to Soros and his activities.[211] In a 2010 three-part series, Beck depicted George Soros as a cartoonish villain trying to "form a shadow government, using humanitarian aid as a cover," and that Soros wanted a one-world government.[212][213] Beck promoted the false and anti-Semitic conspiracy theory that Soros was a Nazi collaborator as a 14-year old in Nazi-occupied Hungary.[214] Beck also characterized Soros's mother as a "wildly anti-Semitic" Nazi collaborator.[212] According to The Washington Post, "Beck's series was largely considered obscene and delusional, if not outright anti-Semitic", but Beck's conspiracy theory became popular on the rightwing of American politics.[212] Amid criticism of Beck's false smears, Fox News defended Beck, stating "information regarding Mr. Soros's experiences growing up were taken directly from his writings and from interviews given by him to the media, and no negative opinion was offered as to his actions as a child."[213][215] Roger Ailes, then-head of Fox News, dismissed criticism levied at Beck by hundreds of rabbis, saying that they were "left-wing rabbis who basically don't think that anybody can ever use the word, Holocaust, on the air."[216]

Controversies

Sexual harassment

The network has been accused of permitting sexual harassment and racial discrimination by on-air hosts, executives, and employees, paying out millions of dollars in legal settlements.[217] Prominent Fox News figures such as Roger Ailes, Bill O'Reilly and Eric Bolling were eventually fired after a multitude of women accused them of sexual harassment. At least four lawsuits alleged Fox News co-president Bill Shine ignored, enabled or concealed Roger Ailes' alleged sexual harassment.[218][219][220] Fox News CEO Rupert Murdoch has dismissed the high-profile sexual misconduct allegations as "largely political" and speculated they were made "because we are conservative".[221]

Bill O'Reilly and Fox News settled six agreements, totaling $45 million, with women who accused O'Reilly of sexual harassment.[222][223] In January 2017, shortly after Bill O'Reilly settled a sexual harassment lawsuit for $32 million ("an extraordinarily large amount for such cases"), Fox News renewed Bill O'Reilly's contract.[222] Fox News's parent company, 21st Century Fox, said it was aware of the lawsuit.[222] The contract between O'Reilly and Fox News read he could not be fired from the network unless sexual harassment allegations were proved in court.[224]

Fox News's extensive coverage of the Harvey Weinstein scandal in October 2017 was seen by some as hypocritical.[225][226] Fox News dedicated at least 12 hours of coverage to the Weinstein scandal, yet only dedicated 20 minutes to Bill O'Reilly, who just like Weinstein had been accused of sexual harassment by a multitude of women.[225][226] Indira Lakshmana, an expert in journalism ethics at the Poynter Institute, said "to devote hours of airtime to crowing about Weinstein's well-deserved downfall because of his liberal politics, while ignoring the massive, decades-long pattern of harassment by powerful men at Fox, is both hypocritical and sad".[226] A few weeks later, when a number of women under the age of 18, including a 14-year old, accused Alabama Senate candidate Roy Moore of making sexual advances, Hannity dismissed the sexual misconduct allegations and dedicated coverage on his TV show to casting doubt on the accusers.[227][228] Other prime-time Fox News hosts Tucker Carlson and Laura Ingraham questioned the Washington Post's reporting or opted to bring up sexual misconduct allegations regarding show business figures such as Harvey Weinstein and Louis C.K.[106] Fox News figures Jeanine Pirro and Gregg Jarrett questioned both the validity of the Washington Post's reporting and that of the women.[229] In December 2017, a few days before the Alabama Senate election, Fox News, along with the conspiracy websites Breitbart and Gateway Pundit, ran an inaccurate headline which claimed one of Roy Moore's accusers admitted to forging an inscription by Roy Moore in her yearbook; Fox News later added a correction to the story.[230]

A number of Fox News hosts have welcomed Bill O'Reilly to their shows and paid tributes to Roger Ailes after his death. In May 2017, Hannity called Ailes "a second father" and said to Ailes's "enemies" that he was "preparing to kick your a** in the next life".[231] Ailes had the year before been fired from Fox News after a number of women alleged he sexually harassed them.[231] In September 2017, several months after Bill O'Reilly was fired from Fox News in the wake of a number of women alleging he sexually harassed them, Hannity hosted O'Reilly on his show.[232][233][234] Some Fox News employees criticized the decision.[233] According to CNN, during the interview, Hannity found kinship with O'Reilly as he appeared "to feel that he and O'Reilly have both become victims of liberals looking to silence them."[233] Earlier, Hannity had dedicated extensive coverage to the Weinstein scandal.[235]

Obama administration conflict

In September 2009, the Obama administration engaged in a verbal conflict with Fox News Channel. On September 20, President Barack Obama appeared on all major news programs except Fox News, a snub partially in response to remarks about him by commentators Glenn Beck and Sean Hannity, and Fox coverage of Obama's health-care proposal.[236][237]

In late September 2009, Obama senior advisor David Axelrod and Roger Ailes met in secret to attempt to smooth out tensions between the two camps. Two weeks later, chief of staff Rahm Emanuel referred to FNC as "not a news network" and communications director Anita Dunn said "Fox News often operates as either the research arm or the communications arm of the Republican Party".[238][239] Obama observed, "If media is operating basically as a talk radio format, then that's one thing, and if it's operating as a news outlet, then that's another".[240] White House chief of staff Rahm Emanuel said it was important "to not have the CNNs and the others in the world basically be led in following Fox".[241]

Within days, it was reported that Fox had been excluded from an interview with administration official Ken Feinberg, with bureau chiefs from the White House press pool (ABC, CBS, NBC, and CNN) coming to Fox's defense.[242] A bureau chief said, "If any member had been excluded it would have been the same thing, it has nothing to do with Fox or the White House or the substance of the issues".[243] Shortly after the story broke, the White House admitted to a low-level mistake, saying Fox had not made a specific request to interview Feinberg. Fox White House correspondent Major Garrett said he had not made a specific request, but had a "standing request from me as senior White House correspondent on Fox to interview any newsmaker at the Treasury at any given time news is being made".[244]

On November 8, 2009, the Los Angeles Times reported an unnamed Democratic consultant was warned by the White House not to appear on Fox News again. According to the article, Anita Dunn claimed in an e-mail to have checked with colleagues who "deal with TV issues" who denied telling anyone to avoid Fox. Patrick Caddell, a Fox News contributor and former pollster for President Jimmy Carter, said he had spoken with other Democratic consultants who had received similar warnings from the White House.[245]

On October 2, 2013, Fox News host Anna Kooiman cited on the air a fake story from the National Report parody site, which claimed Obama had offered to keep the International Museum of Muslim Cultures open with cash from his own pocket.[246][247][248]

Journalistic ethical standards

Fox News attracted controversy in April 2018 when it was revealed primetime host Sean Hannity had defended Michael Cohen on air without disclosing that Cohen was Hannity's lawyer.[249] On April 9, 2018, federal agents from the U.S. Attorney's office served a search warrant on the office and residence of Michael Cohen, Trump's personal attorney.[250] On the air, Hannity defended Cohen and criticized the federal action, calling it "highly questionable" and "an unprecedented abuse of power".[251] On April 16, 2018 in a court hearing, Cohen's lawyers told the judge that Cohen had ten clients in 2017–2018 but did "traditional legal tasks" for only three: Trump, Elliott Broidy, and a "prominent person" who did not wish to be named for fear of being "embarrassed".[252][253][254] The federal judge ordered the revelation of the third client, whom Cohen's lawyers named as Hannity.[252]

Hannity was not sanctioned by Fox News for this breach of journalistic ethics, with Fox News releasing a statement that the channel was unaware of Hannity's relationship to Cohen and that it had "spoken to Sean and he continues to have our full support."[249][255][256][257] Media ethics experts said that Hannity's failure to disclose was a major breach of journalistic ethics and that the network should have suspended or fired him for it.[257]

International transmission

World map, with countries carrying terrestrial FNC in red and satellite providers in orange
Countries where Fox News is provided

The Fox News Channel feed is available internationally via a number of providers, while Fox Extra segments provide alternate programming.[258]

Fox Extra

Initially, U.S. advertisements were replaced on FNC with viewer e-mail and profiles of FNC anchors set to music. In 2002, these were replaced with international weather forecasts. In 2006, the weather forecasts were replaced with Fox Extra (originally Fox News Extra, prior to the international launch of Fox Business) segments, narrated reports from Fox on a variety of topics. These reports generally concern lighter issues unrelated to current news events, and the segments are repeated. FNC also shows international weather forecasts when Fox Extra segments run short. In the United Kingdom, after a period when local commercials were inserted into breaks, Fox Extra filled most breaks before being removed from Sky, its only transmission platform, in 2017.[citation needed]

Australia

In Australia, FNC is broadcast on the dominant pay television provider Foxtel, which is 50% owned by News Corp Australia, the Australian arm of News Corp and the sister company of 21st Century Fox which owns FNC. Local cable news channel Sky News Australia is wholly owned by News Corp Australia[259] and is therefore FNC's de facto sister channel, although has formal partnerships with FNC competitor CNN as well as both ABC News and CBS News.[260]

Brazil

Since 2002, FNC has been broadcast to Brazil; however, commercials are replaced with Fox Extra. It is available in packages of Vivo TV.

Canada

Fox had initially planned to launch a joint venture with Canwest's Global Television Network, tentatively named Fox News Canada, which would have featured a mixture of U.S. and Canadian news programming. As a result, the CRTC denied a 2003 application requesting permission for Fox News Channel to be carried in Canada. However, in March 2004, a Fox executive said the venture had been shelved; in November of that year, the CRTC authorized Fox News Channel to be distributed by Canadian pay-television providers.[261]

Mexico

The channel's international feed is being carried by cable provider Izzi Telecom.

France

Fox News is available on cable through French Internet provider Free on Canal 352. As of Spring 2017, the channel was no longer found on the provider Orange's lineup.[citation needed]

Indonesia

In Indonesia, It is available in Channel 335 in pay TV provider Indovision.

Ireland

Israel

In Israel, FNC is broadcast on Channel 105 of the satellite provider Yes, as well as being carried on Cellcom TV and Partner TV.[262] It is also broadcast on channel 200 on cable operator HOT.[263]

Italy

In Italy, FNC is broadcast on SKY Italia. Fox news was launched on Stream TV in 2001, and moved to SKY Italia in 2003.

Netherlands

In the Netherlands, Fox News has been carried by cable providers UPC Nederland and CASEMA, and satellite provider Canaldigitaal; all have dropped the channel in recent years. At this time, only cable provider Caiway (available in a limited number of towns in the central part of the country) is broadcasting the channel. The channel was also carried by IPTV provider KNIPPR (owned by T-Mobile).

New Zealand

In New Zealand, FNC is broadcast on Channel 088 of pay satellite operator SKY Network Television's digital platform. It was formerly broadcast overnight on free-to-air UHF New Zealand TV channel Prime (owned by SKY); this was discontinued in January 2010, reportedly due to an expiring broadcasting license.[264] Fox News' former parent company News Corporation has a stake in both SKY and Prime.

Pakistan

In Pakistan, Fox News Channel is available on PTCL Smart TV and a number of cable and IPTV operators.

Philippines

In the Philippines, Fox News Channel was available on Cignal Digital TV channel 131 and G Sat Channel 50.

Scandinavia

Between 2003 and 2006, in Sweden and the other Scandinavian countries, FNC was broadcast 16 hours a day on TV8 (with Fox News Extra segments replacing U.S. advertising). Fox News was dropped by TV8 and replaced by German news channel Deutsche Welle in September 2006.

Singapore

In Singapore, FNC is broadcast on channel 702 on pay cable operator StarHub TV digital platform. It also broadcasts its sister channel, Sky News.

South Africa

In South Africa, FNC is broadcast on StarSat.[265]

The most popular pay television operator, DStv, does not offer FNC in its channel bouquet.[266]

United Kingdom & Ireland

FNC was also carried in the United Kingdom by Sky, which was 40-percent owned by 21st Century Fox at the time, and operates its own domestic news channel Sky News. On August 29, 2017, Sky dropped Fox News; the broadcaster said its carriage was not "commercially viable" due to average viewership of fewer than 2,000 viewers per day. The company said the decision was unrelated to 21st Century Fox's proposed acquisition of the remainder of Sky plc (which ultimately led to a bidding war that resulted in its acquisition by Comcast instead).[267] The potential co-ownership had prompted concerns from critics of the deal, who felt Sky News could undergo a shift to an opinionated format with a right-wing viewpoint, similar to Fox News; the channel has violated the Ofcom codes a number of times, including broadcasting analysis of the Brexit vote while polls were still open (a violation of British election laws; the channel was blocked while polls were open during the 2017 general election to comply with these rules), and various violations of a requirement for all news programming to show due impartiality.[268][269][270][271]

Other countries

Fox News is carried in more than 40 other countries. Although service to Japan ceased in summer 2003, it can still be seen on Americable (distributor for American bases),[272] Mediatti (Kadena Air Base)[273] and Pan Global TV Japan.[274]

Notable personalities

Program hosts

Correspondents and substitute anchors

Regular guests and contributors

Former hosts and contributors